ArticleLiterature Review

The Relationship Between Aerobic Exercise and Cognition

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Abstract

Each year approximately 1.5 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries often resulting in difficulties in memory and executive function that limit independence. Aerobic exercise not only has been found to impact cardiovascular systems but has also shown benefits to brain function itself and specifically in the domain of memory and learning. Recent evidence is shedding light on the mechanisms possibly impacting cognitive performance following the participation in exercise. Literature has demonstrated increased hemodynamics within the brain, changes in neurotransmitters, and increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor that stimulates neurogenesis, and resistance to further injury. This review article explores the current literature and the possibility of exercise acting as an adjunct treatment to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation.

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... In animal models, aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance cognition through neural structure modifications such as synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, and increased vascular branching (Churchill et al., 2002). The efficacy of enhanced circulation to brain regions associated with higher order processing is attributed to increases in the profusion of glucose and other growth factors, such as BDNF and IGF-1, that support structural changes in the brain (Cotman et al., 2007;Lojovich, 2010). There is a body of work indicating that aerobic exercise can increase grey (Erickson and Kramer, 2009) and white matter in older populations (Colcombe et al., 2006); however, these increases are not unique to aerobic training. ...
... In contrast, animal models have shown that aerobic exercise can enhance cognition through synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, and increased vascular branching (Churchill et al., 2002) and it has been hypothesized that an increased profusion of glucose and other growth factors (i.e. BDNF and IGF-1) is associated with higher order processing (Cotman et al., 2007;Lojovich, 2010). The body of work that corroborates these propositions shows that aerobic exercise can increase grey (Erickson and Kramer, 2009) and white matter within older populations (Colcombe et al., 2006). ...
Article
Objectives: Cognition, along with aerobic and muscular fitness, declines with age. Although research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise may improve cognition, no consensus exists supporting the use of one approach over the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of steady-state, moderate-intensity treadmill training (TM) and high-velocity circuit resistance training (HVCRT) on cognition, and to examine its relationships to aerobic fitness and neuromuscular power. Methods: Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HVCRT, TM, or control. Exercise groups attended training 3 days/wk for 12 weeks, following a 2 week adaptation period. The NIH Cognitive Toolbox was used to assess specific components of cognition and provided an overall fluid composite score (FCS). The walking response and inhibition test (WRIT) was specifically used to assess executive function (EF) and provided an accuracy (ACC), reaction time (RT) and global score (GS). Aerobic power (AP) and maximal neuromuscular power (MP) were measured pre- and post-intervention. Relationships between variables using baseline and mean change scores were assessed. Results: Significant increases were seen from baseline in ACC (MD = 14.0, SE = 4.3, p = .01, d = 1.49), GS (MD = 25.6, SE = 8.0, p = .01, d = 1.16), and AP (MD = 1.4, SE = 0.6, p = .046, d = 0.31) for HVCRT. RT showed a trend toward a significant decrease (MD = -0.03, SE = 0.016, p = .068, d = 0.32) for HVCRT. No significant within-group differences were detected for TM or CONT. Significant correlations were seen at baseline between AP and FCS, as well as other cognitive domains; but none were detected among change scores. Although no significant correlation was evident between MP and FCS or GS, there was a trend toward higher MP values being associated with higher FCS and GS scores. Conclusions: Our results support the use of HVCRT over TM for improving cognition in older persons, although the precise mechanisms that underlie this association remain unclear.
... Ejercicios: En relación al ejercicio en pacientes con TEC se ha determinado que el ejercicio en si es beneficioso, siendo capaz de aumentar la atención, memoria de trabajo, velocidad de procesamiento, mediante cambios vasculares que optimizan la saturación de oxígeno, promoviendo así la angiogénesis y mejorando el flujo sanguíneo cerebral. Por otro lado, el efecto favorable en la cognición estaría mediado por un aumento de varios factores tróficos, como el factor neurotrófico cerebral (BDNF), el factor de crecimiento insulínico (IGF) y el factor de crecimiento neural (NGF) (33). El BDNF es un polipéptido, el más abundante factor neurotrófico distribuido en el SNC, que juega un rol importante en la neurogénesis, sinaptogénesis, crecimiento dendrítico y neuroprotección (33,34). ...
... Por otro lado, el efecto favorable en la cognición estaría mediado por un aumento de varios factores tróficos, como el factor neurotrófico cerebral (BDNF), el factor de crecimiento insulínico (IGF) y el factor de crecimiento neural (NGF) (33). El BDNF es un polipéptido, el más abundante factor neurotrófico distribuido en el SNC, que juega un rol importante en la neurogénesis, sinaptogénesis, crecimiento dendrítico y neuroprotección (33,34). ...
Article
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El traumatismo encéfalo craneano (TEC) es una entidad compleja y heterogénea, que compromete principalmente a adultos jóvenes en etapas productivas de la vida, transformándose en un problema crítico de salud pública y socio-económico en todo el mundo. Los pacientes que sobreviven a un TEC como consecuencia presentan alteraciones funcionales secundarias a un trastorno cognitivo, motor y conductual, que generan una restricción a la participación en las actividades de la vida diaria y en su reintegro familiar, social y laboral competitivo, conduciendo a una sobrecarga en los cuidados de su entorno. La rehabilitación en el TEC debe ser temprana, multidisciplinaria, intensiva, centrada en el paciente y multidimensional, considerando los aspectos motores, cognitivos, cognitivo comunicativos, alteraciones de la deglución y conductuales como elementos centrales, teniendo como objetivo final el reintegro a la comunidad y eventualmente al mundo laboral competitivo.
... Recent studies have described how the expression of trophic factors is increased not only by environmental enrichment, but also by physical exercise alone [37]. Studies report that physical exercise not only increases the number of dendrites, synapses, glial cells and blood vessels, but also improves neurogenesis, cognition and spatial learning118119 and moderates age-related atrophy of the medial temporal lobe [120]. In a recent study, the authors have reported that exercise inhibits apoptosis and improves cerebral function following TBI [121]. ...
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Brain postnatal development is modulated by adaptation and experience. Experience-mediated changes increase neuronal activity leading to increased metabolic demands that involve adaptive changes including ones at the microvascular network. Therefore, vascular environment plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) development and function in health and disease. Trophic factors are crucial in CNS development and cell survival in adults. They participate in protection and proliferation of neuronal, glial and endothelial cells. Among the most important molecules are: the proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin growth factor (IGF-I) and the glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO). We propose the term angioglioneurins to define molecules acting on the three components of the neurogliovascular unit. We have previously reported the effects of environmental modifications on the three components of the neurogliovascular unit during the postnatal development. We have also described the main role played by VEGF in the experience-induced postnatal changes. Angioglioneurin administration, alone or in combination with other neuroprotective strategies such as environmental enrichment, has been proposed as a non-invasive therapeutic strategy against several CNS diseases.
... There are a number of sources of evidence supporting the role of physical exercise in promoting neurocognitive recovery and symptom reduction (Devine and Zafonte, 2009;Leddy et al., 2010;Lojovich, 2010). Exercise has beneficial effects on neurogenesis and neuroplasticity (Griesbach et al., 2004) and exercise improves depressive symptoms (Mead et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but accurate diagnosis and defining criteria for mild TBI and its clinical consequences have been problematic. Mild TBI causes transient neurophysiologic brain dysfunction, sometimes with structural axonal and neuronal damage. Biomarkers, such as newer imaging technologies and protein markers, are promising indicators of brain injury but are not ready for clinical use. Diagnosis relies on clinical criteria regarding depth and duration of impaired consciousness and amnesia. These criteria are particularly difficult to confirm at the least severe end of the mild TBI continuum, especially when relying on subjective, retrospective accounts. The postconcussive syndrome is a controversial concept because of varying criteria, inconsistent symptom clusters and the evidence that similar symptom profiles occur with other disorders, and even in a proportion of healthy individuals. The clinical consequences of mild TBI can be conceptualized as two multidimensional disorders: (1) a constellation of acute symptoms that might be termed early phase post-traumatic disorder (e.g., headache, dizziness, imbalance, fatigue, sleep disruption, impaired cognition), that typically resolve in days to weeks and are largely related to brain trauma and concomitant injuries; (2) a later set of symptoms, a late phase post-traumatic disorder, evolving out of the early phase in a minority of patients, with a more prolonged (months to years), sometimes worsening set of somatic, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. The later phase disorder is highly influenced by a variety of psychosocial factors and has little specificity for brain injury, although a history of multiple concussions seems to increase the risk of more severe and longer duration symptoms. Effective early phase management may prevent or limit the later phase disorder and should include education about symptoms and expectations for recovery, as well as recommendations for activity modifications. Later phase treatment should be informed by thoughtful differential diagnosis and the multiplicity of premorbid and comorbid conditions that may influence symptoms. Treatment should incorporate a hierarchical, sequential approach to symptom management, prioritizing problems with significant functional impact and effective, available interventions (e.g., headache, depression, anxiety, insomnia, vertigo). © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Currently, the biological mechanisms of CRCI are not identified, but there are several results based on animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms include (1) increase in the levels of chemotherapy-induced proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) [12,13]; (2) effects of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity on the brain structure and function (e.g., white matter damage [14], inhibition of neurogenesis [15], and changes in neurotransmitter [16]); (3) changes in the blood vessels and blood flow in the central nervous system [17]; and (4) direct and oxidative DNA damage [18]. In addition, pervasive fatigue and negative emotions may contribute to increased susceptibility of cognitive impairment [19]. ...
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Background More than 50% cognitive impairment was reported by cancer patients before and after medical treatment. However, there are no effective interventions to manage the cognitive problem in women with breast cancer. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Baduanjin exercise on cognitive function and cancer-related symptoms in women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Method A single-blinded, randomized control trial was designed. The trial will recruit 70 patients with early-stage breast cancer scheduled to receive chemotherapy from Shanghai in China. All participants will be randomly assigned to (1:1) the supervised Baduanjin group (5 times/week, 30 min each time) or the wait-list control group for 3 months. The effect of Baduanjin exercise intervention will be evaluated by outcome measures including subjective and objective cognitive function, symptoms (fatigue, depression, and anxiety), and health-related quality of life at pre-intervention (T0), 8 weeks (T1), and 12 weeks (T2). The PCI score in the FACT-Cog as the primary cognitive outcome will be reported descriptively, while effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be calculated. The collected data will be analyzed by using an intention-to-treat principle and linear mixed-effects modeling. Discussion This is the first randomized clinical trial to investigate whether Baduanjin exercise will have a positive role in improving cognitive function in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. If possible, Baduanjin exercise will be a potential non-pharmacological intervention to manage cognitive dysfunction and promote survivorship care among breast cancer survivors. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR2000033152 . Registered on 22 May 2020
... On the one hand, acute exercise (i.e., cognitive examination shortly upon completing an exercise bout) is thought to enhance cognitive functioning by immediate neurochemical responses. For example, neurological effects of exercise as described by Lojovich (2010) and Knaepen et al. (2010) include increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, levels of synaptic proteins, glutamate receptors, and the availability of insulin-like growth factor, which altogether seem to contribute to cell proliferation and neural plasticity . The cognitive enhancements are, furthermore, related to increased arousal and blood flow in the PFC (Lambourne and Tomporowski 2010). ...
