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The Role of Authority Power in Explaining Procedural Fairness Effects

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Abstract

Building on fairness heuristic theory, fairness theory, and trust development models, we argue that unfairly enacted procedures decrease followers' trust in the authority particularly when authorities have high power over their followers. Moreover, we expected trust to mediate procedural fairness effects on followers' attitudes (authorities' legitimacy and charisma attributed to authorities) and organizational citizenship behavior. Procedural fairness effects on these variables, as mediated by trust, should therefore also be stronger when authority power is high. The results of a single- and multisource field study and a laboratory experiment supported these predictions. These studies support the role of authority power as a theoretically and practically relevant moderator of procedural fairness effects and show that its effectiveness is explained through trust in authorities.

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... On the other hand, Organ and Konovsky (1989) and Sharma, Borna, and Stearns (2009) focused on fairness and have documented that employees' perceived fairness is not only important for building trust, but also for increasing their commitment to the organization. Van Dijke, Cremer, and Mayer (2010) also argued that authorities who act unfairly are less likely to create trust among their followers, viewed less favourably and less likely to inspire members' behaviour aimed at helping the organization. Donors who are aware of the accreditation system have more trust in charities and give more money to charitable causes than those who are not aware. ...
... In the organizational context, prior studies have documented that employees' perceived fairness is not only important for building trust, but also for increasing their commitment to the organization (Organ and Konovsky 1989;Sharma, Borna, and Stearns 2009). Van Dijke, Cremer, and Mayer (2010) found that authorities who act unfairly are less likely to create trust among their followers and to inspire members' behaviour aimed at helping the organization. ...
... In this section, we addressed hypothesized relationships between trust, commitment and giving intention. Prior research indicated that trust is a necessary condition to build commitment (Achrol 1991;Gounaris 2005;Morgan and Hunt 1994;Sirdeshmukh, Singh, and Sabol 2002;Van Dijke, Cremer, and Mayer 2010). Trusted parties tend to focus more on the positive motivation due to a sense of affiliation with each other and focus less on calculative reasons for attachment to an organization (Ruyter, Moorman, and Lemmink 2001). ...
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The purpose of this study was to develop the scale of organizational trustworthiness (SOT), which consists of perceived accountability, integrity and fairness, and examine theoretical relationships between the trustworthiness attributes and trust, commitment and donation intention in a college athletic programme context. The proposed model was tested using 549 donors of a college booster club in an athletic programme in Division 1 Power 5 conferences in the USA. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture analysis confirm the reliability and validity of the scale. The results of the simultaneous equations indicate that all three aspects of donors’ perceived trustworthiness significantly influence their trust. A donor’s commitment fully mediated the relationship between their trust and giving intention. This study makes theoretical contributions to donor behaviour literature by providing an expanded view of donors’ perceived trustworthiness of an organization and making meaningful implications for administrators of college athletics organizations.
... It is better to ask information from the authorized people in that environment. Van Dijke shows in his study how an authority affects the behaviour of workers and increase their trust in high-level authority [13]. ...
... shows an overview about the difference between the reputation metrics and explains that the reputation metrics are of two types, which are global and local reputation metrics [13]. Kiefhaber et al. shows that an entity can ask their neighbors about the reputation of another entity, their opinion of the target entity that will get transferred to their neighbors and so on [14]. ...
Article
In recent developments, norms have become important entities that are considered in agent-based systems' designs. Norms are not only able to organize and coordinate the actions and behaviour of agents but have a direct impact on the achievement of agents' goals. Consequently, an agent in a multi-agent system requires a mechanism that detects specific norms for adoption while rejecting others. The impact of such norms selection imposes risks on the agent's goal and its plan ensuing from the probability of positive or negative outcomes when the agent adopts or reject some norms. In an earlier work, this predicament is resolved by enabling an agent to evaluate a norm's benefits if it decides to adopt a particular norm. The evaluation mechanism entails a framework that analyzes a norm's adoption ratio, yield, morality and trust, the unified values of which indicates the norm's benefits. In this paper, the trust parameter of the mechanism is analyzed and a norm's trust model is proposed and utilized in the evaluation of a norm's benefits for subsequent adoption or rejection. Ultimately, the norm's benefits are determined as a consequence of a favorable or unfavorable trust value as a significant parameter in a norm's adoption or rejection.
... The belief that one has been treated fairly enhances trust in authorities and acceptance of decisions (Lind and Tyler 1988;Davenport et al. 2007;Terwel et al. 2010;van Dijke, de Cremer, and Mayer 2010;Hamm et al. 2013). Research has emphasized the importance of procedural fairness on the development of trust in authorities in general (Terwel et al. 2010;van Dijke, de Cremer, and Mayer 2010), and specifically in natural resource management (Syme, Nancarrow, and McCreddin 1999;Davenport et al. 2007;Hamm et al. 2013). ...
... The belief that one has been treated fairly enhances trust in authorities and acceptance of decisions (Lind and Tyler 1988;Davenport et al. 2007;Terwel et al. 2010;van Dijke, de Cremer, and Mayer 2010;Hamm et al. 2013). Research has emphasized the importance of procedural fairness on the development of trust in authorities in general (Terwel et al. 2010;van Dijke, de Cremer, and Mayer 2010), and specifically in natural resource management (Syme, Nancarrow, and McCreddin 1999;Davenport et al. 2007;Hamm et al. 2013). People infer the trustworthiness of authorities from information about the fairness of the decision-making procedures used (i.e., procedural information) (Lind and Tyler 1988;Davenport et al. 2007;Terwel et al. 2010). ...
Article
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Although researchers agree that public participation in natural resource decision making is critical to institutional acceptance by stakeholders and the general public, the processes to gain public perceptions of fairness, agency trust, and acceptance of management decisions are not clear. Using results from a mail survey of Minnesota resident anglers, we used structural equation modeling to examine how instrumental versus symbolic motives related to anglers’ perceptions of agency fairness, trustworthiness, and ultimately acceptance of fisheries management decisions. We applied laboratory research on relationships among procedural fairness, trust, and management acceptance, and then tested models incorporating anglers’ perceptions of voice for anglers and nonanglers in management decisions. Results suggested that trust fully mediated the relationship between procedural fairness and management acceptance. Angler perceptions of angler and nonangler voice both related to views of procedural fairness, but angler voice was more strongly related and was also significantly related to acceptance of management decisions.
... Power is defined as asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations Magee & Galinsky, 2008). Such valued resources may be material in nature, including control over rewards and punishments, as well as social in nature, including the ability to set agendas and determine how a group accomplishes its work (Greer, Van Bunderen, & Yu, 2017;Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003;van Dijke, de Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). Power has received extensive attention from scholars who have examined how power impacts individuals in interpersonal settings including teams and organisations (Anderson & Brion, 2014;Sturm & Antonakis, 2014). ...
... Our measure of power was derived from previous research on power in teams (Brion & Anderson, 2013;van Dijke et al., 2010). Given that our sample of MBA teams consists of teams in which no formal leaders are assigned, and therefore no material resources such as pay or promotion can be wielded by individual members, our operationalisation of power focuses on the control over the key resources of the team: the process underlying how work is accomplished. ...
Article
Though much research has examined the trust development process, we know little about how changes in one’s power impact trust development. Building on relevant literatures, we propose that independent of one’s absolute power, trust increases (or decreases) as a function of how much power individuals gain (or lose) over time. We find support for our hypotheses in a multisource nine-month longitudinal study of individuals working in teams. Mediation analyses, moreover, demonstrate that changes in the perceptions of others’ trustworthiness help explain the positive relationship between power change and trust. Our findings contribute to the literatures on trust and power by highlighting the crucial role that power dynamics play in generating downstream trust. We discuss theoretical implications for research on power and trust, as well as practical implications for managing trust within teams.
