Article

Relationship between impulsivity and decision making in cocaine dependence

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 07/2010; 178(2):299-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.11.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Impulsivity and decision making are associated on a theoretical level in that impaired planning is a component of both. However, few studies have examined the relationship between measures of decision making and impulsivity in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to compare cocaine-dependent subjects to controls on a measure of decision making (the Iowa Gambling Task or IGT), a questionnaire measure of impulsivity (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale or BIS-11) and a measure of behavioural inhibition (the immediate memory task or IMT), and to examine the interrelationship among these measures. Results of the study showed that cocaine-dependent subjects made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT, had higher scores on the BIS and more commission errors on the IMT. Cognitive model analysis showed that choice consistency factors on the IGT differed between cocaine-dependent subjects and controls. However, there was no significant correlation between IGT performance and the BIS total score or subscales or IMT commission errors. These results suggest that in cocaine-dependent subjects there is little overlap between decision making as measured by the IGT and impulsivity/behavioural inhibition as measured by the BIS and IMT.

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    • "Our results seem to support the conceptualization of OCD as a disorder of behavioral addiction. Indeed, many studies showed that addicted patients have higher impulsivity scores on the BIS-11 (Kjome et al., 2010;VerdejoGarcia, Lawrence & Clark, 2008) and several studies showed that substance-addicted and pathological gamblers have the same pattern of risky decision making, i.e. a preference for immediate reward, despite negative future consequences on the IGT (Cavedini, Riboldi, D'Annucci et al., 2002;Cavedini, Riboldi, Keller et al., 2002;Lemenager et al., 2011;Tommasini et al., 2012) (but see alsoChoi et al., 2014;Dannon, Schoenfeld, Rosenberg, Kertzman, & Kotler, 2010). Furthermore, recent studies showed that detoxified-alcoholic patients and stimulantdependent subjects showed a biased probabilistic reasoning on the Beads Task, similar to our results in OCD patients (Stratta et al., 2013;Voon et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Recent studies have challenged the anxiety-avoidance model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), linking OCD to impulsivity, risky-decision-making and reward-system dysfunction, which can also be found in addiction and might support the conceptualization of OCD as a behavioral addiction. Here, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the behavioral addiction model of OCD by assessing whether OCD patients are more impulsive, have impaired decision-making, and biased probabilistic reasoning, three core dimensions of addiction, in a sample of OCD patients and healthy controls. Methods: We assessed these dimensions on 38 OCD patients and 39 healthy controls with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Beads Task. Results: OCD patients had significantly higher BIS-11 scores than controls, in particular on the cognitive subscales. They performed significantly worse than controls on the IGT preferring immediate reward despite negative future consequences, and did not learn from losses. Finally, OCD patients demonstrated biased probabilistic reasoning as reflected by significantly fewer draws to decision than controls on the Beads Task. Conclusions: OCD patients are more impulsive than controls and demonstrate risky decision-making and biased probabilistic reasoning. These results might suggest that other conceptualizations of OCD, such as the behavioral addiction model, may be more suitable than the anxiety-avoidance one. However, further studies directly comparing OCD and behavioral addiction patients are needed in order to scrutinize this model.
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    • "In addition, BIS scores from the current study (~68–69 for individuals with cocaine or methamphetamine use disorders) were also consistent with our previously conducted research (~72–73; Tziortzis et al., 2011)). Moreover, our results are similar to other findings on impulsivity in cocaine-dependent subjects assessed in other laboratories , who also demonstrated higher scores on the BIS when compared to healthy controls (Ersche et al., 2010; Kjome et al., 2010; Moeller et al., 2002; Nielsen et al., 2012; Patkar et al., 2002, 2004; Walsh et al., 2010). This study contained a number of strengths in comparison to other studies of its kind. "
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