Article
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As attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disorders in childhood, effective yet safe treatment options are highly important. Recent research introduced physical exercise as a potential treatment option, particularly for children with ADHD. The aim of this review was to systematically analyze potential acute and chronic effects of cardio and non-cardio exercise on a broad range of functions in children with ADHD and to explore this in adults as well. Literature on physical exercise in patients with ADHD was systematically reviewed based on categorizations for exercise type (cardio versus non-cardio), effect type (acute versus chronic), and outcome measure (cognitive, behavioral/socio-emotional, and physical/(neuro)physiological). Furthermore, the methodological quality of the reviewed papers was addressed. Cardio exercise seems acutely beneficial regarding various executive functions (e.g., impulsivity), response time and several physical measures. Beneficial chronic effects of cardio exercise were found on various functions as well, including executive functions, attention and behavior. The acute and chronic effects of non-cardio exercise remain more questionable but seem predominantly positive too. Research provides evidence that physical exercise represents a promising alternative or additional treatment option for patients with ADHD. Acute and chronic beneficial effects of especially cardio exercise were reported with regard to several cognitive, behavioral, and socio-emotional functions. Although physical exercise may therefore represent an effective treatment option that could be combined with other treatment approaches of ADHD, more well-controlled studies on this topic, in both children and adults, are needed.
... Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [3,5,6,8]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidationpromoting factors in humans [9][10][11][12][13][14], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [15][16][17]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. ...
Article
Persistent long-term memory depends on successful stabilization and integration of new memories after initial encoding [1, 2]. This consolidation process is thought to require neuromodulatory factors such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [3-7]. Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [3, 5, 6, 8]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidation-promoting factors in humans [9-14], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [15-17]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. Three groups of randomly assigned participants first encoded a set of picture-location associations. Afterward, one group performed exercise immediately, one 4 hr later, and the third did not perform any exercise. Participants otherwise underwent exactly the same procedures to control for potential experimental confounds. Forty-eight hours later, participants returned for a cued-recall test in a magnetic resonance scanner. With this design, we could investigate the impact of acute exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval-related neural processing. We found that performing exercise 4 hr, but not immediately, after encoding improved the retention of picture-location associations compared to the no-exercise control group. Moreover, performing exercise after a delay was associated with increased hippocampal pattern similarity for correct responses during delayed retrieval. Our results suggest that appropriately timed physical exercise can improve long-term memory and highlight the potential of exercise as an intervention in educational and clinical settings.
... This concept is known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia, which is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids (Koltyn, 2000). In addition, exercise modifies the activity in certain regions in the cortex through facilitatory and learning mechanisms, leading to long-term potentiation (LTP) mechanisms (Erickson and Kramer, 2009; Lojovich, 2010). Various studies have reported beneficial results of exercise in many chronic pain syndromes (Nijs et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Unlabelled: Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with maladaptive plasticity in neural central circuits. One of the neural circuits that are involved in pain in fibromyalgia is the primary motor cortex. We tested a combination intervention that aimed to modulate the motor system: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and aerobic exercise (AE). In this phase II, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial, 45 subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: tDCS + AE, AE only, and tDCS only. The following outcomes were assessed: intensity of pain, level of anxiety, quality of life, mood, pressure pain threshold, and cortical plasticity, as indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. There was a significant effect for the group-time interaction for intensity of pain, demonstrating that tDCS/AE was superior to AE [F (13, 364) = 2.25, p = 0.007] and tDCS [F (13, 364) = 2.33, p = 0.0056] alone. Post-hoc adjusted analysis showed a difference between tDCS/AE and tDCS group after the first week of stimulation and after 1 month intervention period (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Further, after treatment there was a significant difference between groups in anxiety and mood levels. The combination treatment effected the greatest response. The three groups had no differences regarding responses in motor cortex plasticity, as assessed by TMS. The combination of tDCS with aerobic exercise is superior compared with each individual intervention (cohen's d effect sizes > 0.55). The combination intervention had a significant effect on pain, anxiety and mood. Based on the similar effects on cortical plasticity outcomes, the combination intervention might have affected other neural circuits, such as those that control the affective-emotional aspects of pain. Trial registration: (www.ClinicalTrials.gov), identifier NTC02358902.
... His pioneering study was really the very first in modern times to demonstrate the very direct relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease development and survival [14]. Since then, much research has demonstrated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and even cognitive function [15][16][17][18] (Figure 3). ...
... In a recent systematic review of physical activity and healthy ageing including cognitive function, there were clear outcome findings suggesting that late-life physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in elderly people, with three studies reporting a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition (Carvalho et al. 2014). Although mechanisms remain to be fully identified, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to be heavily involved in the differentiation, extension, and survival of neurons in the hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum during brain development (Neeper et al. 1995;Vaynmana et al. 2006), and some animal models (Rhyu et al. 2010;Patten et al. 2013;Merkley et al. 2014) followed by clinical studies, demonstrate that BDNF level is associated with hippocampal volume and with aerobic exercise (Pang and Hannan 2013;Lojovich 2010;Muscari et al. 2010;Erickson et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Understanding how to 'Age Longer and Age Well' is a priority for people personally, for populations globally and for government policy. Nonagenarians are the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation. Approximately 10 % of nonagenarians reach 90 years and beyond in good condition and seem to have a combination of both age-span and health-span. But what are the factors which help people reach their ninetieth birthday and beyond in good condition? Are they genetics, as in 'nature', or do they depend on 'nurture' and are related to environment, or are both factors inextricably intertwined within the concept of behavioural genetics? Nonagenarians have rich life experiences that can teach us much about ageing well; they are reservoirs of genetic, life-style and behavioural information which can help dissect out how to live not only longer but better. Personal family history and narrative are powerful tools that help to determine familial traits, beliefs and social behaviours and when used in parallel with new biotechnology methods inform and elaborate causality. Here we present themes and insights from personal narrative enquiry from nonagenarian participants from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST) about factors they consider important for good quality ageing and relate these insights to the emerging genetics and life-style evidence associated with healthy longevity.
... On the contrary, in particular, young adults (in most studies subjects were elderly) were recruited as subjects in this study. Results on elderly subjects have shown dual effect with responsibilities and multitasks professionals who regularly and intensively use their brains, and do not get enough sleep and regular exercises have a profound effect on cognitive performance [9,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Many studies were focused on pathological factors such as stroke or cardiovascular diseases that could negatively impact cognitive function, by declining attention, reducing motor reflexes, and slow capacity of performing multitask action [10,[29][30][31], but there is some evidence of links between simultaneous actions of the pair physical exercise of participants and their duration of sleep, on the decline of cognitive function in general, or cognitive impairment in particular [32]. ...
Article
Sleep and brain work closely and are dependent on each other. Physical exercise is now known as an efficient anti depressive for both healthy brain and cognitive decline. But few specific studies show relation between combination of these two factors and the probability to develop, when people are aged less than forty years old, cognitive impairments such as mnesic pathology, memory encoding and retrieval of information. The aim of this study is to explore how cognitive impairments are linked to sleep duration and physical exercise; and if this difference is related to sociodemographic items that we choose. This case control epidemiological study was led by a questionnaire incorporating the shorter version of McNair Test, usually employed to detect cognitive complains. The questionnaire also included ten socio-demographic items and twenty-five other questions divided in three sections: the quality of sleep, levels of physical exercise and smoking (not investigated in the present study). We recruited one hundred participants through universities in Montreal, Canada. Our results demonstrated that the stress levels are comparable in men and women. Specifically the results showed that lack of sleep combined with insufficient physical activity radically affects the cognitive score for memory, attention and MLD. The McNair score indicated that the cognitive performance decreased for all these parameters. Physical exercise and good quality of sleep including an appropriate duration, contribute both to a better cognition performance for young adults (between 18 until 40 years old) until midlife.
... When they learn that lifestyle choices can enhance their brain function as well as prolong their life, many people are more inclined to do at least some of those things that can make the combined purchase. Thus, this education coupled with strategic positive psychological practices including reinforcement, celebration and increasing happiness could address the essential goal of changing the field of mental health in ways that can reduce the related healthcare burden (Lojovich, 2010). It is significant that exercise and some forms of cognitive training target the brain sites considered most vulnerable to the so-called "normal decline of aging". ...
Article
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Research on using positive psychological perspectives to drive brain plasticity in a positive direction is increasingly encouraging and empowering for clinicians and clients. Increased lifespan with neuroplastic gains was found by Diamond in lab rats when they were held and spoken to. Improvements in brain chemistry, architecture and performance associated with lifestyle choices are now being documented in humans with increasing frequency of reports. Positive psychology can strengthen this trend toward increases in wellbeing by using this evolving research for motivation to increase healthy lifestyle choices, for reinforcement of successive approximation toward these goals and for the many gains associated with greater happiness.
... Regular physical exercise has been proved to have therapeutic benefit [1], such as treating psychiatric illnesses [2][3][4][5][6][7], supporting brain injury recovery [8][9][10][11][12], and resisting neurodegenerative diseases [13][14][15][16][17][18]. The advantageous effects of exercise on brain functions have been attributed to increased capacities of metabolism reserve and antioxidation [19,20]. ...
Article
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The beneficial effects of exercise on brain function have been demonstrated in animal models and in a growing number of clinical studies on humans. There are multiple mechanisms that account for the brain-enhancing effects of exercise, including neuroinflammation, vascularization, antioxidation, energy adaptation, and regulations on neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitters. Dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) are the three major monoamine neurotransmitters that are known to be modulated by exercise. This review focuses on how these three neurotransmitters contribute to exercise affecting brain function and how it can work against neurological disorders.
... Exercise enhances learning and memory formation (Molteni et al., 2004;Khabour et al., 2010;Bekinschtein et al., 2011), normalizes declined cognition during aging (Kramer et al., 2006), facilitates functional recovery following brain injury and diseases (Arida et al., 2011;Griesbach, 2011), and offsets the effect of mood disorders and anxiety (Duman, 2005;Hoffman and Hoffman, 2007). Though the precise mechanism(s) for these effects are not known, data have shown that exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and promotion of long-term potentiation (LTP) (Lojovich, 2010;Zagaar et al., 2012). ...
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Previous literature suggests that learning and memory formation can be influenced by diet and exercise. In the current study, we investigated the combined effects of forced swimming exercise (FSE) and every other day fasting (EODF) on spatial memory formation and on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of Wistar male rats. The radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm was used to assess changes in learning and memory formation, whereas ELISA assay was used to measure BDNF protein levels. The FSE and/or EODF were simultaneously instituted for 6 weeks. Results show that FSE improved learning, short-term as well as long-term memory formation, and significantly increased BDNF protein in the hippocampus (p < 0.05). However, EODF had no effect on either spatial learning and memory formation or the levels of hippocamapal BDNF protein (p > 0.05). In addition, EODF did not modulate beneficial effect of swimming exercise on cognitive function (p > 0.05). Thus exercise enhanced, while EODF did not affect spatial learning and memory formation.
... Liou et al suggested that nearly 75% of people with disabilities do not participate in enough physical activity to achieve physical health benefits (5). Physical activity can also provide opportunities to interact in appropriate social settings and has been correlated with improvement in cognitive function, attention, and psychological health in children (11)(12)(13)(14)(15). Thus, physical activity may be a pivotal factor not only in preventing obesity and health risks associated with weight gain but also in promoting healthy cognitive, psychosocial, and physical development in children with special needs. ...