... With respect to citizenship behaviors, we argue that employees can protect themselves in the aftermath of an unfair situation by reducing citizenship behaviors toward the manager (e.g., helping, cooperation, extra effort). That is, employees should be less likely to defer to and cooperate with managers who lack legitimacy to reduce the risk of exploitation (e.g., Lind, 2001;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). While withdrawing these behaviors may protect the employee from being taken advantage of by the manager, this may also undermine the manager's effectiveness by decreasing behaviors that can provide support. ...
... item scale that was adapted to reference the supervisor (see van Dijke et al., 2010). The question stem was: "The following questions are about how you currently feel about your supervisor". ...
Article
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Unfair situations are a reality of organizational life. While managers are typically advised to enact justice (i.e., adhere to justice rules) to mitigate negative employee reactions to unfair situations, the subjective nature of fairness suggests that employees may still react negatively to managers, regardless of managers’ adherence to justice rules. Integrating fairness theory with social role theory, we propose that prescriptive gender stereotypes can differentially influence employees’ reactions towards female (versus male) managers in the aftermath of unfair situations. Across two studies, female (versus male) managers were especially likely to experience diminished legitimacy in the aftermath of unfair situations, regardless of their adherence to justice rules. Moreover, these effects were especially likely to emerge for situations that reflected isolated versus ongoing issues. In turn, diminished legitimacy prompted negative employee behaviors that can detract from managerial effectiveness (e.g., withdrawal of manager‐directed citizenship behaviors, enhanced negative gossip about the manager, and increased resistance behaviors). Theoretical and practical contributions include recognizing the importance of broadening focus beyond adherence to justice rules to understand employees’ reactions and managers’ experiences, acknowledging the impact of gender in the context of fairness, and highlighting that upward‐directed gender bias may contribute to the (un)intentional undermining of female managers.
... Traditional fairness heuristic theory warns that "unfairly enacted procedures decrease followers' trust in the authority particularly when authorities have greater power over the followers" (van Dijke et al., 2010: 488). Consequently, a longer communist footprint indicates that subordinates grew up in an environment where engaging in doublethink was customary for survival (Pearce, 1991;van Dijke et al., 2010;Uslaner and Badescu, 2004). Doublethink meant that it was acceptable to lie about performance indicators to receive positive feedback and evaluations from superiors. ...
... Additionally, Jaffe and Tsimerman (2005) found that 91% of such individuals support rules and codes, meaning they believe it is important to comply with the law and expected professional standards, and 83% support the view that everyone should stick to the established rules and procedures in their organizations. According to traditional fairness heuristic theory, individuals with shorter communist footprints are much more likely to perceive such sanctions as fair, which would further encourage them to engage in constructive influence behavior (van Dijke et al., 2010). This is also supported by cross-cultural management research finding that individuals who were socialized for very little under communism were more likely to embrace the strong work ethics typical for capitalist market economies (Linz and Chu, 2013). ...
Article
How does length of exposure to communism, the communist footprint, affect individuals’ influence behaviors at work today? While imprinting theory has debated how exposure/lack thereof to communism—communist imprint—affects individuals, it has disregarded the exposure’s length. We show that the shorter the communist footprint, the less negative professionals are toward organizationally constructive influence behaviors, and that individuals with longer communist footprints at higher-level position levels do not approve of organizationally destructive behaviors as much as their lower-level counterparts. We thus show that the continuous communist footprint provides a better understanding of work behaviors today than the dichotomous communist imprint.
... According to the theory, people use procedural justice criteria as heuristic cues by which to evaluate the trustworthiness of authorities. When authorities act in line with these criteria, it suggests their willingness to sacrifice some of their own prerogatives (e.g., things they could obtain by abusing their power) for the benefit of their followers (e.g., Colquitt & Rodell, 2011;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). Authorities who disregard these criteria, on the other hand, tend to be perceived as untrustworthy (e.g., Tyler & Wakslak, 2004). ...
... In the second part of this chapter, we reviewed empirical research bearing on the reciprocal relationships that exist between perceptions of procedural justice and political legitimacy. In line with fairness heuristic theory (Lind, 2001;van den Bos, 2001), people often use procedural justice criteria as heuristic cues by which to evaluate the legitimacy and trustworthiness of authorities (e.g., Colquitt & Rodell, 2011;van Dijke et al., 2010). Based on group engagement theory (Tyler & Blader, 2003), there is also evidence that perceptions of procedural justice can increase civic cooperation. ...
Chapter
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Psychological research at the intersection of social justice and political behavior is part of the vibrant, growing field of political psychology. The present chapter addresses this research and focuses especially on justice-related thoughts, feelings, and actions of political laypersons. We highlight three lines of research that link laypersons’ evaluations of distributive and procedural injustice with political attitudes and behavior. First, political science and psychology provide evidence that beliefs about social justice reflect key elements in political ideologies. For example, conservatives (a) are less likely to prioritize issues of fairness and social justice when making moral judgments, (b) are more likely to evaluate distributive justice in terms of principles of merit than equality, and (c) more readily interpret requests for public support on behalf of disadvantaged groups as undeserved, in comparison to liberals. These findings are discussed in regard to psychological theories linking political ideology with motivated social cognition. Second, we outline how perceived procedural justice and perceived political legitimacy are related and mutually affect each other. The more political authorities are seen as reigning in line with criteria of procedural justice, the more they are perceived as trustworthy, legitimate, and entitled to lead. Third, we outline how justice perceptions relate to protest intentions and behavior. Whereas perceived social injustice provides a strong motivation to participate in political protest, we also address the question of why people frequently fail to protest against sources of disadvantage and deprivation. In the final part of the chapter, we suggest avenues for future research.
... Third, the mediating role of self-attribution offers an attributional explanation to the effect of procedural fairness. The extant literature on the mechanism of the positive function of procedural fairness has focused on the mediating role of employees' evaluations in their relationships with organizations, such as in terms of trust in authority and psychological contracts (Langendijk et al., 2009;van Dijke et al., 2010;Zhang & Jia, 2010), as well as in their relative self-evaluations in group contexts, such as in terms of perceived status and respect (Hart et al., 2020;van Dijke et al., 2012). In addition to these explanations related to the quality of employees' interactions with organizations, the current study provides an attributional account of the effect Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... This explanation suggests that procedural fairness works in two potential ways to propel constructive behaviors, e.g., PDA. One method involves promoting such behavior by nurturing a good relationship between individuals and their organizations, as discussed in the extant literature (e.g., Langendijk et al., 2009;van Dijke et al., 2010;Hart et al., 2020;Zhang & Jia, 2010), while the other approach involves promoting such behavior by preventing individuals from blaming their organizations when their own deficiencies might account for their failures, as suggested in the current study. Fourth, the present study contributes to our understanding of how personal traits might affect individuals' behavioral responses to internal attribution. ...
Article
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Extant literature on the reversal of the fair process effect has demonstrated that procedural fairness can lead to adverse reactions, such as poorer self-evaluations, under circumstances of unfavorable outcomes. However, procedural fairness resulting in failure may not necessarily be bad from a developmental perspective. The present research explores the relationship between procedural fairness and participation in development activities (PDA), the underlying mechanism, and the boundary condition of the relationship, drawing on attribution theory. Data were collected from a sample of 282 employees (Mage = 32.20, SD = 6.92). The results show that procedural fairness positively predicted PDA and that self-attribution mediated their relationship. In addition, self-construal played a moderating role in the relationship between self-attribution and PDA. Specifically, for individuals high in independent self-construal, self-attribution is associated with stronger PDA, while the relationship is nonsignificant for those high in interdependent self-construal. Overall, the findings shed light on the positive function of procedural fairness even under unfavorable outcomes and reveal how situational factors and individual differences may jointly shape peoples’ responses to organizational events. Practical implications for how to promote PDA in organizations are also discussed.
... Accordingly, employees react positively to the leader. Research in the Dutch context shows that Dutch employees perceive benevolent leaders as charismatic (van Dijke and De Cremer, 2010): ...
