Lead-induced accumulation of β-amyloid in the choroid plexus: Role of low density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 and protein kinase C

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
NeuroToxicology (Impact Factor: 3.38). 09/2010; 31(5):524-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2010.05.004
Source: PubMed


The choroid plexus (CP), constituting the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, has the capacity to remove beta-amyloid (Abeta) from the cerebrospinal fluid. Our previous work indicates that exposure to lead (Pb) results in Abeta accumulation in the CP by decreasing the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor protein-1 (LRP1), a protein involved in the transport and clearance of Abeta. The current study was designed to explore the relationship between Abeta accumulation, protein kinase C (PKC) activity, and LRP1 status in the CP following Pb exposure. Confocal microscopy revealed that LRP1 was primarily localized in the cytosol of the CP in control rats and migrated distinctly towards the apical surface and the microvilli following acute Pb exposure (27 mg Pb/kg, i.p., 24h). Co-immunostaining revealed a co-localization of both PKC-delta and LRP1 in the cytosol of control rats, with a distinct relocalization of both towards the apical membrane following Pb exposure. Preincubation of the tissues with PKC-delta inhibitor rottlerin (2 microM) prior to Pb exposure in vitro, resulted in abolishing the Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 to the apical surface. Importantly, a significant elevation in intracellular Abeta levels (p<0.01) was observed in the cytosol of the CP following Pb exposure, which was abolished following preincubation with rottlerin. In addition, rottlerin caused a relocalization of Abeta from the cytosol to the nucleus in both Pb-treated and control CP tissues. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed a strong protein-protein interaction between LRP1 and PKC-delta in the CP. These studies suggest that Pb exposure disrupts Abeta homeostasis at the CP, owing partly to a Pb-induced relocalization of LRP1 via PKC-delta.

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    • "More needs to be known about efflux transport in the basolateral membrane because this is the final step in disposing CNS-CSF Aβ into blood, thus protecting CP epithelium and ultimately the brain from Aβ toxicity. In acute Pb-toxicity model, the decreased expression of LRP1 in CP epithelium was associated, paradoxically, with increased Aβ in CP (Behl et al., 2010); however, CP Aβ efflux into blood was uncharacterized; a factor also affecting epithelial Aβ concentration. "
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