Article
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Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.
... Cognitive functions are functions subserved by the central nervous system including a variety of functions such as memory and attention. 5 Moreover, there is evidence for a causal relationship between physical exercise and improved cognitive functioning in older adults. [6][7][8] For instance, it has been shown that walking improved memory and attention in the sedentary elderly. ...
Article
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Purpose: The goal of this meta-analysis was to aggregate available empirical studies on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age), adolescents (13-17 years of age) and young adults (18-35 years of age). Method: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant studies reporting on the effects of physical exercise on executive functions. Nineteen studies were selected. Results: There was a significant overall effect of acute physical exercise on executive functions (d=0.52, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.76, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the three age groups (Q (2)=0.13, p=0.94). Furthermore, no significant overall effect of chronic physical exercise (d=0.14, 95%CI -0.04 to 0.32, p=0.19) on executive functions (Q (1)=5.08, p<0.05) was found. Meta-analytic effect sizes were calculated for the effects of acute physical exercise on the domain's inhibition/interference control (d=0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.60, p<0.001) and working memory (d=0.05, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.61, p=0.86) as well as for the effects of chronic physical exercise on planning (d=0.16, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.89, p=0.18). Conclusions: Results suggest that acute physical exercise enhances executive functioning. The number of studies on chronic physical exercise is limited and it should be investigated whether chronic physical exercise shows effects on executive functions comparable to acute physical exercise. This is highly relevant in preadolescent children and adolescents, given the importance of well-developed executive functions for daily life functioning and the current increase in sedentary behaviour in these age groups.
... As reviewed elsewhere [59,60], physical exercise has been shown to increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, levels of synaptic proteins, glutamate receptors, and the availability of insulin-like growth factor, all of which contribute to cell proliferation and neural plasticity. Notably, exercise-induced neural changes in rodents are accompanied by behavioral changes, such as enhanced spatial learning and memory. ...
Article
It is proposed that the time is ripe for the development of secondary preventive interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By targeting preschool children, a developmental stage during which ADHD symptoms first become evident in most children with the disorder, many of the adverse long-term consequences that typify the trajectory of ADHD may be avoided. A dynamic/interactive model of the biological and environmental factors that contribute to the emergence and persistence of ADHD throughout the lifespan is proposed. Based on this model, it is argued that environmental influences and physical exercise can be used to enhance neural growth and development, which in turn should have an enduring and long-term impact on the trajectory of ADHD. Central to this notion are 2 hypotheses: 1) environmental influences can facilitate structural and functional brain development, and 2) changes in brain structure and function are directly related to ADHD severity over the course of development and the degree to which the disorder persists or remits with time. We present experimental and correlational data supporting the first hypothesis and longitudinal data in individuals with ADHD supporting the second. The case is made for initiating such an intervention during the preschool years, when the brain is likely to be more "plastic" and perhaps susceptible to lasting modifications, and before complicating factors, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic failure, and poor social and family relationships emerge, making successful treatment more difficult. Finally, we review recent studies in young children with ADHD that might fall under the umbrella of secondary prevention.
... Also, individuals who are active and regularly participate in sports have a better quality of life. [9][10][11][12][13][14] However, sports-related joint loading and strenuous occupational loading have been shown to increase the risk of osteoarthritis 15 (OA). The normal and moderate loading of any joint is considered necessary for the well-being of its articular cartilage because it maintains the latter's health and function, although its histomorphology, structural properties, and composition change throughout a patient's lifetime. ...
Article
Participation in physical activity and recreational sports is critical for maintaining overall health; athletic activities and reduction in the incidence of several "lifestyle" diseases seem to have a dose-dependent relationship. Also, quality of life is enhanced in people who are active and regularly participate in sports. However, sports-related joint loading and strenuous occupational loading have been shown to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), which seems to have a multifactorial etiology. This article reviews the literature on known connections between participation in sports and athletic activities and development of secondary OA in the joints of the major upper and lower limbs (ie, knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder) in athletes without injury. Most studies examining the connection between participation in sports and later development of OA usually provide low-level evidence and have many methodological weaknesses. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, it may be concluded that the connection between participation in athletic activities and development of OA has not been proven; however, the condition is highly likely to occur in the hip and knee joints. Definite conclusions regarding the connection between development of glenohumeral and/or elbow OA and participation in athletic activities cannot be drawn.
... Furthermore, findings provide evidence for a causal relationship by examining longitudinal data which seems to be independent of sex, age, and type of school students attend. Different biochemical mechanisms were proposed for how exercise and physical fitness might influence cognitive functions and thus educational attainment: 6,32 hemodynamic changes in cognition-relevant brain areas like the frontoparietal network, changes in neurotransmitters, which support information processing, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor influencing neurogenesis. Given that such biochemical changes in the brain take some time it seems reasonable that the level of cardiorespiratory fitness with a greater timelag is more important for academic achievement than recent fitness levels. ...
Article
Background: To examine associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity (PA) and weight status with academic achievement 1 year later. In addition, the mediating role of psychological variables was tested. Methods: Longitudinal analyses included 1011 German students (M = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined with the 20 m shuttle run test. Compliance with PA guidelines was assessed through questionnaire. Weight status was based on body mass index percentiles. As proxy of academic achievement students' self-reported grades in Mathematics and German in their midterm report were averaged. Mediation analyses were conducted at follow-up testing general self-efficacy, depressed affect, and attention/hyperactivity problems. Results: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness predicted higher educational attainment (p = .007), while we found no longitudinal association for PA and weight status (p > .253). However, students being insufficiently physically active at baseline but meet PA guidelines at follow-up showed a significant improvement in educational attainment. The cross-sectional association between PA and academic achievement was mediated by students' general self-efficacy. Conclusion: High fitness in adolescence is associated with higher subsequent academic achievement. The promotion of PA might benefit school performance because of enhanced fitness levels in the long-term and positive influences of PA in the shortterm. The association between weight status and educational attainment remains controversial.
... All things considered it is URGENT to prescribe exercise at any age (Colcombe and Kramer, 2003) because it can be considered beneficial for body and brain Malkasian and Diamond, 1971;Eriksson et al., 1998;Gage, 2002;Pereira et al., 2007;Angevaren et al., 2008;Larson, 2008;Snyder et al., 2009;Lojovich, 2010;Voss et al., 2010Voss et al., , 2013Erickson et al., 2011Erickson et al., , 2014Kohman and Rhodes, 2012;Simpson et al., 2012;Hallal and Lee, 2013;Barnard et al., 2014;Burzynska et al., 2014;Jessberger and Gage, 2014;Nagamatsu et al., 2014;Tian et al., 2014;Gajewski and Falkenstein, 2016;Ryan and Nolan, 2016). There is no reason to hold back on these prescriptions while evolving research attempts to establish guidelines on preferred dose, timing and method. ...
Article
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The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide.
... In addition, PA may improve the spinal cord function, causing synaptogenesis and the reorganization of movement representations within the motor cortex (Adkins et al., 2006). PA increases the level of brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin or norepinephrine, which facilitate information processing and CP control (Lojovich, 2010). ...
Article
The main aim was to analyse the effect of 8 weeks of Pokémon GO on cognitive performance (memory, selective attention, concentration, mathematical calculation and linguistic reasoning) and emotional intelligence (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability) in Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years. A longitudinal design was used, with a Control Group (n = 103) that did not use Pokémon GO, and Experimental Group (n = 87) that used Pokémon GO during 8 weeks. Age, sex, BMI, maternal educational level, number of computers at home and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used as confounders. Results showed that players walked 54 km and spent 40 min/day playing in this period. Boys played more, won more points and reached a higher level in the game than girls. The players playing Pokémon GO significantly increased their selective attention (p = 0.003), concentration levels (p < 0.001), and sociability levels (p = 0.003) against their peers. It is concluded that Pokémon GO increases, in a playful way, the amount of daily exercise in adolescents, could positively affect their cognitive performance, and improve the social relationships. Further studies are required to perform comparisons between single and collaborative play and to identify the pedagogical benefits through some subjects such as Physical Education.
... In addition, PA stimulates the accumulation of ketones (D-b-hydroxybutyrate) in the hippocampus, where it serves both as an energy source and an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases to specifically induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key factor in cell survival, brain plasticity, and CP (Sleiman et al., 2016). PA also increases the level of brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin or norepinephrine, which positively affect CP (Lojovich, 2010). To date, it is unknown how long the effects may last from an acute HIIT performed at the beginning of the school day. ...
Article
Physical activity has been positively related to better cognitive performance though the effects of varied exercise type and intensity and the duration of cognitive benefits are unclear. This study analyzed the effect of 16 minutes of monitored cooperative high-intensity interval training (monitored C-HIIT) at the start of the school day, on various cognitive variables over the next 24–48 hours. We randomly assigned 158 participants either to a control group (n = 81) that engaged only in static stretching or to an experimental group (n = 77) that performed monitored C-HIIT. We assessed cognitive functioning before the exercise, immediately afterward, and for five follow-up time points over the next two days (i.e., at 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 hours). We analyzed age, sex, body mass index, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity as potential confounder variables. Adolescents in the monitored C-HIIT group increased selective attention by 17.39% during the next hour (p =.015) and increased concentration by 20.31% and 15.26% during the first (p =.022) and second (p =.059) subsequent hours, respectively. This positive short-term benefit of monitored C-HIIT during immediate subsequent hours is an important finding with implications for the school curricula and schedule.
... The Flynn effect (Flynn, 2018) found the 20th century was "dominated by massive IQ gains from one generation to another" as documented in "at least 34 nations." Neuroscience provides evidence-based interventions to "prevent, delay onset, and/or reverse" cognitive decline and dementia (Ball et al., 2002(Ball et al., , 2013Mahncke et al., 2006) and to enhance brain architecture and function (Diamond, 1988(Diamond, , 2001Pereira et al., 2007;Angevaren et al., 2008;Larson, 2008;Baker et al., 2010;Lojovich, 2010;Erickson et al., 2011Erickson et al., , 2014Jessberger and Gage, 2014;Nagamatsu et al., 2014;Niemann et al., 2016;Ryan and Nolan, 2016;Shaffer, 2016;Burzynska et al., 2017;Edwards et al., 2018). This article reviews research showing that healthy aging without dementia is achievable (Andersen-Ranberg et al., 2001;Perls, 2004;Jopp et al., 2016;Qiu and Fratiglioni, 2018) even with lesions postmortem (Mizutani and Shimada, 1992) and urges development and application of measurements suitable for centenarians and supercentenarians which could inform development of evidence-based interventions across the extreme lifespan. ...
... inhibition of neurogenesis [15], and changes in neurotransmitter [16]). (3) Changes in central nervous system blood vessels and blood ow [17]. ...