Article
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Purpose As the global presence of Chinese firms grows, increasing numbers of Chinese managers are working abroad as expatriates. However, little attention has been paid to such Chinese expatriate managers and their leadership challenges in an inter-cultural context, especially across a large cultural distance. To fill the gap in the literature concerning the leadership challenges for expatriate managers in an inter-cultural context, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate the leadership styles of Chinese expatriate managers from the perspectives of three traditional Chinese philosophies (i.e. Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism) in the inter-cultural context of the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach The data for this qualitative study were collected via semi-structured, open-ended, narrative interviews with 30 Chinese expatriate managers in the Netherlands. Findings The results clearly show that the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is deeply rooted in the three traditional Chinese philosophies of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism, even in an inter-cultural context. Specifically, the study reveals two salient aspects of how Chinese expatriate managers frame and interact with a foreign cultural context from the perspectives of traditional Chinese philosophies. First, the Chinese expatriate managers reported an initial cultural shock related to frictions between the foreign cultural context and Confucianism or Taoism, but less so in the case of Legalism. Second, the Chinese expatriate managers also reported that their interactions with the Dutch culture are best described as a balance between partial conflict and partial complementarity (thus, a duality). In this sense, the leadership style of Chinese expatriate managers is influenced jointly by the three traditional Chinese philosophies and certain elements of the foreign cultural context. This is consistent with the Chinese perspective of yin-yang balancing. Originality/value This study is among the first to offer a more nuanced and highly contextualized understanding of leadership in the unique case of expatriate managers from an emerging market (e.g. China) in an advanced economy (e.g. the Netherlands). The authors call for more research to apply the unique perspective of yin-yang balancing in an inter-cultural context. The authors posit that this approach represents the most salient implication of this study. For practical implications, the authors argue that expatriate leaders should carefully manage the interplay between their deep-rooted home-country philosophies and their salient host-country culture. Reflecting on traditional philosophies in another culture can facilitate inter-cultural leadership training for Chinese expatriates.
... The same applies when we intend to find out about the trustworthiness of a particular norm and the suitability of its application in a certain environment. Van Dijke has demonstrated in his study of how authority influences workers' behaviour and increases their trust in high-level authority [73]. The reputation of a norm is another crucial factor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agents within communities that have multiple agents tend to adopt implicit norms. They also enjoy unhindered mobility, moving among communities with relative ease so as to attain their objectives. Here, agents need to be provided with a tool for detection so as conform to situations in open communities. A smart agent needs to have the ability to independently assess its own level of awareness of norms' benefits, besides having the capability to discern between positive and negative norms while interacting in novel circumstances. If the agent does not succeed in identifying a particular community's norms accurately, it runs the risk of possible sanctions, or punishment in the case of transgressing prevailing norms. Conversely, if the agent were to identify the existing norms within a community, it would be able to reap the corresponding benefits, or at the very least, escape sanctions or penalties. A visiting agent that is armed with devices to identify norms of a particular society has the advantage of being able to adapt to shifts occurring within a particular setting, or to make adjustments to suit its own goals. This dissertation gives a conceptual framework for 'awareness of norms' benefits in open normative multi-agent societies. A fresh method to interpret and express an agent's behavior is presented here. Norm’s Adoption Ratio, Norm’s Yields, Norm’s Trust, and Norm’s Morality are the four elements that represent the agent's awareness of norms' benefits. By employing these criteria, agents can assess benefits of particular identified norms, following which they can ascertain whether these norms impact in a positive or negative way, thus helping them determine whether to embrace or discard a particular norm.
... In organizations, power is for an important part (although not only) granted by hierarchical position. Hierarchical differentiations prescribe high-power actors the ability to influence employees' outcomes through punishment or rewards (Cummins, 2005;Magee & Galinsky, 2008;Morrison & Rothman, 2009;Van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). Thus, power is an important source of fear of punishment (French & Raven, 1959;Kish-Gephart et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Expressing (vs. withholding) forgiveness is often promoted as a beneficial response for victims. In the present research, we argue that withholding (vs. expressing) forgiveness can also be beneficial to victims by stimulating subsequent transgressor compliance – a response that is valuable in restoring the victim’s needs for control. Based on deterrence theory, we argue that a victim’s withheld (vs. expressed) forgiveness promotes transgressor compliance when the victim has low power, relative to the transgressor. This is because withheld (vs. expressed) forgiveness from a low-power victim elicits transgressor fear. On the other hand, because people are fearful of high-power actors, high-power victims can expect high levels of compliance from a transgressor, regardless of whether they express forgiveness or not. A critical incidents survey (Study 1) and an autobiographic recall study (Study 2) among employees, as well as a laboratory experiment among business students (Study 3), support these predictions. These studies are among the first to reveal that withholding forgiveness can be beneficial for low-power victims in a hierarchical context – ironically, a context in which offering forgiveness is often expected.
... Social trust has been defined as positive expectations that another party, for example one's colleagues, will act benevolently. Trust therefore involves a willingness to be vulnerable and risk that the other party may not fulfil those expectations [23][24][25][26]. Trust is fostered in ambiguous situations, which may lead to positive or negative personal outcomes, when the trusting individual is dependent on one or more other persons for the determination of that outcome and when there is a degree of confidence in the trusted persons' altruism [27]. ...
Article
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Aim: The aim of this study was to explore lessons from the pandemic by registered and assistant nurses in Swedish primary health care (PHC) of potential relevance for the future operation of PHC. Methods: Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with registered and assistant nurses. We used a purposeful sampling strategy to achieve a diverse sample with regard to size and location of PHC centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis yielded two categories: lessons from the pandemic pertaining to PHC personnel and patient behaviours (adaptability of the personnel; importance of hygiene and maintaining physical distance; and importance of being attentive to illness symptoms) and lessons from the pandemic related to primary healthcare work routines (effectiveness of digital job meetings; advantages of digital patient consultations; importance of keeping infectious patients separate from other patients; and the need to allow only pre-booked patient appointments). Conclusions: The seven sub-categories represent seven lessons from the pandemic. The lessons generated both instrumental knowledge, which the nurses could apply in work-related decisions, and conceptual knowledge which yielded improved understanding of problems and potential solutions for PHC.
... Research suggests that offering apologies or compensation in the case of an irregularity or error can promote forgiveness (Carlisle et al., 2012), repair trust (De Cremer, 2010;Desmet, De Cremer & Dijk, 2011), and enhance customer loyalty and satisfaction (Roschk & Gelbrich, 2014). Yet, compensation and apologies do not always prove to be effective. ...
Article
We examine how the two dimensions of moral identity - internalization and symbolization - impact on customers' relationships with ethical brands, as well as their satisfaction with different types of (private versus public) compensation and apologies following service failures. We propose and find in a field study of customers of a green social enterprise (N = 159) and in an online scenario study (N = 214) that high moral identity internalization is associated with higher satisfaction with private apologies, but not with public apologies and compensation, while high moral identity symbolization is associated with higher satisfaction with public compensation and apologies, but not with private apologies and compensation. Study 2 extends these findings by confirming that self-consistency mediates the relationships between moral identity internalization and private apologies and compensation, while social approval mediates the relationships between moral identity symbolization and public apologies and compensation. Unexpectedly self-consistency also mediated the effect of symbolization on public compensation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... The available literature has also shown that perceptions of procedural fairness are uniquely tied to legitimacy. The greater the degree of procedural fairness individuals experience, the more likely they are to exhibit legitimacy and cooperation with authorities (De Cremer & Tyler, 2007;Jackson, Bradford, Hough, Myhill, Quinton, & Taylor, 2012;Tyler & Huo, 2002;Tyler & Wakslak, 2004;Van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). Indeed, Jackson et al. (2012) measured the intersection of perceived procedural fairness, moral alignment, and compliance with law enforcement. ...
