Generalized Connective Tissue Disease in Crtap-/- Mouse

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2010; 5(5):e10560. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010560
Source: PubMed


Mutations in CRTAP (coding for cartilage-associated protein), LEPRE1 (coding for prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 [P3H1]) or PPIB (coding for Cyclophilin B [CYPB]) cause recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and loss or decrease of type I collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation. A comprehensive analysis of the phenotype of the Crtap-/- mice revealed multiple abnormalities of connective tissue, including in the lungs, kidneys, and skin, consistent with systemic dysregulation of collagen homeostasis within the extracellular matrix. Both Crtap-/- lung and kidney glomeruli showed increased cellular proliferation. Histologically, the lungs showed increased alveolar spacing, while the kidneys showed evidence of segmental glomerulosclerosis, with abnormal collagen deposition. The Crtap-/- skin had decreased mechanical integrity. In addition to the expected loss of proline 986 3-hydroxylation in alpha1(I) and alpha1(II) chains, there was also loss of 3Hyp at proline 986 in alpha2(V) chains. In contrast, at two of the known 3Hyp sites in alpha1(IV) chains from Crtap-/- kidneys there were normal levels of 3-hydroxylation. On a cellular level, loss of CRTAP in human OI fibroblasts led to a secondary loss of P3H1, and vice versa. These data suggest that both CRTAP and P3H1 are required to maintain a stable complex that 3-hydroxylates canonical proline sites within clade A (types I, II, and V) collagen chains. Loss of this activity leads to a multi-systemic connective tissue disease that affects bone, cartilage, lung, kidney, and skin.

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    • "Severe osteogenesis imperfecta caused by a small in-frame deletion in CRTAP. Am J Med Genet Part A. Ó 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. classification) [Barnes et al., 2006; Baldridge et al., 2008; Bodian et al., 2009; van Dijk et al., 2009a; Chang et al., 2010] "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of proteins involved in posttranslational modification of collagen type I can cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) inherited in a recessive pattern. The cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) is part of a heterotrimeric complex (together with prolyl-3-hydroxylase-1 [P3H1] and cyclophilin B) that 3-hydroxylates the alpha 1 chain of collagen type I at proline residue 986 and plays a collagen chaperon role. CRTAP mutations usually cause severe OI. We report on a patient with OI and a homozygous in-frame deletion in CRTAP and a severe form of OI. The girl was born with markedly deformed long bones. Despite intravenous bisphosphonate treatment, she developed multiple vertebral compression fractures and severe scoliosis and at 4 years of age was able to sit only with support. Although CRTAP transcript levels were normal in the patient's fibroblasts, protein levels of both CRTAP and P3H1 were severely reduced. The degree of 3-hydroxylation at proline residue 986 was also decreased. This report characterizes a patient with a CRTAP small in-frame deletion. We are unaware of prior reports of this finding. We suggest that this deletion affects crucial amino acids that are important for the interaction and/or stabilization of CRTAP and P3H1.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
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    • "The involvement of CypB in human disease has only been recently unravealed. For instance, it has been described that CypB forms a complex with CRTAP (cartilage-associated protein) and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 and that mutations on any of these three proteins cause recessive form of esteogenesis imperfecta and loss or decrease of type I collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation [33]–[35], which is a mechanism for connective tissue disease. Expression of CypB has been associated with malignant progression and regulation of genes implicated in the progression of breast cancer [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA), are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1) that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Recessive mutations in the cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 (LEPRE1) and peptidyl prolyl cis–trans isomerase B (PPIB) genes result in phenotypes that range from lethal in the perinatal period to severe deforming osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). These genes encode CRTAP (encoded by CRTAP), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1; encoded by LEPRE1) and cyclophilin B (CYPB; encoded by PPIB), which reside in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and can form a complex involved in prolyl 3-hydroxylation in type I procollagen. CYPB, a prolyl cis–trans isomerase, has been thought to drive the prolyl-containing peptide bonds to the trans configuration needed for triple helix formation. Here, we describe mutations in PPIB identified in cells from three individuals with OI. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from the most severely affected infant make some overmodified type I procollagen molecules. Proα1(I) chains are slow to assemble into trimers, and abnormal procollagen molecules concentrate in the RER, and bind to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (P4H1). These findings suggest that although CYPB plays a role in helix formation another effect is on folding of the C-terminal propeptide and trimer formation. The extent of procollagen accumulation and PDI/P4H1 binding differs among cells with mutations in PPIB, CRTAP and LEPRE1 with the greatest amount in PPIB-deficient cells and the least in LEPRE1-deficient cells. These findings suggest that prolyl cis–trans isomerase may be required to effectively fold the proline-rich regions of the C-terminal propeptide to allow proα chain association and suggest an order of action for CRTAP, P3H1 and CYPB in procollagen biosynthesis and pathogenesis of OI.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Human Molecular Genetics
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