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Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported by cancer patients before and after medical treatment. However, there are no effective interventions to or manage cognitive problem for women with breast cancer. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Baduanjin exercise on cognitive function and cancer-related symptoms in women with early-stage breast cancerundergoing chemotherapy. Method/design: A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was designed. The trail will recruit 70 patients with early-stage breast cancer scheduled to receive chemotherapy from Shanghai in China. All participants will be randomized(1:1) to receive either supervised Baduanjin exercise intervention (at least 5 times/week and 30min for each time) plus usual care or usual care alone for three months. The effect of Baduanjin exercise intervention will be evaluated by outcome measures such as subjective and objective cognitive function, symptoms (fatigue, depressive symptoms, anxiety) and health-related quality of life at baseline(T0), 8 weeks(T1) and 12 weeks(T3). Primary cognitive outcomes will be reported descriptively while effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be calculated for cognitive measures. The collected data will be analysed using an intention-to-treat principle. Discussion: This study is the first-known randomized clinical trial to investigate whether Baduanjin exercise plus usual care superior to usual care alone on cognitive function in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. If possible, Baduanjin exercise will be a potential non-pharmacological intervention to manage cognitive function and promote survivorship care among breast cancer survivors. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry(ChiCTR), ID: ChiCTR 2000033152. Registered on 22 May 2020.
... There is considerable interest in using exercise as an adjunct treatment for people who have sustained a TBI (343)(344)(345). ...
... The role of exercise in the preservation and improvement of cognitive function is becoming well-established science however. 58,59 Even in the case of dementia, exercise science has established a body of both human and animal research demonstrating a strong role for aerobic activity. [60][61][62][63][64][65] The relationship between exercise in cognitive loss prevention remains less clear, but it is reasonable to presume that exercise promotion is at the very least prudent in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. ...
Article
Aquatic therapy has been used extensively in a number of neurologic diseases and pathologies. This review will describe disease‐specific rehabilitative applications for this population. Recent research has offered scientific support for use in common neurological diseases that are part of rehabilitative practice, and very recent findings may create even firmer support for its use in these as well as other conditions. Stroke, Parkinsonism, and multiple sclerosis are areas that have recently received a significant number of published studies. Dementia is another area that has been more recently studied and received basic science support. Cerebral palsy has also had recent supportive evidence published. Available literature is reviewed to create a more evidence‐based support for the use of aquatic therapy in neurorehabilitation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Several approaches have been explored to improve NLM deficits in rehabilitation populations Neville et al., 2015;Lannin et al., 2014;Leopold, Lourie, Petras, & Elias, 2015;Powell et al., 2012;Gracey et al., 2017;Culley & Evans, 2010;Gentry, Wallace, Kvarfordt, & Lynch, 2008;Chu, Brown, Harniss, Kautz, & Johnson, 2014;Sullivan, Quinn, Pramuka, Sharkey, & French, 2012;Vas, Chapman, Cook, Elliott, & Keebler, 2011;Waid-Ebbs et al., 2014;Johansson, Wentzel, Andrell, Mannheimer, & Ronnback, 2015;Whyte et al., 2008;Willmott & Ponsford, 2009;McDonald et al., 2017;Lojovich, 2010;Leavitt, Wylie, Girgis, Deluca, & Chiaravalloti, 2012), the most common of which is cognitive rehabilitation (CR) (Stringer, 2003), a "systematic, functional oriented service of therapeutic activities based on assessment and understanding of the patient's brain-behaviour relationship" (Cicerone et al., 2000). Although historically applied with limited supporting data (Stringer & Small, 2011), recent evidence supports the efficacy of CR across many cognitive domains within MS including attention (Mattioli, Stampatori, Zanotti, Parrinello, & Capra, 2010;Solari et al., 2004;Lincoln et al., 2002;Plohmann, Kappos, & Brunnschweiler, 1994;Plohmann, Kappos, & Ammann, 1998;Rosti-Otajarvi, Mantynen, Koivisto, Huhtala, & Hamalainen, 2013), working memory (Hancock, Bruce, Bruce, & Lynch, 2015;Mousavi, Zare, Etemadifar, & Taher Neshatdoost, 2018), communication skills (Foley et al., 1994), and NLM Chiaravalloti et al., 2012;Leavitt et al., 2012;Huiskamp, Dobryakova, Wylie, DeLuca, & Chiaravalloti, 2016). ...
Article
New learning and memory (NLM) impairments are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), negatively impacting daily life. Few studies seek to remediate these deficits to improve everyday functioning. Self-generation, spaced learning and retrieval practice have been shown to improve NLM in healthy persons and have been incorporated into an 8-session treatment protocol, Strategy-based Training to Enhance Memory (STEM). STEM teaches participants about each of the techniques, how to apply them in daily life and provides practice. Participants are taught to restructure a memory-demanding situation to optimize self-generation, spaced learning and retrieval practice. This pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT) tested the efficacy of STEM in 20 learning-impaired participants with clinically definite MS (9 treatment, 11 control). Significant treatment effects were noted on self-report measures of daily functioning (primary outcome). Objective neuropsychological testing approached significance, showing a medium-large effect on verbal NLM. Results suggest that STEM may improve everyday functioning in individuals with MS. A full-scale RCT is warranted to validate findings in a larger sample so that findings may be generalized to the broader MS community.
... Results from animal and human studies have elucidated several mechanisms by which exercise might affect the brain during ageing. These mechanisms include neurogenesis, 28 vascular changes (ie, increased oxygen saturation, the promotion of angiogenesis and increased cerebral blood flow 29 ), changes in neurotransmitters (specifically catecholamine synthesis 30 ) and inflammatory factors. Systematic reviews reported potential effects of exercise after completion of chemotherapy on tumour necrosis factor-alpha, 31 C reactive protein , 32 interleukin(IL)-2, IL-6 and IL8, although no consistent effects have been found. ...
Article
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Introduction After treatment with chemotherapy, many patients with breast cancer experience cognitive problems. While limited interventions are available to improve cognitive functioning, physical exercise showed positive effects in healthy older adults and people with mild cognitive impairment. The Physical Activity and Memory study aims to investigate the effect of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and brain measures in chemotherapy-exposed patients with breast cancer with cognitive problems. Methods and analytics One hundred and eighty patients with breast cancer with cognitive problems 2–4 years after diagnosis are randomised (1:1) into an exercise intervention or a control group. The 6-month exercise intervention consists of twice a week 1-hour aerobic and strength exercises supervised by a physiotherapist and twice a week 1-hour Nordic or power walking. The control group is asked to maintain their habitual activity pattern during 6 months. The primary outcome (verbal learning) is measured at baseline and 6 months. Further measurements include online neuropsychological tests, self-reported cognitive complaints, a 3-tesla brain MRI, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, depression, anxiety, work performance), blood sampling and physical fitness. The MRI scans and blood sampling will be used to gain insight into underlying mechanisms. At 18 months online neuropsychological tests, self-reported cognitive complaints and patient-reported outcomes will be repeated. Ethics and dissemination Study results may impact usual care if physical exercise improves cognitive functioning for breast cancer survivors. Trial registration number NTR6104
... The role of exercise in the preservation and improvement of cognitive function is becoming well-established science [1,2]. Even in the case of dementia, exercise science has established a body of research in both humans and animals demonstrating a strong role for aerobic activity [3][4][5]. ...
... Increasing support has also emerged for the positive effects of acute exercise on executive functions such as task switching, selective attention, working memory capacity, and inhibitory control (Guiney and Machado 2013;Verburgh et al. 2013). Suggested mechanisms for such improvements include neurogenesis and synaptogenesis through increased production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as augmented neurotransmitter levels and effectiveness (Lojovich 2010). Peripheral mechanisms, including the release and transport of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) under a certain intensity threshold have been shown to positively affect cognition during and after low and moderate intensity exercise (McMorris and Hale 2012). ...
Article
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Critical flicker frequency (CFF) threshold is a visual discrimination task designed to assess cortical neural arousal, where higher values are associated with increased information processing and improved cognitive function. Previous studies using CFF assessments before and after exercise have only used one type of exercise (e.g., short, fatiguing, steady state, time to exhaustion, etc.). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise type and intensity on neural arousal. 22 recreational runners (10 men, 12 women; age 25 ± 6 years) volunteered to participate in the study. They completed a VO2max test (short, fatiguing trial), and three 30-min treadmill runs (longer, steady-state trials) at rating of perceived exertion (RPE) levels of 13, 15, and 17. Before and after each exercise test, subjects were asked to complete the CFF test; Mtot and Mdi were calculated, which are the average and difference of the ascending/descending frequency trials, respectively. There were no main effects found for either intensity (p = 0.641) or time (p = 0.283); there was, however, a significant interaction found (intensity*time; p = 0.001). In the VO2max test and in the longer, steady-state runs at RPE13 and 15, there was no change in Mtot. There was a significant increase in Mtot after the run at RPE17 (p = 0.019). For Mdi, the VO2max test elicited a significant decrease (p = 0.005), but there was no change after the steady-state runs. The results suggest that short, fatiguing and longer, steady-state exercise affect cortical neural arousal differently. Increases in arousal, and perhaps the related domain of information processing, are more likely to come from steady-state exercise at a vigorous intensity.
... The role of exercise in the preservation and improvement of cognitive function is becoming well-established science [1,2]. Even in the case of dementia, exercise science has established a body of research in both humans and animals demonstrating a strong role for aerobic activity [3][4][5]. ...
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A 54-year-old woman, retired due to progressive cognitive decline, was diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer dementia. Conventional medication therapy for dementia had proven futile. Initial evaluation revealed a nonverbal female seated in a wheelchair, dependent on 2-person assist for all transfers and activities of daily living. She had been either nonresponsive or actively resistive for both activities of daily living and transfers in the 6 months before assessment. After a total of 17 1-hour therapy sessions over 19 weeks in a warm water therapy pool, she achieved the ability to tread water for 15 minutes, transfers improved to moderate-to-maximum assist from seated, and ambulation improved to 1000 feet with minimum-to-moderate assist of 2 persons. Communication increased to appropriate “yes,” “no,” and “okay” appropriate responses, and an occasional “thank you” and “very nice.” The authors propose that her clinical progress may be related to her aquatic therapy intervention. Level of Evidence To be determined.
... The BDNF is key in cell survival and brain plasticity (Piepmeier and Etnier, 2015). PA increases the level of brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin or norepinephrine (Lojovich, 2010). Along these same lines, Li et al. (2017) concluded that high-intensity PA could increase cerebral blood flow, catecholamines or BDNF simultaneously, inducing stimulation of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex during this time. ...
Article
Evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (PA) positively relates to creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) in adolescents. However, it is unknown whether cooperative PA (physical exercises in pairs or small groups to enhance motivation, self-efficacy, and pro-social behaviours), performed over less time but at higher intensity, could have similar effects within a school setting. The aim was to analyse the effect of cooperative high-intensity interval training (C-HIIT) on creativity and EI in adolescents aged 12–16 years, and whether improvement effects are different according to weekly PA level. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with a control group (CG, n = 94), which did static stretching, and an experimental group (EG, n = 90), which performed C-HIIT. Both groups performed the activity during 16 minutes at the beginning of physical education (PE) classes. Creativity was assessed with one factor, and EI through four factors (well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability). Age and body mass index (BMI) were used as confounders. Both were measured twice (baseline and after 12 weeks). The EG increased well-being and sociability factors after the C-HIIT programme (both p < 0.001). More specifically, inactive adolescents in the EG showed significant improvements in comparison to the CG in creativity, well-being, and sociability (p = 0.028, p < 0.001, and p < 0.003, respectively). However, we did not find changes among active adolescents. A programme of C-HIIT in PE is a novel strategy to improve creativity and EI, especially in physically inactive adolescents. Starting PE classes with 16 minutes of C-HIIT could be recommended, independently of other activities planned for the session.