Article
Research suggests that gender imbalances in police forces can significantly affect individuals’ experiences when interacting with police. Of importance, yet rarely examined, is the extent to which predominantly male police forces, in conjunction with adherence to gendered departmental policies, can simultaneously send signals of procedural justice and procedural injustice. Drawing on data from 253 in-depth interviews of San Francisco–based male and female drug-dealing gang members, we investigated how interactions with a male-dominated police force, who were required to search only suspects of the same gender, affected perceptions of fair policing. Our findings revealed that the study participants raised concerns that the police unfairly enforced the law to the detriment of the men in the study. The gang members were aware that male officers could only search same-sex suspects, and this exacerbated the gendered experiences of the gang members. Specifically, it contributed to the perception that male officers targeted male gang members to the omission of women and, if women were stopped, they were frequently released. These findings suggest that the gender composition of the police force is important in shaping attitudes toward equitable enforcement of the law and procedural fairness. Of theoretical importance, these findings highlight a contradiction that compliance with rules can contribute, counter intuitively, to perceptions of procedural injustice. Procedurally unfair police behavior may be a systemic problem where the gender composition of the police force itself creates an inherently unfair system.
... Thus, having power provides the capacity to impose one's will over others (Ng, 1980;Sturm & Antonakis, 2015). The possibility of high-power actors imposing their will motivates low-power actors to make sense of the situation, which produces a hypervigilant mode of information processing (Kramer, 1994;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). This, we argue, results in suspicion of being manipulated by one's high-power interaction partner. ...
Article
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One adverse consequence of interpersonal mistreatment is that it damages the relationship between the victim and the transgressor. Scholars have promoted forgiveness of such mistreatment as a victim response that can motivate transgressors to work towards relationship restoration. Building on social exchange theory and the social perception literature, we provide an account of when transgressors are less (vs. more) willing to restore their relationship with the victim in response to forgiveness. Specifically, we argue that transgressors perceive forgiveness from a victim who has high (vs. low) power, relative to the transgressor, as insincere, making transgressors less willing to restore the relationship. We further argue that this effect of high (vs. low) victim power is pronounced especially when the victim also has low (vs. high) status. Two experiments and two field studies support these predictions. These findings highlight the relevance of studying how contextual conditions color transgressors’ perceptions of victims’ behavior to understand relationship restoration after interpersonal mistreatment.
... Thus, having power provides the capacity to impose one's will over others (Ng, 1980;Sturm & Antonakis, 2015). The possibility of high-power actors imposing their will motivates low-power actors to make sense of the situation, which produces a hypervigilant mode of information processing (Kramer, 1994;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). This, we argue, results in suspicion of being manipulated by one's high-power interaction partner. ...
... Perceived procedural justice on the individual level and a culture of interaction are important for building up trust (Job et al., 2007). Empirical studies show that authorities who enact procedures in a fair manner gain more positive responses from members of the collective (Van Dijke et al., 2010). Furthermore, Levi and Sacks (2009) find that government effectiveness and procedural justice are key contributors to high tax morale. ...
Article
Today, the concept of tax compliance has become a common phenomenon in most countries and attracted the attention of a large number of researchers in order to identify the affecting factors on it. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to exploration the main internal and psychological factors affecting on tax compliance and in return try to present the tax compliance model. The statistical population of this study included 2900 legal persons of Sari tax administration in Iran who shall be liable to Value-Added Tax (VAT). The sampling technique in this study was stratified random sampling and the sample size comprises of 550 legal persons. The findings revealed a significant and positive impact of tax fairness, taxpayers' attitude, trust in authorities and tax morale on tax compliance. Furthermore, the results of the study showed that tax compliance is largely determined by tax morale. Moreover, the results suggest that tax authorities should take more concentration on tax fairness for creating favorable attitude in taxpayers, enhancing trust in authorities and improvement of morale obligation. Keywords: tax compliance, taxpayers’ attitude, tax fairness, tax morale
... Organizational deviance of the focal employee was reported by department chair of each focal employee. We used an adapted version of the original selfreport items of Bennett and Robinson's (2000) twelve-item sub-scale for organizational deviance (Van Dijke et al., 2010). Example items are "How often did your subordinate in the last year take property from work without permission?", ...
Article
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Purpose Drawing on the social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between despotic leadership and employee’s organizational deviance. Specifically, the authors take a relational approach by introducing employee’s organizational identification as the mediator. The moderating role of value congruence in the relationship between despotic leadership and organizational deviance is also considered. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 15 universities in Turkey. The sample included 1,219 randomly chosen faculty members along with their department chairs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed model. Findings The results of this study supported the positive effect of despotic leadership on employee’s organizational deviance as well as the mediating effect of employee’s organizational identification. Moreover, when the level of value congruence is high, the relationship between organizational identification and organizational deviance is strong, whereas the effect is weak when the level of value congruence is low. Practical implications The findings of this study suggest that educational administrators in the higher education should be sensitive in treating their subordinates, as it will lead to positive interpersonal relationship, which, in turn, will reduce organizational deviance. Moreover, they should pay more attention to the buffering role of value congruence for those subordinates with high distrust and showing organizational deviance. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on workplace deviance by revealing the relational mechanism between despotic leadership and employee organizational deviance. The paper also offers a practical assistance to employees in the higher education and their leaders interested in building trust, increasing leader-employee relationship and reducing organizational deviance.
... With respect to citizenship behaviors, we argue that employees can protect themselves in the aftermath of an unfair situation by reducing citizenship behaviors toward the manager (e.g., helping, cooperation, and extra effort). That is, employees should be less likely to defer to and cooperate with managers who lack legitimacy to reduce the risk of exploitation (e.g., Lind, 2001;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). Although withdrawing these behaviors may protect the employee from being taken advantage of by the manager, this may also undermine the manager's effectiveness by decreasing behaviors that can provide support. ...
Article
Many of society’s pressing challenges — conflict, discrimination, well-being — can be linked to injustice within organizations. Effectively addressing workplace injustice requires scholars to broaden our understanding of what it means to “do justice” in organizations. In this symposium, we aim to “broaden our sight” (Academy of Management, 2020) by bringing together a diverse panel of leading scholars who are tackling critical questions related to the obstacles and challenges associated with fostering justice and fairness in the workplace. Using disparate methodologies (e.g., experiments, field studies, interviews) and theoretical frameworks (e.g., appraisal theory, fairness theory, goal prioritization, moral disengagement), our presenters provide insight into (a) the situational factors that can impact whether managers act justly, (b) who is likely to enact justice and the role of emotions in the process of enactment, (c) how managers make sense of having acted unjustly, (d) how perceptions of unfairness can stem from a mismatch between the amount of trust one desires and receives, and (e) the process by which managers are personally blamed and held accountable for unfair situations. The symposium will conclude with an interactive discussion that highlights key themes and directions for future research as well as practical insights into how managers and organizations might promote fairer workplaces by encouraging justice enactment among managers and effectively managing fairness for employees.
... The same applies when we intend to find out about the trustworthiness of a particular norm and the suitability of its application in a certain environment. Van Dijke has demonstrated in his study of how authority influences workers' behaviour and increases their trust in high-level authority [73]. The reputation of a norm is another crucial factor. ...
... Because the ability to generalize across settings (e.g., organizations) requires an understanding of the causal process that underlies a phenomenon (Highhouse, 2009), we subsequently tested our hypotheses in a laboratory experiment high in experimental realism. As such, the weakness of the one method could be compensated by the strength of the other (Dipboye, 1990), an approach that has been proven fruitful in studies on leadership (e.g., Giessner & van Knippenberg, 2008;Grant, Gino, & Hofmann, 2011;Ullrich, Christ, & van Dick, 2009;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). ...
