Staphylococcal Superantigen-Like Protein 5 Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 from Human Neutrophils

Department of Microbiology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Infection and immunity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 07/2010; 78(7):3298-305. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00178-10
Source: PubMed


Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) constitute a family of exoproteins exhibiting structural similarities to
superantigens and enterotoxins but no superantigenic activity. In this article, we present evidence that SSL5 specifically
binds to matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and inhibits its enzymatic activity. When human neutrophil cell lysate was applied
to recombinant His-tagged SSL5 conjugated to Sepharose, the bound fraction gave a major band of approximately 100 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis. This protein was identified as the proform of MMP-9 (proMMP-9) by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis.
The recombinant SSL5-Sepharose also bound to proMMP-9 secreted by interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated neutrophils and HT1080 fibrosarcoma
cells. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that recombinant SSL5 bound to proMMP-9 with rather high affinity (dissociation
constant [KD] = 1.9 nM). Recombinant SSL5 was found to effectively inhibit MMP-9-catalyzed hydrolysis of gelatin and a synthetic fluorogenic
peptide in a noncompetitive manner (Ki = 0.097 nM), as assessed by zymography and the fluorescence quenching method. Finally, the transmigration of neutrophils
across Matrigel basement membranes in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) was suppressed by the presence of recombinant SSL5. We discuss possible roles
that SSL5 may play in immune evasion of staphylococci by inhibiting MMP and interfering with leukocyte trafficking.

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Available from: Teruaki Oku, Jun 20, 2014
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    • "The staphylococcal SSL5 binds PSGL1 in a glycan dependent manner at the surface of neutrophils, blocking its interaction with P-selectin expressed by endothelial cells and abrogating the early steps of neutrophil attachment (Bestebroer et al., 2007). In addition, SSL5 was shown to inactivate matrix metalloproteinase from human neutrophils, accounting for the limited capacity of neutrophils to transmigrate into infected tissues (Itoh et al., 2010). The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) recognizes endothelial ICAM1, preventing its interaction with β2-integrins at the surface of neutrophils and further inhibiting extravasation (Chavakis et al., 2002). "

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    • "2.6. MMP-9 activity assay MMP-9 activity was measured by the fluorescence method using a fluorescent peptide (Itoh et al., 2010). Pro-MMP-9 in tissue samples was activated by treatment with 0.75 mM p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (Sigma-Aldrich) at 37 °C for 1 h. "
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