... Varios mecanismos podrían explicar dicha relación. Por ejemplo, la práctica de actividad física sistemática podría estimular el gen encargado de promover el BDNF, esencial para la supervivencia neuronal y para mejorar la capacidad de aprender de forma significativa(Leckie et al., 2014).Además, incrementaría los niveles de neurotrasmisores en el cerebro, como las enforfinas o la serotonina, que facilitan los procesos de captación de información, procesamiento y ejecución de las opciones consideradas más correctas(Lojovich, 2010). Del mismo modo, la práctica de actividad física y el entrenamiento de la condición física están asociadas con un correcto desarrollo neuromotor y por tanto, podría mejorar la velocidad del impulso nervioso y facilitar la toma de deciciones, así como la funcionalidad cognitiva(Sardinha et al., 2014). ...
Book
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Os Novos Tempos do Fitness foram o mote de partida para mais um momento de formação e partilha de conhecimentos da admirável área que é o Fitness. As alterações contínuas das tendências de mercado, o ininterrupto despontar de novas áreas profissionais e as atuais pressões sociais, quer dos media, pares e marcas, impeliram-nos a refletir sobre o que é fundamental, essencial e primordial para os profissionais da área do exercício físico. Este documento está em concordância com as caraterísticas do ensino superior politécnico que pretende criar, transmitir e difundir saber de natureza profissional, articulando o ensino, a investigação orientada e o desenvolvimento experimental. O congresso, desde há vários anos, que se assumiu como uma formação sustentada e fundamentada sob os princípios de responsabilidade moral e social associada ao exercício das profissões do exercício físico. O presente documento testemunha parte do trabalho desenvolvido nos dois dias de formação e procura contribuir para que os profissionais e futuros profissionais da área estejam melhores preparados para oferecer a melhor resposta possível às exigências impostas pelos clientes e pela manutenção do seu posto de trabalho. Os textos presentes neste livro foram produzidos por docentes de reconhecido mérito, com bastante saber produzido na área e que abordam diversos públicos (muitas vezes negligenciados nas ofertas de mercado). O presente livro, está estruturado em dois grandes capítulos, um que se explana as componentes mais teóricas e outro as componentes mais práticas. Assim, pretende-se apresentar uma perspetiva de maior acessibilidade ao conhecimento, à ciência e tendo sempre presente o objetivo fundamental desta profissão: saber-fazer-bem.
... There is a growing body of literature on the use of exercise as primary or adjunctive treatment for people who have sustained traumatic brain injuries of all severities [27][28][29][30], especially sport-related concussions [31,32]. Animal studies have shown the beneficial effect of exercise on markers of neuroplasticity in non-injured juvenile, adult, and older adult rodents and in a murine neurotrauma model [33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review To review the growing body of indirect and direct evidence that suggests that exercise can be helpful for children, adolescents, and adults with persistent symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Recent Findings The direct evidence shows that graded exercise assessments are safe, and that aerobic exercise interventions are associated with improvement of multiple symptoms and other benefits, including earlier return-to-sport. The indirect evidence supports this approach via studies that reveal the potential mechanisms, and show benefits for related presentations and individual symptoms, including headaches, neck pain, vestibular problems, sleep, stress, anxiety, and depression. We document the forms of exercise used for the post-acute management of mTBI, highlight the knowledge gaps, and provide future research directions. Summary We recommend trialing a new approach that utilizes a graduated program of individually prescribed combined aerobic resistance exercises (CARE) if mTBI symptoms persist. This program has the potential to improve patient outcomes and add to the management options for providers.
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It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly.
Article
It is well-known that physical exercise can affect cognition and the frontal lobe is an important structure involved in motor function and cognition. Furthermore, many functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that cortical activation patterns of hand and leg movements differ. However, no study has been undertaken to identify differences between the frontal activation patterns generated by hand and leg movements. In the present study, the frontal activation patterns associated with finger and toe movements, as visualized by functional MRI, were investigated and compared. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited. Functional MRI was performed using a 1.5-T Philips Gyroscan Intera. Flexion-extension movements of fingers or toes were performed in one extremity. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set at the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1: Brodmann area [BA] 1, 2, 3, 4), the premotor area (PMA: BA 6), and the prefrontal cortex (PFC: BA 8, 9, 10, 11, 46). In SM1, finger movements (10809) induced more activation than toe movements (5349). On the other hand, in the PMA and PFC, toe movements (PMA: 4201, PFC: 921) induced more activation than finger movements (PMA: 2887, PFC: 912) respectively. In the analysis of relative voxel counts in the PMA and PFC versus the SM1, toe movements generated more activation in the PMA and PFC than finger movements. The PMA and PFC were more activated by toe than finger movements, although the SM1 was more activated by finger movements.
Article
Somatic psychology is a powerful tool to address clinical dissociative disorders. Somatic modalities offer interventions to manage intense effect, offer corrective experience and build a coherent self-narrative. Using physical movement helps facilitate safety, strength and connection in dissociative disorder treatment. Clinicians can facilitate somatic regulation of dissociated experience by using somatic-based interventions with clients, therefore helping patients to re-pattern traumatic experiences and maladaptive coping strategies. Using case study examples from this author’s in-office experience treating patients with dissociative disorders using movement, this paper will address how bringing movement interventions into the treatment room addresses integration of psychological and physical systems. It will also discuss the foundations of somatic psychology and outline how somatic processing is important to the integration of insight and reconnection with the client’s sense of self as a whole.
Article
Background There is a paucity of interventional research that systematically assesses the role of exercise intensity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and their relationship with executive function in older adults. To address this limitation, we have examined the effect of a systematically manipulated exercise intervention on executive function. Methods Ninety-nine cognitively normal participants (age=69.10 ± 5.2 years; n=54 female) were randomized into either a high-intensity cycle-based exercise, moderate-intensity cycle-based exercise, or no-intervention control group. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and fitness assessment at baseline (pre-intervention), 6-month follow-up (post-intervention), and 12-months post-intervention. Executive function was measured comprehensively, including measures of each subdomain: Shifting, Updating/ Working Memory, Inhibition, Verbal Generativity, and Non-verbal Reasoning. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by analysis of peak aerobic capacity; VO2peak. Results First, the exercise intervention was found to increase cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in the intervention groups, in comparison to the control group (F =10.40, p = <0.01). However, we failed to find mean differences in executive function scores between the high-intensity, moderate intensity, or inactive control group. On the basis of change scores, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to associate positively with the EF subdomains of Updating/ Working Memory (β = 0.37, p = 0.01, r = 0.34) and Verbal Generativity (β = 0.30, p = 0.03, r = 0.28) for intervention, but not control participants. Conclusions At the aggregate level, we failed to find evidence that six months of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves EF in older adults. However, it remains possible that individual differences in experimentally induced changes in cardiorespiratory fitness may be associated with changes in Updating/ Working Memory and Verbal Generativity.
Article
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of physical exercise in ameliorating depressive symptoms in patients with cognitive impairment. The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, and WeiPu (VIP) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved physical exercise for patients with cognitive impairment. A random effects model and a fixed effects model were used to calculate the pooled effect size. Twenty-one studies were identified. The meta-analysis showed that physical exercise significantly ameliorated depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.39 to -0.07; p = 0.004). In addition, beneficial improvements in neuropsychiatric symptoms (mean difference, -4.62; 95% CI, -9.07 to -0.16, p = 0.04), quality of life (SMD = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.46; p = 0.04), and activities of daily living (SMD = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12-0.43; p = 0.0005) were observed in our study. No significant improvements were found in anxiety or apathy. Nevertheless, further high-quality, multicenter RCTs are needed to identify the clinical value of our results.
Article
Objective To evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of aerobic exercise intervention for cognitive function in older adults with MCI. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical (VIP) databases from their inception to 31 January 2015, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 3) and the reference lists of all retrieved articles. Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials, older adults with MCI, aerobic exercises compared with no specific exercise intervention for global cognitive ability and any specific domains of cognition. Data synthesis Meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan V.5.3 software using the fixed-effect model for the available data without significant heterogeneity, or the random-effect model was used if appropriate. Results 11 studies were identified involving 1497 participants. Meta-analysis showed that aerobic exercise significantly improved global cognitive ability (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores: MD=0.98, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.45, p<0.0001; Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores: MD=2.7, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.29, p=0.0009); weakly, positively improve memory (immediately recall: SMD=0.29, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.46, p=0.0005; delay recall: SMD=0.22, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.34, p=0.0005). No significant improvement was found in other domains of cognition. Conclusions Aerobic exercise led to an improvement in global cognitive ability and had a positive effect with a small effect size on memory in people with MCI. However, owing to the limitations of the included studies, these findings should be interpreted cautiously.
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Nearly 1.7 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. These injuries can result in physical, emotional, and cognitive consequences. While many individuals receive cognitive rehabilitation from occupational therapists (OTs), the interdisciplinary nature of TBI research makes it difficult to remain up-to-date on relevant findings. We conducted a literature review to identify and summarize interdisciplinary evidence-based practice targeting cognitive rehabilitation for civilian adults with TBI. Our review summarizes TBI background, and our cognitive remediation section focuses on the findings from 37 recent (since 2006) empirical articles directly related to cognitive rehabilitation for individuals (i.e., excluding special populations such as veterans or athletes). This manuscript is offered as a tool for OTs engaged in cognitive rehabilitation and as a means to highlight arenas where more empirical, interdisciplinary research is needed.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an active rehabilitation intervention for adolescents who are slow-to-recover after a sport-related concussion. Ten adolescents (three girls and seven boys) seen at the Montreal Children's Hospital Concussion Clinic participated in this case series. Adolescents who were symptomatic more than 4 weeks after the injury were provided with an active rehabilitation intervention (M = 7.9 weeks following injury; range = 3.7 to 26.2 weeks). The rehabilitation program includes gradual, closely monitored light aerobic exercise, general coordination exercises, mental imagery, as well as reassurance, normalization of recovery, and stress/anxiety reduction strategies. The program continued until complete symptom resolution and readiness to begin stepwise return to activities. The primary outcome of the study was evolution of post-concussion symptoms. Secondary outcomes included mood, energy, balance, and cognition. After the intervention, post-concussion symptoms significantly decreased for the group of participants. They also had decreased fatigue and improved mood after 6 weeks of initiating the rehabilitation intervention. This case series shows that postconcussive symptoms and functioning in adolescents following sports-related concussion can be improved after participation in an active rehabilitation intervention. The introduction of graded light intensity exercise in the post-acute period following concussion is safe, feasible and appears to have a positive impact on adolescents' functioning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p441 This study aimed to verify the association between health-related physical fitness and academic performance in adolescents. Overall, 326 students aged 15-18 years of the Federal Institute of Sergipe (IFS) participated in this cross-sectional study. Data relating to physical fitness were collected by applying the following tests: body mass index, sit and reach, abdominal in one minute and one mile running, which comprise the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance testing battery. Academic performance was measured by the grades of two-month period in the disciplines that comprise the following areas of knowledge: languages and codes, natural sciences and humanities, obtained from the IFS school record. Students with average grades ≥ 6.0 were considered on satisfactory academic performance. The prevalence of physical unfitness in the sample was 15.8% (girls 15.4%; boys 16.4%) in body composition, 32.3% (girls 23.1%; boys 41.5%) in flexibility, 93.0% (95.8% girls; 90.2% boys) in muscular strength and 86.9% (85.3% girls; 88.5% boys) in cardiorespiratory endurance. On academic performance, the prevalence of adolescents below the average grade was 8.8% (girls 5.6%; boys 12.0%) in languages and codes, 24.5% (girls 19.5%; boys 29.5%) in natural sciences and 12.8% (girls 11.9%; boys 13.7%) in humanities. Adolescents with low cardiorespiratory endurance levels were more likely to have worse academic performance (OR=2.39; CI95%=1.05 to 5.44). It was concluded that low cardiorespiratory endurance levels were associated with worse academic performance.