... For example, each justice dimension has been found to produce different effects on trust in leadership (DeConinck, 2010). In addition, some research shows that members may not attribute their perceptions of injustice to lower-power authorities such as direct leaders (Van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010). This would not apply to the Middle-to Upper-Leadership (Group C), however, which is comprised of high-authority ranks. ...
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A number of studies have shown that trust in leadership improves the attitudes and behaviors of members and contributes to organizational effectiveness. Empirical research is lacking, however, on what factors lead to trust in leadership within fire departments. Employing an original survey instrument, this study explores the determinants of trust in leadership within a west coast fire department across two leadership referents (direct versus senior leaders). Findings emerging from this study show that fire departmental personnel trust leaders that (1) form social exchange relationships with members based on emotional support, (2) they perceive as competent, and (3) that demonstrate cooperative behaviors. These findings suggest that training leaders on the importance of relationships can build higher trust levels in fire departments.
... Goh and Low (2014) also note that servant leaders can kindle trust among followers as a natural consequence of their positive leadership behaviors. Reflecting a willingness to enter into an unprotected scenario, due to a belief in the positive attitude and conduct of others (Rousseau et al., 1998), trust appears to mediate the relationship between servant leadership and various outcomes (e.g., Dirks, 2000;Goh and Low, 2014;Rubin et al., 2010;van Dijke et al., 2010). Accordingly, we use trust in the leader as a mediator of the link between servant leadership and workplace mistreatment. ...
Article
Purpose With a foundation in social exchange theory, this study examines the relationship between servant leadership and three types of workplace mistreatment – bullying, incivility and ostracism – while also considering a mediating role of trust in the leader and a moderating role of the ethical climate. Design/methodology/approach Three time-lagged sets of data ( N = 431) were collected among employees working in various sectors. Findings Servant leadership relates significantly to trust in the leader, as well as to workplace bullying, incivility and ostracism. In turn, trust in the leader mediates the relationship between servant leadership and all three types of workplace mistreatment. The results also indicate the presence of moderated mediation, in that the indirect effect of servant leadership on workplace mistreatment is moderated by the ethical climate. Originality/value This study adds to extant research by examining the mediating mechanism of trust in leaders with servant leadership and workplace mistreatment, along with interactive effects of ethical climate.
... Several researchers have suggested that perceived fairness of managers is an important currency in social exchanges ( Erdogan, Liden, & Kraimer, 2006;Masterson, Lewis, Goldman, & Taylor, 2000) and positively contributes to the development of high quality exchange relationships at work ( Cropanzano & Byrne, 2000;Rupp & Cropanzano, 2002). In particular, when managers are perceived to be procedurally fair, it elicits employees' trust in their managers ( Lind, 2001;van Dijke, De Cremer, & Mayer, 2010), which is the basis for developing a high quality LMX characterized by mutual affect, loyalty, contribution, and professional respect ( Liden & Maslyn, 1998;Liden et al., 1997). Therefore, we anticipate a positive relationship between perceived supervisory procedural justice and LMX. ...
Article
Extending prior research on idiosyncratic deals (i-deals), in the current study we examine the functioning of i-deals in the context of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation. To that end, we integrate justice, social exchange, and social comparison theories and hypothesize that employee perceptions of their managers' procedural fairness and LMX quality partially mediate (in sequence) the positive relationship between i-deals and individual effectiveness, including job satisfaction, in-role performance, and helping behavior. Furthermore, we propose that LMX differentiation moderates this mediated relationship, such that the mediation effect becomes stronger when LMX differentiation within the group is greater. Data from a U.S. sample of 961 employees and their managers in 71 restaurants supported our hypothesized model. Results shed light on managerial practices regarding how to gain positive effects from i-deals by considering the influence of LMX differentiation.
... Similarly, the justice literature has found that perceptions of treatment have robust and pervasive effects on task proficiency, helping, and counterproductive behaviors Spector 2001, Colquitt et al. 2013). Therefore, our use of P-E fit in the context of justice provides us with an expanded mediation framework for explaining how the effects of congruence between justice received and the situated value of justice criteria enactment ultimately influence task proficiency, personal helping, and retaliatory behavior (Kristof-Brown et al. 2005, Colquitt et al. 2006, Zapata-Phelan et al. 2009, van Dijke et al. 2010) via treatment discrepancy. ...
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Despite the generally positive consequences associated with justice, recent research suggests that supervisors cannot always enact justice, and responses to justice may not be universally positive. Thus, justice is likely to vary in both how much it is received and the employee reactions it engenders. In order to understand the range of justice responses, we develop a dynamic theory of justice by using person-environment fit to take both the value that an individual places in justice and the justice they received into account. Using this framework, we clarify the consequences of congruence versus incongruence in daily justice received and valued, which have implications for treatment discrepancies and subsequent work behavior. We also identify the differences between excess and deficient justice on cognitive and affective responses to justice. Our findings reveal that employees’ experience of justice is more complicated than simply whether the justice they received was high or low on a particular day. Using experience sampling and polynomial regression methods, we observe that not all instances in which employees receive high levels of justice are equivalent. In fact, we find that, depending on justice valued, receiving high levels of justice can be just as detrimental as receiving low levels. Additionally, we find that although both forms of justice misfit (excess and deficiency) cause-negative work outcomes, they affect these outcomes through differential responses to justice — with excess causing increased rumination and deficiency causing decreased positive affect. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for extant justice theory and for supervisor-employee work interactions.
... Kecenderungan WP untuk mematuhi peraturan perpajakan dapat tercapai jika WP merasa timbal balik yang diterima oleh WP dari pemerintah sepadan dengan jumlah yang dibayarkan melalui pajak (Mangoting et al., 2015). Seberapa besar pengaruh sebuah pemerintahan terhadap rakyatnya, termasuk menumbuhkan rasa percaya, berkaitan erat dengan kebijakan yang pemerintah itu lakukan atas segala prosedur yang ditetapkan (Dijke et al., 2010). Bukti empiris dari Selandia Baru dan Malaysia menunjukkan bahwa rasa keadilan WP mengenai sistem perpajakan di negaranya akan mempengaruhi perilaku patuh WP tersebut (Saad, 2013), begitupun perilaku WP di Ghana (Razak dan Adafula, 2013), Nigeria (Modugu et al., 2012), WPOP di Jawa Timur (Mukhlis et al., 2015) serta di Jawa Tengah, Indonesia (Damayanti et al., 2015a). ...
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Kesadaran wajib pajak yang berbanding terbalik dengan tingkat kesejahteraan penduduk pada 2010 sampai dengan 2014 menunjukkan kurangnya kepatuhan pajak di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh niat untuk patuh terhadap kepatuhan pajak, beserta sikap atas kepatuhan pajak serta pertanggungjawaban pemerintah atas dana pajak sebagai penentu niat WPOP untuk patuh. Survey dilakukan terhadap WPOP yang terdaftar di KPP Batu dan Kepanjen, Jawa Timur. Sampel sebanyak 111 WPOP dipilih secara tidak acak dengan menggunakan convenience sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepatuhan pajak dipengaruhi oleh niat untuk patuh, sedangkan niat untuk patuh dipengaruhi secara positif oleh pertanggungjawaban pemerintah atas dana pajak dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh sikap atas kepatuhan pajak. Hal ini menunjukkan DJP dapat meningkatkan rasa percaya WP dengan menambah sarana edukasi dan kampanye perpajakan untuk menunjukkan citra positif pemerintah dalam mengelola dana pajak. Integrasi data tentang usaha WP terhadap pajak penting untuk memunculkan sikap positif WP terhadap niat untuk patuh.
