A New Method for Alveolar Bone Repair Using Extracted Teeth for the Graft Material

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.
Journal of Periodontology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 09/2010; 81(9):1264-72. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2010.100016
Source: PubMed


In the clinical field of jawbone formation, the use of autogenous bone as the graft material is the gold standard. However, there are some problems with this technique, such as risk of infection on the donor side, the limited amount of available bone mass, and marked resorption of the grafted bone. We investigated the potential for using teeth as a bone graft material for jawbone formation because the dental pulp contains stem cells, including undifferentiated neural crest-derived cells.
Alveolar bone defects were created in Wistar rats, and the defects were filled with either tooth or iliac bone graft material, or left as controls. The potential for using teeth as a bone graft material for jawbone formation was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, microcomputed tomography, and histologic analysis.
Polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expressions of P75, P0, nestin, and musashi-1 were significantly higher in teeth than in mandibular bone and iliac bone grafts. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and microcomputed tomography showed that at 8 weeks, tooth graft material produced a similar amount of new bone compared to iliac bone graft material. Osteopontin was expressed in both the tooth and iliac bone graft material at 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. Dentin sialoprotein was expressed in the tooth graft material in the new bone at 6 weeks only.
These results indicate that teeth may be an alternative material to autogenous bone for treating alveolar bone defects by grafting.

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Available from: Junichi Watahiki
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    • "NCPs that contribute to mineralization are osteocalcin, osteonectin, phosphophoryn, dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin-specific extracellular matrix protein, etc. Phosphophoryn in particular, bound to type I collagen, contributes to the mineralization process; it is of the largest amounts among NCPs. Previous studies discovered through the immune-histochemical study that OPN and DSP manifested 6-8 weeks after grafting the tooth graft material on alveolar bone defects in Wistar rats43. OPN is known to trigger osteogenesis through the early differentiation of the osteoblasts but also leads to bone resorption by allowing adherence of osteoclasts to the bone surface. "
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    • "Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) deriving from different sources (embryonic tissues, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose and muscle tissues) are currently studied, due to their biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineage (Seong et al., 2010). Also dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), obtainable from teeth usually discarded during orthodontic treatments, are receiving extensive attention, since they are able to differentiate, either in vitro or in vivo (in animal models), into bone forming cells, osteoblasts (Bakopoulou et al., 2011; Nampo et al., 2010; Huang et al., 2009). "
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