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The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of using Pokémon GO for 10 weeks on the cognitive performance (memory, selective attention, concentration, and creative imagination) and emotional intelligence (well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability) of Taiwanese primary students in the fifth and sixth grade. A mixed experimental design was used, with a control group (CG; n = 62) that did not use Pokémon GO, and an experimental group ( n = 61) that used Pokémon GO for 10 weeks. Confounders were age, sex, education level of the family, number of computers in the home, daily study time, and Internet access. The results showed that the players spent about 40 minutes/day on this game during this period. Boys played more and won more points in the game than girls. Compared against their peers, the players playing Pokémon GO showed a significant increase in their selective attention ( p = .025), concentration levels ( p = .004), creative imagination ( p < .001), emotionality ( p = .001), and sociability levels ( p = .005) but not memory, well-being, or self-control (all p > .05). It is concluded that Pokémon GO, in a playful way, could positively affect their cognitive performance (selective attention, concentration levels, and creative imagination) and improve their social relationships. However, if future researchers would like to ascertain whether Pokémon GO is a useful viable cognitive and social approach or not, more randomized controlled trial studies will be needed to compare Pokémon GO with traditional teaching approaches and educational methods.
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Spaceflight is known to include the risk for physiological deconditioning as well as mental impairments, endangering mission safety and success. While Space science primarily focussed on physical health in the past, mental health (i.e. cognitive performance and affective state) was widely neglected. Today, not only in Space but also exercise science, the promotion of exercise for mental health is on the rise. This chapter is dedicated to review the known cognitive and affective deficits in relation to spaceflight. It aims to provide information about the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms, thus discussing the effect and application of exercise as a countermeasure, and to illustrate the contribution of Space science to mental health for our society.
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Background: There is increasing evidence that physical activity supports healthy ageing. Exercise is helpful for cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems, among others. Aerobic activity, in particular, improves cardiovascular fitness and, based on recently reported findings, may also have beneficial effects on cognition among older people. Objectives: To assess the effect of aerobic physical activity, aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, on cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Search methods: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL) (all years to Issue 2 of 4, 2013), MEDLINE (Ovid SP 1946 to August 2013), EMBASE (Ovid SP 1974 to August 2013), PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, PsycINFO (Ovid SP 1806 to August 2013), CINAHL (all dates to August 2013), LILACS (all dates to August 2013), World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov) and Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) up to 24 August 2013, with no language restrictions. Selection criteria: We included all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect on cognitive function of aerobic physical activity programmes with any other active intervention, or no intervention, in cognitively healthy participants aged over 55 years. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted the data from included trials. We grouped cognitive outcome measures into eleven categories covering attention, memory, perception, executive functions, cognitive inhibition, cognitive speed and motor function. We used the mean difference (or standardised mean difference) between groups as the measure of the treatment effect and synthesised data using a random-effects model. We conducted separate analyses to compare aerobic exercise interventions with no intervention and with other exercise, social or cognitive interventions. Also, we performed analyses including only trials in which an increase in the cardiovascular fitness of participants had been demonstrated. Main results: Twelve trials including 754 participants met our inclusion criteria. Trials were from eight to 26 weeks in duration.We judged all trials to be at moderate or high risk of bias in at least some domains. Reporting of some risk of bias domains was poor.Our analyses comparing aerobic exercise to any active intervention showed no evidence of benefit from aerobic exercise in any cognitive domain. This was also true of our analyses comparing aerobic exercise to no intervention. Analysing only the subgroup of trials in which cardiorespiratory fitness improved in the aerobic exercise group showed that this improvement did not coincide with improvements in any cognitive domains assessed. Our subgroup analyses of aerobic exercise versus flexibility or balance interventions also showed no benefit of aerobic exercise in any cognitive domain.Dropout rates did not differ between aerobic exercise and control groups. No trial reported on adverse effects.Overall none of our analyses showed a cognitive benefit from aerobic exercise even when the intervention was shown to lead to improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Authors' conclusions: We found no evidence in the available data from RCTs that aerobic physical activities, including those which successfully improve cardiorespiratory fitness, have any cognitive benefit in cognitively healthy older adults. Larger studies examining possible moderators are needed to confirm whether or not aerobic training improves cognition.
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During exercise regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), as blood velocity in major cerebral arteries and also blood flow in the internal carotid artery increase, suggesting an increase in blood flow to a large part of the brain. Such an increase in CBF is independent of the concomitant increase in blood pressure but is modified by the alteration in arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Also, the increase in middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) reported with exercise appears to depend on the ability to increase cardiac output (CO), as demonstrated in response to beta-1 blockade and in patients with cardiac insufficiency or atrial fibrillation.
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The role of the cerebellar cortex in motor learning was investigated by comparing the paramedian lobule of adult rats given difficult acrobatic training to that of rats that had been given extensive physical exercise or had been inactive. The paramedian lobule is activated during limb movements used in both acrobatic training and physical exercise. Acrobatic animals had greater numbers of synapses per Purkinje cell than animals from the exercise or inactive groups. No significant difference in synapse number or size between the exercised and inactive groups was found. This indicates that motor learning required of the acrobatic animals, and not repetitive use of synapses during physical exercise, generates new synapses in cerebellar cortex. In contrast, exercise animals had a greater density of blood vessels in the molecular layer than did either the acrobatic or inactive animals, suggesting that increased synaptic activity elicited compensatory angiogenesis.
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Running increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain structure that is important for memory function. Consequently, spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) were tested in groups of mice housed either with a running wheel (runners) or under standard conditions (controls). Mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells and trained in the Morris water maze. LTP was studied in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 in hippocampal slices from these mice. Running improved water maze performance, increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cell numbers, and selectively enhanced dentate gyrus LTP. Our results indicate that physical activity can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning.
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We studied cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during submaximal cycling in 12 subjects. At two work rates, middle cerebral artery blood velocity increased from 62 +/- 3 to 63 +/- 3 and 70 +/- 5 cm/s as did cerebral oxygenation determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Oxyhemoglobin increased by 10 +/- 3 and 25 +/- 3 micromol/l (P < 0. 01), and there was no significant change in brain norepinephrine spillover. The arterial-to-internal-jugular-venous (a-v) difference for O(2) decreased at low-intensity exercise (from 3.1 +/- 0.1 to 2. 9 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and recovered at moderate exercise (to 3. 3 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). The profile for glucose was similar: its a-v difference tended to decrease at low-intensity exercise (from 0.55 +/- 0.05 to 0.50 +/- 0.02 mmol/l) and increased during moderate exercise (to 0.64 +/- 0.04 mmol/l; P < 0.05). Thus the molar ratio (a-v difference, O(2) to glucose) did not change significantly. However, when the a-v difference for lactate (0.02 +/- 0.03 to 0.18 +/- 0.04 mmol/l) was taken into account, the O(2)-to-carbohydrate ratio decreased (from 6.1 +/- 0.4 to 4.7 +/- 0.3; P < 0.05). The enhanced cerebral oxygenation suggests that, during exercise, cerebral blood flow increases in excess of the O(2) demand. Yet it seems that during exercise not all carbohydrate taken up by the brain is oxidized, as brain lactate metabolism appears to lower the balance of O(2)-to-carbohydrate uptake.
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Fourteen patients with stable acquired brain injuries exhibiting attention and working memory deficits were given 10 weeks of attention process training (APT) and 10 weeks of brain injury education in a cross-over design. Structured interviews and neuropsychological tests were used prior to rehabilitation and after both treatments to determine the influence of the interventions on tasks of daily life and performance on attentional networks involving vigilance, orienting, and executive function. The overall results showed that most patients made improvements. Some of these gains were due to practice from repetitive administration of the tests. In addition, the type of intervention also influenced the results. The brain injury education seemed to be most effective in improving self-reports of psychosocial function. APT influenced self-reports of cognitive function and had a stronger influence on performance of executive attention tasks than was found with the brain injury education therapy. Vigilance and orienting networks showed little specific improvement due to therapy. However, vigilance level influenced the improvement with therapy on some tests of executive attention. We consider the implications of these results for future studies of the locus of attentional improvement and for the design of improved interventions.
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To examine patterns of brain activation while performing a working memory task in persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls. It is well established that working memory is an area of cognition that is especially vulnerable to disruption after TBI. Although much has been learned about the system of cerebral representation of working memory in healthy people, little is known about how this system is disrupted by TBI. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation during a working memory task (a modified version of the paced auditory serial addition test) in nine patients with TBI and seven healthy controls. Patients with TBI were able to perform the task, but made significantly more errors than healthy controls. Cerebral activation in both groups was found in similar regions of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, and resembled patterns of activation found in previous neuroimaging studies of working memory in healthy persons. However, compared with the healthy controls, the TBI group displayed a pattern of cerebral activation that was more regionally dispersed and more lateralised to the right hemisphere. Differences in lateralisation were particularly evident in the frontal lobes. Impairment of working memory in TBI seems to be associated with alterations in functional cerebral activity.
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Plastic changes in motor cortex capillary structure and function were examined in three separate experiments in adult rats following prolonged exercise. The first two experiments employed T-two-star (T2*)-weighted and flow-alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess chronic changes in blood volume and flow as a result of exercise. The third experiment used an antibody against the CD61 integrin expressed on developing capillaries to determine if motor cortex capillaries undergo structural modifications. In experiment 1, T2*-weighted images of forelimb regions of motor cortex were obtained following 30 days of either repetitive activity on a running wheel or relative inactivity. The proton signal intensity was markedly reduced in the motor cortex of exercised animals compared with that of controls. This reduction was not attributable to alterations of vascular iron levels. These results are therefore most consistent with increased capillary perfusion or blood volume of forelimb regions of motor cortex. FAIR images acquired during experiment 2 under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions indicated that resting cerebral blood flow was not altered under normal conditions but was elevated in response to high levels of CO2, suggesting that prolonged exercise increases the size of a capillary reserve. Finally, the immunohistological data indicated that exercise induces robust growth of capillaries (angiogenesis) within 30 days from the onset of the exercise regimen. Analysis of other regions failed to find any changes in perfusion or capillary structure suggesting that this motor activity-induced plasticity may be specific to motor cortex.