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As organizational research continues to globalize, scholars increasingly must translate established scales into languages other than those in which the scales were originally developed. In organizational psychology research, back-translation is the dominant procedure for translating scales. Back-translation has notable strengths in maintaining the psychometric properties of an established scale in a translated version. However, cross-cultural methodologists have argued that in its most basic form, back-translation often does not result in translations with acceptable levels of equivalence between original and translated research materials. Fortunately, there are complementary procedures to back-translation that can evaluate and strengthen the extent to which scale translations have achieved equivalence between original and translated versions of scales. But how often organizational researchers use and report these procedures in tandem with back-translation is unclear. This article aims to address this lack of clarity by evaluating the state of the use of back-translation in organizational psychology research by reviewing every study in Journal of Applied Psychology that has employed translation over the past nearly 25 years (k = 333). Our findings suggest that the majority of the time that researchers engage in translation procedures, they report having done so. At the same time, the details of these procedures are commonly underreported, making it unclear whether additional techniques beyond back-translation have been used to examine and demonstrate equivalence between original and translated versions of scales. Based on the results of our review, we develop a set of recommendations for conducting and reporting scale translations in organizational research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study explored how factors, including the function of bag limits, agency trust, satisfaction, hunting participation, and demographics, related to opinions about duck bag limits. The results are from a survey of 2014 Minnesota resident waterfowl hunters. Analyses identified four dimensions of attitudes about functions of bag limits, including that they: (a) are descriptive in defining the acceptable number of ducks that can be bagged, (b) are injunctive in establishing how many ducks should be allowed to be bagged, (c) ensure fair opportunities for all hunters to bag ducks, and (d) reflect biological limitations to protect waterfowl populations. Descriptive and fairness functions of bag limits were related to opinions about bag limits, as were factors related to agency trust, satisfaction, ducks bagged, experience with more restrictive bag limits, hunter age, and hunting group membership. Agencies may increase support by building trust and emphasizing the descriptive and fairness functions of regulations.
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The aim of this research are to give empirical proof about: (1)the influence procedural juctice and moral obligation toward voluntary tax compliance. (2) the influence of trust within mediation influence between procedural juctice and moral obligation toward voluntary tax compliance. (3) the influence of legitimation power within moderation influence of tust toward voluntary tax compliance. Data collection in this research using quisioner. As many as 108 quisioner divided to manager and accountan in each hotel. From data above, 91 quisioner are given back by responden. So, 91 quisioners can be used in analysis proses. The result of this research eviden, the procedural jucticeand moral obligation ralated to voluntary tax compliance. The result of this research also eviden the role mediation of trust. Voluntary tax compliance occurs becouse of procedural juctice and moral obligation direct to voluntary tax compliance through mediation of trust, and realionship between trust and voluntary tax compliance are not moderation by legitimation power.
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In this study, we examined the role that perceived procedural justice (PPJ) plays in the conflict management behaviors that intimate spouses adopt and endorse. In this context, PPJ has been defined as the degree to which one perceives that his or her spouse makes decisions fairly, considerately, and in a participatory manner. To test the impact of perceived procedural justice on conflict resolution behavior, we applied the dual‐concern model of conflict management style. In an experiment in which participants read fictional scenarios and predicted spouses’ responses, we found that perceptions of strong PPJ enhanced the prediction of integrating (problem solving), compromising, and, to a lesser degree, obliging behavior. Perceived procedural justice also caused a reduction in avoidance behavior, but no effect we found on dominating (competing) behavior. In a following correlational study, we also found that PPJ positively correlated to enhanced integrating, compromising, and obliging behaviors, and these correlations were partially or fully mediated by the degree of “dyadic adjustment,” which is a measure of relationship health. In addition, in this second study, we found no correlation between perceived procedural justice and dominating or avoiding behavior. In both studies, participants either predicted or chose collaborative behaviors more than non‐collaborative ones. We conclude that the perception that one's partner is behaving in a procedurally just way can enhance active and egalitarian collaboration in marriage and other intimate partner relationships, but that the absence of PPJ does not seem to encourage active non‐collaboration, particularly not highly self‐centered dominating behavior.
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This study intends to shed light on and solve the short-term investment paradox by investigating the emotions of Organization Trust and JOY within a field-study context. The analysis entails analyzing the short-term feeling of JOY and its effect on long-term feeling of Organization Trust. In addition, it attempts to analyze relevant mediators and moderators that might influence JOY and organization trust. Findings indicate that consumers trust less without JOY and purchase less without Organization Trust. Meaning, companies shall be clear about the customer's perception of their product offer (hedonic vs. utilitarian) and adapt their investments accordingly, retailers with hedonic products should keep investing in JOY. Thus, the relation between JOY and Organization Trust can be characterized as mutually influencing. Furthermore, superficial information processing moderates the influence of Organization Trust on repurchase intention positively; and early exit moderates the influence of Organization Trust on repurchase intention negatively.
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Background: Teachers' legitimacy is central to school functioning. Teachers' justice, whether distributive or procedural, predicts teachers' legitimacy. Aims: What is still do be found, and constitutes the goal of this paper, is whether unjust treatment by a teacher affects the legitimacy of the teacher differently when the student knows that the teacher was fair to a peer (comparative judgement) or when the student does not have that information (autonomous judgement). Samples: A total of 79 high school students participated in Study 1; 75 high school students participated in Study 2. Methods: Two experimental studies with a 2 justice valence (just, unjust) × 2 social comparison processes (autonomous judgements, comparative judgements) between-participants design were conducted. Study 1 addressed distributive justice and Study 2 addressed procedural justice. The dependent variable was teachers' legitimacy. Results: In both studies, situations perceived as just led to higher teachers' legitimacy than situations perceived as unjust. For the distributive injustice conditions, teachers' legitimacy was equally lower for autonomous judgement and comparative judgement conditions. For procedural injustice, teachers' legitimacy was lower when the peer was treated justly and the participant was treated unfairly, compared with the condition when the participants did not know how the teacher treated the peer. Conclusions: We conclude that teachers' injustice affects teachers' legitimacy, but it does it differently according to the social comparisons involved and the type of justice involved. Moreover, these results highlight that social comparisons are an important psychological process and, therefore, they should be taken into account in models of justice.
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Usage of models integrating mediation and moderation is on the rise in the organizational sciences. While moderation and mediation are fairly well understood by themselves, additional complexities emerge when combining them. Some guidance exists regarding the empirical testing of such models, but this guidance is widely misunderstood. Furthermore, very little guidance exists regarding the theoretical justification of such models. This article offers a checklist of recommendations for the presentation, justification, and testing of models integrating mediation and moderation and compares these to what is actually being done via a review of empirical papers in top-tier journals.
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The two studies presented here examine the extent to which perceived authority legitimacy mediates the association between supervisors’ motivating styles and subordinates’ work-related outcomes. From the perspective of the self-determination theory (SDT), we examined two supervisory motivating styles: the autonomy-supportive style that nurtures employees’ inner motivational resources and the controlling style in which supervisors pressure their employees to behave in specific manager-directed ways. Perceived authority legitimacy was defined according to the Relational Model of Authority (RMA). The results of Study 1 (n = 191) showed that the autonomy-supportive motivating style, but not the controlling style, was associated with employees’ work satisfaction, commitment, and burnout through legitimacy. These results were replicated in Study 2 (n = 314), even after controlling for task-autonomous and controlled motivation, and extended to other reported employee behavioral outcomes such as organizational citizenship behavior, deviant behavior, and conflicts within the workplace. Taken together, the results suggest that the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive motivating style is partly due to its association with volitional deference to authority. The paper concludes by discussing theoretical implications of integrating SDT with RMA and the practical implications of the findings.
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Social collectives often grant power to leaders so they can facilitate collective performance. At present, there is no comprehensive overview of how power influences the effectiveness of different influence mechanisms leaders use to achieve this goal. To help develop such an overview, I review recent research on the positive and negative effects of power on some of these influence mechanisms: leaders' punishment of norm transgressions, concern for followers, and procedural fairness enactment. I also highlight the role of individual differences and contextual factors in these processes. I end by discussing implications and future research directions.
