Article

Patients With Schizophrenia Demonstrate Inconsistent Preference Judgments for Affective and Nonaffective Stimuli

Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore,MD 21228, USA.
Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.45). 11/2011; 37(6):1295-304. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbq047
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have typically found that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) report levels of emotional experience that are similar to controls (CN) when asked to view a single evocative stimulus and make an absolute judgment of stimulus "value." However, value is rarely assigned in absolute terms in real-life situations, where one alternative or experience is often evaluated alongside others, and value judgments are made in relative terms. In the current study, we examined performance on a preference task that requires individuals to differentiate between the relative values of different stimuli. In this task, subjects were presented with many pairs of moderately positive stimuli and asked to indicate which stimulus they preferred in each pair. Resulting data indicated the rank order of preference across stimuli and the consistency of their transitive mapping (ie, if A > B and B > C, then A should be > C). Individuals with SZ (n = 38) were both less consistent in their rankings of stimuli and more likely to have larger magnitudes of discrepant responses than control subjects (n = 27). Furthermore, CN showed clear differentiation between different valence categories of stimuli (ie, highly positive > mildly positive > mildly negative > highly negative); while individuals with SZ showed the same general pattern of results but with less differentiation between the valence levels. These data suggest that individuals with SZ are impaired in developing or maintaining nuanced representations of the different attributes of a stimulus, thus making stimuli of similar general value easily confusable.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Michael Joshua Frank
    • " Gold, 2007; Murray et al., 2008), integrating information about rewards and punishments, maintaining and updating internal value representations, and using this information to guide goal-directed behavior (Juckel et al., 2006b; Murray et al., 2008; Barch and Dowd, 2010). In our study, we used self-report scales, like the Chapman's scales and TEPS. Strauss et al. (2011b) argue that self-report scales require individuals to form a mental representation of the situation , a process in which working memory is involved. Subjects with schizophrenia have difficulty forming a mental representation of the hypothetical scenario and the severity of working memory impairment would interact with their ability to co"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigate impairment of reward anticipation in subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ) and its association with negative symptom dimensions and hedonic experience.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    • "However, experience sampling and laboratory-based studies do not support this hypothesis, indicating that SZ patients have a normal hedonic capacity (Cohen and Minor, 2010; Gard et al., 2007; Kring and Moran, 2008; Llerena et al., 2012; Oorschot et al., 2013; Strauss and Gold, 2012). Rather, motivational symptoms appear to be more closely tied to a range of reward processing abnormalities, such as impaired reward anticipation (Juckel et al., 2006; Waltz et al., 2010), reinforcement learning (Culbreth et al., 2015; Gold et al., 2012; Strauss et al., 2011a; Waltz et al., 2007), and difculty generating, updating, or maintaining mental representations of value (Gard et al., 2011; Heerey et al., 2007; Kring et al., 2011; Strauss et al., 2011b; Ursu et al., 2011) (for reviews see Barch and Dowd, 2010; Kring and Barch, 2014; Strauss et al., 2014). Fewer studies have examined the association between motivational symptoms and another aspect of reward processing, effort-cost computation (i.e., determining whether the benets of an action outweigh the costs needed to obtain them). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether effort-cost computation was associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Participants included outpatients diagnosed with SZ (n=27) and demographically matched healthy controls (n=32) who completed a Progressive Ratio task that required incrementally greater amounts of physical effort to obtain monetary reward. Breakpoint, the point at which participants was no longer willing to exert effort for a certain reward value, was examined as an index of effort-cost computation. There were no group differences in breakpoint for low, medium, or high value rewards on the Progressive Ratio task. However, lower breakpoint scores were associated with greater severity of avolition and anhedonia symptoms in SZ patients. Findings provide further evidence that impaired effort-cost computation is linked to motivational abnormalities in SZ.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
  • Source
    • "The inability to alter behavioral responding in order to adapt behavior to changing situations is a hallmark of many human psychiatric disorders (Gold et al., 2008, 2009; Strauss et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability to properly adjust behavioral responses to cues in a changing environment is crucial for survival. Activity in the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) is thought to both represent rules to guide behavior as well as detect and resolve conflicts between rules in changing contingencies. However, while lesion and pharmacological studies have supported a crucial role for mPFC in this type of set-shifting, an understanding of how mPFC represents current rules or detects and resolves conflict between different rules is unclear. Here, we directly address the role of rat mPFC in shifting rule based behavioral strategies using a novel behavioral task designed to tease apart neural signatures of rules, conflict and direction. We demonstrate that activity of single neurons in rat mPFC represent distinct rules. Further, we show increased firing on high conflict trials in a separate population of mPFC neurons. Reduced firing in both populations of neurons was associated with poor performance. Moreover, activity in both populations increased and decreased firing during the outcome epoch when reward was and was not delivered on correct and incorrect trials, respectively. In addition, outcome firing was modulated by the current rule and the degree of conflict associated with the previous decision. These results promote a greater understanding of the role that mPFC plays in switching between rules, signaling both rule and conflict to promote improved behavioral performance.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Show more