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To update the previous evidence-based recommendations of the Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine for cognitive rehabilitation of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, based on a systematic review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. PubMed and Infotrieve literature searches were conducted using the terms attention, awareness, cognition, communication, executive, language, memory, perception, problem solving, and reasoning combined with each of the terms rehabilitation, remediation, and training. Reference lists from identified articles were reviewed and a bibliography listing 312 articles was compiled. One hundred eighteen articles were initially selected for inclusion. Thirty-one studies were excluded after detailed review. Excluded articles included 14 studies without data, 6 duplicate publications or follow-up studies, 5 nontreatment studies, 4 reviews, and 2 case studies involving diagnoses other than TBI or stroke. Articles were assigned to 1 of 7 categories reflecting the primary area of intervention: attention; visual perception; apraxia; language and communication; memory; executive functioning, problem solving and awareness; and comprehensive-holistic cognitive rehabilitation. Articles were abstracted and levels of evidence determined using specific criteria. Of the 87 studies evaluated, 17 were rated as class I, 8 as class II, and 62 as class III. Evidence within each area of intervention was synthesized and recommendations for practice standards, practice guidelines, and practice options were made. There is substantial evidence to support cognitive-linguistic therapies for people with language deficits after left hemisphere stroke. New evidence supports training for apraxia after left hemisphere stroke. The evidence supports visuospatial rehabilitation for deficits associated with visual neglect after right hemisphere stroke. There is substantial evidence to support cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI, including strategy training for mild memory impairment, strategy training for postacute attention deficits, and interventions for functional communication deficits. The overall analysis of 47 treatment comparisons, based on class I studies included in the current and previous review, reveals a differential benefit in favor of cognitive rehabilitation in 37 of 47 (78.7%) comparisons, with no comparison demonstrating a benefit in favor of the alternative treatment condition. Future research should move beyond the simple question of whether cognitive rehabilitation is effective, and examine the therapy factors and patient characteristics that optimize the clinical outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation.
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In the ageing process, neural areas¹,² and cognitive processes³,⁴ do not degrade uniformly. Executive control processes and the prefrontal and frontal brain regions that support them show large and disproportionate changes with age. Studies of adult animals indicate that metabolic⁵ and neurochemical⁶ functions improve with aerobic fitness. We therefore investigated whether greater aerobic fitness in adults would result in selective improvements in executive control processes, such as planning, scheduling, inhibition and working memory. Over a period of six months, we studied 124 previously sedentary adults, 60 to 75 years old, who were randomly assigned to either aerobic (walking) or anaerobic (stretching and toning) exercise. We found that those who received aerobic training showed substantial improvements in performance on tasks requiring executive control compared with anaerobically trained subjects.
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We investigated whether a learning impairment after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was associated with alterations in molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Adult male rats with moderate CCI to the left parietal cortex, tested in a Morris water maze (MWM) beginning at postinjury day 10, showed impaired cognitive performance compared with sham-treated rats. Tissue was extracted for mRNA analysis on postinjury day 21. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin I, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CAMKII) were all significantly decreased compared with sham injury levels within the ipsilateral hippocampus after CCI. No significant molecular level changes were found in the contralateral hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF and synapsin I was also found within the ipsilateral parietal cortex of CCI-injured rats compared with shams. However, BDNF and synapsin I expressions were significantly increased in the contralateral parietal cortex of the CCI rats. CREB expression was significantly decreased within the contralateral cortex of the CCI group. These findings show enduring reductions in the expression of BDNF, synapsin I, CREB, and alpha-CAMKII ipsilateral to a CCI injury, which seem associated with the spatial learning deficits observed in this injury model. In addition, the delayed increase in the expression of BDNF and synapsin I within the cortex contralateral to CCI may reflect restorative processes in areas homotypical to the injury.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity. While low circulating levels of BDNF have been suggested to predispose to Alzheimer's disease, very little data are available on its association with cognitive function in general population. We evaluated the association between plasma BDNF levels and cognition in a representative population sample of ageing men and women. The subjects (n=1389) were participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training (DR's EXTRA) Study and represent a random sample of Eastern Finnish people (684 men and 705 women), 57-79 years of age at baseline of the study. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery. Women had a higher mean (+/-SEM) plasma BDNF level than men (1721+/-55vs. 1495+/-54pg/ml, P<0.001). In women, 1 SD decrease in BDNF increased the risk for a low score in Naming Test by 53% (95% CI 1.21-1.92, P<0.001), in Mini-Mental State Examination by 63% (95% CI 1.21-2.20, P=0.001), in Word List Memory by 56% (95% CI 1.08-2.26, P=0.019), in Word List Recall by 50% (95% CI 1.10-2.05, P=0.010), in Word List Saving by 49% (95% CI 1.12-1.99, P=0.007), and in Word List Recognition by 64% (95% CI 1.19-2.25, P=0.002). Data were adjusted for age, education, depression, impaired glucose metabolism, cardiovascular disease, antihypertensive medication, lipid lowering medication, use of sex hormones, smoking, alcohol consumption, storing time of plasma in the freezer and platelet count. BDNF was not associated with cognition in men. Present data suggest that plasma BDNF is a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in ageing women.
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Changes in middle cerebral artery flow velocity (Vmean), measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound, were used to determine whether increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) or brain activation enhance cerebral perfusion during exercise. We also evaluated the role of "central command," mechanoreceptors, and/or muscle "metaboreceptors" on cerebral perfusion. Ten healthy subjects performed two levels of dynamic exercise corresponding to a heart rate of 110 (range 89-134) and 148 (129-170) beats/min, respectively, and exhaustive one-legged static knee extension. Measurements were continued during 2-2.5 min of muscle ischemia. MAP increased similarly during static [114 (102-133) mmHg] and heavy dynamic exercise [121 (104-136) mmHg] and increased during muscle ischemia after dynamic exercise. During heavy dynamic exercise, Vmean increased 24% (10-47%; P less than 0.01) over approximately 3 min despite constant arterial carbon dioxide tension. In contrast, static exercise with a higher rate of perceived exertion [18 (13-20) vs. 15 (12-18) units; P less than 0.01] was associated with no significant change in Vmean. Muscle ischemia after exercise was not associated with an elevation in Vmean, and it did not provoke an increase in Vmean after static exercise. Changes in Vmean during exercise were similar to those recorded with the initial slope index of the 133Xe clearance method. The data show that middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity reflects changes in cerebral perfusion during exercise. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that cerebral perfusion during exercise reflects an increase in brain activation that is independent of MAP, central command, and muscle metaboreceptors but is likely to depend on influence of mechanoreceptors.
Article
Psychological functioning in 55 severely head-injured individuals was investigated in order to extend findings on the long-term nature of psychological sequelae after closed head injury. Results showed that head-injured subjects reported numerous psychological deficits many years post-injury, were psychologically distressed by their own report (Brief Symptom Inventory) and that of care-giving relatives (Katz Adjustment Scale--Relatives Version), and also exhibited a different pattern of coping from that of a normative group. A three-factor model of residual psychological complaints that contained a 'General Complaints' factor, a 'Somatization' factor and a 'Severity' factor was identified; this showed some similarity to a model proposed by van Zomeren and van den Burg (1985). Results indicate support for the 'coping hypothesis' of post-injury psychological deficits, although effects consistent with a 'gradations of severity' hypothesis were also present.
Article
To assess the value of exercise training after traumatic brain injury (TBI), 14 sedentary adults with TBI performed a supervised circuit training program three times per week for 16 consecutive weeks. The program was designed to include equal volumes of both aerobic and neuromuscular training to increase the subjects' oxidative capacity and simultaneously improve their locomotor efficiency. Before and after the experimental training program, height, weight, blood pressure, skinfold thickness, grip strength, abdominal muscular endurance, and submaximal and peak rates of oxygen consumption were measured, and the index of physiological fatigue was calculated. The TBI patients manifested subnormal oxidative capacities and above-average oxygen costs locomotion. A 16-week circuit training program of moderate intensity and prolonged duration increased their oxidative capacity (p less than .01) and abdominal muscular endurance (p less than .01), but failed to reduce their oxygen cost of walking. Moderate and prolonged activity seems beneficial in the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with TBI. The index of physiologic fatigability seems to be useful for the assessment, evaluation, and vocational placement of individuals with TBI.
Article
Attention Process Training (APT), a hierarchical, multilevel treatment program, was designed to remediate attention deficits in brain-injured persons. The program incorporates current theories in the experimental attention literature. Four brain-injured subjects, varying widely in both etiology of injury and time post onset, underwent intensive cognitive remediation including 5 to 10 weeks of specific attention training. Results are displayed using a single subject multiple baseline across behaviors design. All four subjects demonstrated significant gains in attention following the initiation of attention training. Remediation of another cognitive function (visual processing) was not associated with alterations in attention behavior. The merits of a process-specific approach to cognitive rehabilitation are discussed.
Article
The robustness of a relationship among physical fitness, psychomotor speed, and aging is discussed by reviewing the descriptive and correlational evidence provided by studies from several different research areas. These areas are those that relate psychomotor speed to (a) athletic status, (b) physical fitness status, (c) physical conditioning training programs, (d) hyperbaric oxygenation treatment, and (e) presence of cardiovascular disease. Several potential physiological mechanisms that might support such a relationship are discussed under the general categories of brain function and cerebral circulation, and the trophic influence of physical activity on the central nervous system.
Article
Working memory refers to a system for temporary storage and manipulation of information in the brain, a function critical for a wide range of cognitive operations. It has been proposed that working memory includes a central executive system (CES) to control attention and information flow to and from verbal and spatial short-term memory buffers. Although the prefrontal cortex is activated during both verbal and spatial passive working memory tasks, the brain regions involved in the CES component of working memory have not been identified. We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation during the concurrent performance of two tasks, which is expected to engage the CES. Activation of the prefrontal cortex was observed when both tasks are performed together, but not when they are performed separately. These results support the view that the prefrontal cortex is involved in human working memory.
By providing a non-invasive method for continuous display of mean flow velocity (Vmean) in the cerebral arteries, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound supplements evaluation of cerebral perfusion. Dynamic exercise increases middle cerebral artery (MCA) Vmean from approximately 55 to 65 cm s-1 dependent on work rate, and even more when corrected for changes of the arterial carbon dioxide tension. Evaluation of Vmean corresponds to that of cerebral blood flow as determined with the 133Xenon clearance technique, and reflects regional cortical regulation of the active muscles with important afferent nervous influence. Concomitant increases of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate is only of minor importance as illustrated during static exercise and post-exercise muscle ischaemia, where Vmean is not significantly elevated. During sustained head-up tilt, the Vmean remained unchanged at a MAP approximately 83 mmHg. Below this level, it decreased in parallel with MAP until MAP reached 50 mmHg. At an even lower MAP, Vmean seemed to approach a lower limit approximately 25 cm s-1, but at a diastolic pressure of 21 mmHg there was no flow in the MCA. Conversely, during post-exercise muscle ischemia, an increase in MAP to 140 mmHg did not influence Vmean. This is in contrast to patients operated for carotid artery stenosis and who develop ipsilateral headache. In these patients the ipsilateral MCA Vmean changed in parallel with MAP, and autoregulation was re-established only after one to two weeks. In patients with severe carotid stenosis and poor collateral circulation, the CO2-reactivity as expressed by Vmean was the lowest, and could be negative on the ipsilateral side. During carotid endarterectomy, a Vmean clamp/Vmean pre-clamp ratio below 0.6 identified patients with a cerebral blood flow below 20 ml 100 g-1 min-1. Furthermore, when the ratio was below 0.4 pathological electroenchephalographic changes developed. Thus, Vmean of the large basal cerebral arteries reflects cerebral perfusion with respect to regional flow distribution, autoregulatory response, and CO2-reactivity in normal man and patients with limited cerebral flow.