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Tax compliance involves a decision where personal benefits come at the expense of society and its members. We explored the roles of procedural and distributive justice and citizens’ perceptions of the tax authority’s power in stimulating voluntary tax compliance. Distributive and procedural justice have often (but not always) been shown to interact in such a way that high distributive justice or high procedural justice is sufficient to predict positive responses to authorities and the social collective they represent. We examined whether this interaction predicts voluntary (but not enforced) tax compliance, in particular among citizens who perceive the tax authority’s power as high (vs. low). The results of two field studies among Ethiopian (Study 1) and United States (Study 2) taxpayers supported our predictions. With this research we connect the roles of two core social psychological antecedents of tax compliance (i.e., distributive and procedural justice) with that of a deterrent factor (i.e., authority power) and obtain support for the psychological process underlying the Distributive Justice × Procedural Justice interaction in two diverging tax environments.
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Drawing on social hierarchy theory (Halevy, Chou, & Galinsky, 2011; Tyler, 1997), we develop a contingency model of leader–member exchange (LMX) differentiation in which LMX differentiation is positively and negatively related to group cooperation and group social undermining, respectively, when it is based on the group members’ performance, but the relations are reversed (i.e., negative and positive, respectively) when it stems from a leader's personal liking of the members. In addition, we propose that the moderating effects of the performance and personal liking bases of LMX differentiation are magnified by the levels of reward interdependence. Specifically, under a high (vs. low) level of reward interdependence, LMX differentiation based on performance more strongly relates to high group cooperation and low group social undermining, whereas LMX differentiation with a personal liking basis is more likely to decrease group cooperation and increase group social undermining. Group cooperation and social undermining are then hypothesized to convey the three‐way interactive effects of LMX differentiation, its two bases, and reward interdependence on subsequent group performance. Analyses of data from 328 sales groups of a large retailer support the core part of our contingency model of LMX differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Objective This study aimed to investigate factors affecting personal well-being of Polish immigrants living in the UK in the face of a significant political change—the Brexit vote. We measured perceived changes in attitude or behaviour of supervisors and co-workers, respondents’ perceived stress, and its outcomes such as psychological well-being and intention to leave the UK after the Brexit vote. Method 551 Polish migrants residing in various regions of the UK took part in the study in the form of Qualtrics online survey. We used self-report measures: Perceived Stress Scale, The Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Psychological Well-being. Results The most of the respondents did not notice any change in the attitude or behaviour of the supervisor (81%) or co-workers (84%), and only a small percentage of the participants reported negative changes in attitude or behaviour of supervisors (9%) and co-workers (14%). Also, negative change in attitude or behaviour of supervisors or co-workers are associated with perceived stress, which inturn is linked with intention to leave the UK, psychological well-being and life satisfaction. Conclusion Polish and British co-existence in a workplace setting has not changed much after the Brexit vote.
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Perceived organizational support (POS) is considered a central factor in employees' work‐related attitudes and behaviors. Drawing on the relational model of authority, we propose that perceived authority legitimacy, which reflects subordinates' identification with and acceptance of authority directives and power, may mediate the effect of POS on employees' work‐related outcomes, including job satisfaction, affective commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and work deviance behavior. We analyzed the data from a cross‐organizational sample of n = 343 employees using structural equation modeling with latent constructs. Results indicated perceived authority legitimacy partially mediated the relations of POS with work‐related outcomes. When organizations recognize their employees' contributions, acknowledge their importance, and demonstrate an interest in their needs, employees tend to better accept the authority directives. Perceived authority legitimacy is then echoed in employees' functioning. While the benefits of POS have mostly been discussed as reflecting exchange processes, our findings point to identity‐based processes emphasizing the important role of perceived authority legitimacy. The paper concludes by discussing implications for human resource management theory and practice.
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Lay Summary In the era of unprecedented political divides and misinformation, artificial intelligence (AI) and algorithms are often seen as the culprits. In contrast to these dominant narratives, we argued that AI might be seen as being less biased than a human in online political contexts. We relied on six preregistered experiments in three countries (the United Sates, Spain, Poland) to test whether internet users perceive AI and AI-assisted humans more favorably than simply humans; (a) across various distinct scenarios online, and (b) when exposing people to opposing political information on a range of contentious issues. Contrary to our expectations, human agents were consistently perceived more favorably than AI except when recommending news. These findings suggest that people prefer human intervention in most online political contexts.
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Hateful content online is a concern for social media platforms, policymakers, and the public. This has led high-profile content platforms, such as Facebook, to adopt algorithmic content-moderation systems; however, the impact of algorithmic moderation on user perceptions is unclear. We experimentally test the extent to which the type of content being removed (profanity vs hate speech) and the explanation given for its removal (no explanation vs link to community guidelines vs specific explanation) influence user perceptions of human and algorithmic moderators. Our preregistered study encompasses representative samples ( N = 2870) from the United States, the Netherlands, and Portugal. Contrary to expectations, our findings suggest that algorithmic moderation is perceived as more transparent than human, especially when no explanation is given for content removal. In addition, sending users to community guidelines for further information on content deletion has negative effects on outcome fairness and trust.
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We review extant experimental work in strategic management and argue that experiments constitute an underused methodology that has significant potential. We examine and categorize 179 experiments from 119 published articles over a 20-year period, delineating the contributions of these experiments to the strategic management literature. In doing so, we identify topic areas in which experiments have been effectively deployed, as well as several literature streams that have a limited amount of prior experimental research. We discuss specific challenges of using experiments in strategy research, especially given its strong focus on the firm-level of analysis. We also emphasize approaches for how experiments can be instrumental in extending management theories and accelerating behavioral microfoundations of strategy research. In light of past contributions and gaps, we discuss specific opportunities and means of designing innovative experiments, propose novel potential research questions, and provide a best practices methodological guide which scholars can use when considering experimental designs. Overall, our work documents experimental research and provides a methodological practicum, thereby offering a platform for future experiment-based research in strategic management. Supplemental best practice guide for conducting strategy experiments can be found here - https://www.researchguides.org
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Departing from the conventional feature-oriented approach, this study introduces event system theory to highlight the importance of salient workplace events in shaping employees’ motivation for entrepreneurship and to uncover how the spatial and temporal issues inherent in the event of ex-leader’s entrepreneurial endeavor may combine to influence employee’s entrepreneurial intention. The results of two time-lagged studies reveal that ex-leader’s entrepreneurial success, relational proximity, and time proximity interact to affect employee’s entrepreneurial intention such that the positive impact of ex-leader’s entrepreneurial success on employee’s entrepreneurial intention is stronger in the presence of high relational proximity and time proximity. The results further indicate that employee’s entrepreneurial self-efficacy functions as a crucial mechanism in translating this impact of ex-leader’s entrepreneurial endeavor. These findings highlight the value of an event-oriented approach to investigating the impact of workplace events on employee outcomes.
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This chapter presents an overview of the roles of distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice in the relationships that employees have with their work organization and its members—referred to as organizational justice. We discuss the importance of organizational justice by adopting a thematic approach in which we highlight four important themes. First, we examine the role of justice in attracting and selecting new employees. Second, we zoom in on how justice can promote employees’ motivation to support the organization’s interests (i.e., in terms of in-role and extra-role performance). Third, we address the relevance of justice in the relationship of employees with their supervisors, focusing on how justice relates to various other leadership behaviors and on factors that predict the enactment of justice. Finally, we consider the role of justice for employees who leave the organization, such as in downsizing contexts.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Arguably, the most critical time frame for organizational participants to develop trust is at the beginning of their relationship. Using primarily a cognitive approach, we address factors and processes that enable two organizational parties to form relatively high trust initially. We propose a model of specific relationships among several trust-related constructs and two cognitive processes. The model helps explain the paradoxical finding of high initial trust levels in new organizational relationships.
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The correlates of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were examined using 190 studies samples, totaling 64,757 participants. We found the distinction between the three justice types to be merited. While organizational practices and outcomes were related to the three justice types, demographic characteris-tics of the perceiver were, in large part, unrelated to perceived justice. Job performance and counterproductive work behaviors, considered to be outcomes of perceived justice, were mainly related to procedural justice, whereas organizational citizenship behavior was similarly predicted by distributive and procedural justice. Most satisfaction measures were similarly related to all justice types. Although organizational commitment and trust were mainly related to procedural justice, they were also substan-tially related to the other types of justice. Findings from labora-tory and field studies are not always in agreement. Future research agendas are discussed. ᭧ 2001 Academic Press The study of work-place justice has been proliferating in recent years. Whereas early studies on justice were conducted in the early 1960s (Adams, 1963, 1965), the majority of studies on justice in organizations were published We thank Dr. Dan Ilgen and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yochi Cohen-Charash, Institute
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Though research has addressed relationships between social power bases and several work-related variables, processes that may underlie such relationships have generally not been examined. The present study considered relationships between bases of social power and subordinates' affective work reactions, hypothesizing that procedural justice would mediate such relationships. Two samples, one drawn from two service-oriented companies and one collected from a hospital, were used to test a mediational model reflecting this hypothesis. Using theoretically grounded measures of social power and procedural justice, support was found for full mediation effects in connection with subordinates' affective work reactions. Implications regarding the development of social power bases are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Trust is a key enabler of cooperative human actions. Three main deficiencies about our current knowledge of trust are addressed by this paper. First, due to widely divergent conceptual definitions of trust, the literature on trust is in a state of construct confusion. Second, too little is understood about how trust forms and on what trust is based. Third, little has been discussed about the role of emotion in trust formation. To address the first deficiency, this paper develops a typology of trust. The rest of the paper addresses the second and third deficiencies by proposing a model of how trust is initially formed, including the role of emotion. Dispositional, interpersonal, and impersonal (system) trust are integrated in the model. The paper also clarifies the cognitive and emotional bases on which interpersonal trust is formed in early relationships. The implications of the model are drawn for future research.
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Powerholders may engage in two stereotyping processes: (a) by default, inattention to stereotype-inconsistent information, due to lack of dependency, and (b) by design, effortful attention to stereotype-consistent information, due to explicit control. Study 1 manipulated control (not dependency) over internship applicants; powerful decision-makers increased attention to stereotypic attributes, consistent with stereotyping by design. Study 2 measured differences in trait dominance as an analog to situational control, replicating Study 1. Study 3 separately manipulated perceiver control and dependency; powerful perceivers increased attention to powerless targets’ stereotypic attributes (by design) and also decreased attention to counter-stereotypic attributes (by default). Study 4 compared powerful perceivers’ ratings of potential subordinates to their own prior ratings of target categories and target traits. Relative to the powerless, powerful perceivers’ impressions were based significantly less on target traits, supporting the attention results.
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This chapter describes a model of the justice judgment process. It is proposed that people used their perceptions of fairness as a heuristic to assess the quality and nature of their relationship to important groups and institutions to which they belong. The implications of this notion for the development and use of fairness cognitions are explored.
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Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model of its antecedents and outcomes are presented, which integrate research from multiple disciplines and differentiate trust from similar constructs. Several research propositions based on the model are presented.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presented are results from a multistep, three-sample study that designed measures of reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and referent power that are conceptually consistent with respect to the source of power. Construct definitions were developed and items were generated and evaluated for content validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item analyses were conducted to develop perceptually distinct scales with acceptable internal consistency and stable factor structures. The independence of the scales was next examined, and discriminant validity was assessed. Finally, zero-order and partial correlation concurrent validity analyses were conducted, and conclusions were drawn concerning both new scales and the extant literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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focuses on 2 central questions regarding the dynamics of trust in hierarchical relationships / 1st, what are the antecedents or determinants of trust in such relationships / 2nd, why does trust sometimes fail / address these important and unresolved questions by exploring how trust-related cognitions are influenced by hierarchical social structures / specifically . . . show how organizational actors' structural position or location in a hierarchical relationship affects the processing of trust-related information / demonstrate that location is correlated with systematic and predictable asymmetries in how individuals construe trust in their relationships to advance these claims, it will prove useful to characterize people in organizations as "intuitive auditors" / a primary task of the intuitive auditor is to monitor the ongoing stream of interactions and exchanges that constitute, quite literally, the give-and-take of a hierarchical relationship, and which provide, in turn, the raw data from which inferences about trust and distrust are forged / because of the vulnerabilities and uncertainties they confront, I argue, individuals tend to be vigilant and ruminative auditors, ever attentive to evidence that their trust in the other party is either firmly set on solid ground or built as a house of cards on shifting sand (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present experiment examined whether leaders high in charisma are able to motivate decision-makers to cooperate more in a public goods dilemma. On the basis of charismatic leadership theories, it was expected that a charismatic leader would be able to transform people's motives beyond self-interest, consequently increasing cooperation. This transformation effect was expected to occur among individuals aimed at maximizing their own self-interest (i.e., pro-selfs), but not among those aimed at maximizing joint or collective outcomes (i.e., pro-socials). Furthermore, leader's charisma was experimentally manipulated by means of describing the leader as either self-sacrificing or benefiting. The results revealed that self-sacrificing leaders, contrary to benefiting leaders, were perceived as more charismatic and were able to motivate decision-makers to cooperate more. The latter effect appeared to be more pronounced among pro-selfs rather than pro-socials, as such supporting the transformational idea of charismatic leaders. Further results showed that this behavioral effect was mediated by perceptions of legitimacy. The meaning and conception of charismatic leadership in decision-making situations are discussed by using insights from the social dilemma and charismatic leadership literature.
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The present paper deals with negativity and positivity effects in trait inferences and impression formation. In the first experiment we tested the suggestion of Skowronski and Carlston (1987) that in the domain of morality negative information is more diagnostic, will therefore receive more weight and result in a negativity effect whereas in the domain of abilities, positive information is more diagnostic resulting in positivity effects. Results of our first experiment support these predictions: negative behavioural information leads to more certain inferences concerning morality and positive behavioural information leads to more certain inferences concerning ability. In a second experiment, we investigated the relative weight of positive versus negative ability-and morality-related traits in an impression formation task. We counterposed traits from both morality and ability domains to see which was the most dominant in determining evaluative impressions. Findings of this second experiment showed strong negativity effects but also revealed that information related to morality is more influential in forming an evaluative impression than equally extreme information related to ability. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Previous research examining the effectiveness of international joint ventures (IJVs) has focused on differences in the backgrounds and bargaining power of IJV parent firms, while little attention has been given to the IJV itself. This study takes a different perspective by examining the relationship between IJV parent firms and the IJV. Specifically, we examine how IJV and parent involvement in strategic decision-making influences the IJV management team's commitment to the IJV and to the parent firms. We hypothesize that the IJV management team tends to be more committed to the IJV than to the parent firms, and that there is a strong positive relationship between procedural justice, strategic decision control, and organizational commitment. A field study involving 51 IJVs supported our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of organizational commitment and procedural justice for managing IJVs. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A considerable amount of research has examined trust since our 1995 publication. We revisit some of the critical issues that we addressed and provide clarifications and extensions of the topics of levels of analysis, time, control systems, reciprocity, and measurement. We also recognize recent research in new areas of trust, such as affect, emotion, violation and repair, distrust, international and cross-cultural issues, and context-specific models, and we identify promising avenues for future research.
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The authors investigated the relationship between organizational justice and organizational retaliation behavior—adverse reactions to perceived unfairness by disgruntled employees toward their employer—in a sample of 240 manufacturing employees. Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice interacted to predict organizational retaliation behavior. A relation between distributive justice and retaliation was found only when there was low interactional and procedural justice. The 2-way interaction of distributive and procedural justice was observed only at a low level of interactional justice, and the 2-way interaction of distributive and interactional justice was observed only at a low level of procedural justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)