Article
Recent studies of the factors regulating neurogenesis in vertebrates reveal three emerging themes. First, the number of cellular stages involved in this process may be greater than has previously been appreciated. Second, homologues of genes that regulate neurogenesis in invertebrates appear to play analogous roles in development of vertebrate nervous systems. Third, extrinsic factors can act to regulate neuron number during neurogenesis by controlling survival and differentiation, and not simply proliferation, of neural progenitor cells.
Article
The effect of exercise on central nervous system function was investigated in relation to the mechanism of calcium-calmodulin-dependent dopamine synthesis in the brain. It is shown here through animal experiments that exercise leads to an increase in the calcium level in the brain. This in turn enhances brain dopamine synthesis, and through this increased dopamine modifies and/or affects brain function, which might induce physiological, behavioral, and psychological changes.
Article
Factors controlling cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise are complex and incompletely known. Different techniques have shown partly contradictory results of changes in regional and global cerebral perfusion during dynamic exercise in healthy subjects. To elucidate the global CBF response to supine stepwise increasing physical exercise, we measured blood flow in the left common carotid artery (QCCA) and the left internal carotid artery (QICA) simultaneously with the blood flow velocity in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using duplex ultrasonography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. During moderate exercise intensity (60-67% of maximal capacity), the VMCA increased 14% (P < 0.001), the QICA 17% (P < 0.01), and the QCCA 33% (P < 0.001) compared with baseline values. High physical exercise intensity (80-90% of maximal capacity) tended to reduce VMCA and QICA compared with moderate exercise, in contrast to a continued increase in QCCA. The results indicate an increased global CBF during exercise. This increase was reduced during hard exercise due to a decrease of the arterial PCO2 secondary to hyperventilation.
Article
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) support the viability and function of many types of neurons, and are likely mediators of activity-dependent changes in the CNS. We examined BDNF and NGF mRNA levels in several brain areas of adult male rats following 0, 2, 4, or 7 nights with ad libitum access to running wheels. BDNF mRNA was significantly increased in several brain areas, most notably in the hippocampus and caudal 1/3 of cerebral cortex following 2, 4, and 7 nights with exercise. Significant elevations in BDNF mRNA were localized in Ammon's horn areas 1 (CA1) and 4 (CA4) of the hippocampus, and layers II-III of the caudal neocortex and retrosplenial cortex. NGF mRNA was also significantly elevated in the hippocampus and caudal 1/3 of the cortex, affecting primarily the dentate gyrus granular layer (DG) and CA4 of the hippocampus and layers II-III in caudal neocortex.
Article
During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA and thereby elevate Vmean at a given volume flow. To evaluate transcranial Doppler-determined Vmean at high plasma catecholamine levels, seven elite cyclists performed a maximal performance test on a bicycle ergometer. Results were compared with those elicited during five incremental exercise bouts and during rhythmic handgrip when plasma catecholamines are low. During rhythmic handgrip the Vmean was elevated by 21 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE), which was not statistically different from that established during moderate cycling. However, at the highest submaximal and maximal work intensities on the bicycle ergometer. Vmean increased by 31 +/- 3% and 48 +/- 4%, respectively, and this was significantly higher compared to handgrip (P < 0.05). During maximal cycling, plasma adrenaline increased from 0.21 +/- 0.04 nmol L-1 at rest to 4.18 +/- 1.46 nmol L-1, and noradrenaline increased from 0.79 +/- 0.08 to 12.70 +/- 1.79 nmol L-1. These levels were 12- to 16-fold higher than those during rhythmic handgrip (adrenaline: 0.34 +/- 0.03 nmol L-1; noradrenaline: 0.78 +/- 0.05 nmol L-1). The increase in Vmean during intense ergometer cycling conforms to some middle cerebral artery constriction elicited by plasma catecholamines. Such an influence is unlikely during rhythmic handgrip compared with low intensity cycling.
Article
Functional reorganization of the rat motor cortex following motor skill learning. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3321-3325, 1998. Adult rats were allocated to either a skilled or unskilled reaching condition (SRC and URC, respectively). SRC animals were trained for 10 days on a skilled reaching task while URC animals were trained on a simple bar pressing task. After training, microelectrode stimulation was used to derive high resolution maps of the forelimb and hindlimb representations within the motor cortex. In comparison with URC animals, SRC animals exhibited a significant increase in mean area of the wrist and digit representations but a decrease in elbow/shoulder representation within the caudal forelimb area. No between-group differences in areal representation were found in either the hindlimb or rostral forelimb areas. These results demonstrate that motor skill learning is associated with a reorganization of movement representations within the rodent motor cortex.
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Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses by a presynaptic enhancement of synaptic transmission during high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Here we have investigated the mechanisms of BDNF action using two lines of BDNF knockout mice. Among other presynaptic impairments, the mutant mice exhibited more pronounced synaptic fatigue at CA1 synapses during high-frequency stimulation, compared with wild-type animals. Quantitative analysis of CA1 synapses revealed a significant reduction in the number of vesicles docked at presynaptic active zones in the mutant mice. Synaptosomes prepared from the mutant hippocampus exhibited a marked decrease in the levels of synaptophysin as well as synaptobrevin [vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP-2)], a protein known to be involved in vesicle docking and fusion. Treatment of the mutant slices with BDNF reversed the electrophysiological and biochemical deficits in the hippocampal synapses. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for BDNF in the mobilization and/or docking of synaptic vesicles to presynaptic active zones.
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To assess patterns of regional brain activation in response to varying working memory loads shortly after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Many individuals complain of memory difficulty shortly after MTBI. Memory performance in these individuals can be normal despite these complaints. Brain activation patterns in response to a working memory task (auditory n-back) were assessed with functional MRI in 12 MTBI patients within 1 month of their injury and in 11 healthy control subjects. Brain activation patterns differed between MTBI patients and control subjects in response to increasing working memory processing loads. Maximum intensity projections of statistical parametric maps in control subjects showed bifrontal and biparietal activation in response to a low processing load, with little additional increase in activation associated with the high load task. MTBI patients showed some activation during the low processing load task but significantly increased activation during the high load condition, particularly in the right parietal and right dorsolateral frontal regions. Task performance did not differ significantly between groups. MTBI patients differed from control subjects in activation pattern of working memory circuitry in response to different processing loads, despite similar task performance. This suggests that injury-related changes in ability to activate or to modulate working memory processing resources may underlie some of the memory complaints after MTBI.
Article
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity, axotomy and cerebral ischemia. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor following traumatic brain injury in the rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (N=99) were anesthetized and subjected to lateral fluid percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.4–2.8 atm) or sham injury. Four hours after injury, the animals were reanesthetized, an indwelling, intraparenchymal cannula was implanted, and infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle was initiated from a mini-osmotic pump and continued for two weeks. In Study 1 (N=48), vehicle or 12 μg/day of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was infused into the dorsal hippocampus. In Study 2 (N=51), vehicle or brain-derived neurotrophic factor at a high (12 μg/day) or low dose (1.2 μg/day) was infused into the injured parietal cortex. All animals were evaluated for neurological motor function at two days, one week and two weeks post-injury. Cognitive function (learning and memory) was assessed at two weeks post-injury using a Morris Water Maze. At two weeks post-injury, neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate hilus and in the injured cortex was evaluated. In Study 2, neuronal loss was also quantified in the thalamic medial geniculate nucleus. All of the above outcome measures demonstrated significant deleterious effects of brain injury (P<0.05 compared to sham). However, post-traumatic brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion did not significantly affect neuromotor function, learning, memory or neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex or thalamus when compared to vehicle infusion in brain-injured animals, regardless of the infusion site or infusion dose (P>0.05 for each).
Article
The cerebral activation during bicycle movements was investigated by oxygen-15-labelled H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in seven healthy human subjects. Compared to rest active bicycling significantly activated sites bilaterally in the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor cortex (SMA) as well as the anterior part of cerebellum. Comparing passive bicycling movements with rest, an almost equal activation was observed. Subtracting passive from active bicycle movements, significant activation was only observed in the leg area of the primary motor cortex and the precuneus, but not in the primary sensory cortex (S1). The M1 activation was positively correlated (alpha=0.75-0.85, t=6.4, P<10(-5)) with the rate of the active bicycle movements. Imagination of bicycle movements compared to rest activated bilaterally sites in the SMA. It is suggested that the higher motor centres, including the primary and supplementary motor cortices as well as the cerebellum, take an active part in the generation and control of rhythmic motor tasks such as bicycling.
Article
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is emerging as a key mediator of activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength in the CNS. We investigated the hypothesis that BDNF enhances quantal neurotransmitter release by modulating the distribution of synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals using organotypic slice cultures of postnatal rat hippocampus. BDNF specifically increased the number of docked vesicles at the active zone of excitatory synapses on CA1 dendritic spines, with only a small increase in active zone size. In agreement with the hypothesis that an increased docked vesicle density enhances quantal neurotransmitter release, BDNF increased the frequency, but not the amplitude, of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. Synapse number, independently estimated from dendritic spine density and electron microscopy measurements, was also increased after BDNF treatment, indicating that the actions of BNDF on mEPSC frequency can be partially attributed to an increased synaptic density. Our results further suggest that all these actions were mediated via tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation, established by inhibition of plasma membrane tyrosine kinases with K-252a. These results provide additional evidence of a fundamental role of the BDNF-TrkB signaling cascade in synaptic transmission, as well as in cellular models of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory.
Article
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of increasing working memory (WM) processing load on previously observed abnormalities in activation of WM circuitry shortly after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Brain activation patterns in response to increasing WM processing load (auditory n-back: 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-back conditions) were assessed with fMRI in 18 MTBI patients within 1 month of their injury and in 12 healthy controls. Performance accuracy on these tasks was also measured. Brain activation patterns differed between MTBI patients and controls in response to increasing WM processing loads. Controls maintained their ability to increase activation in regions of WM circuitry with each increase in WM processing load. MTBI patients showed disproportionately increased activation during the moderate processing load condition, but very little increase in activation associated with the highest processing load condition. Task performance did not differ significantly between groups on any task condition. MTBI patients showed a different pattern of allocation of processing resources associated with a high processing load condition compared to healthy controls, despite similar task performance. This suggests that injury-related changes in ability to activate or modulate WM processing resources might underlie some of the memory complaints after MTBI.
Article
The effects of exercise on the topography of movement representations and blood vessel density within the rat forelimb motor cortex was examined. Adult male rats were allocated to either a Voluntary eXercise (VX) or Inactive Condition (IC). VX animals were housed for 30 days with unlimited access to running wheels while IC animals were housed in standard laboratory cages. VX animals exhibited a progressive increase in the distance traveled per day and ran an average of 58.3 km across the 30-day training period. Microelectrode stimulation was used to derive high resolution maps of the forelimb representations within the motor cortex of animals from both conditions. No significant differences in the area of either distal (wrist/digit) or proximal (elbow/shoulder) movement representations were found between VX and IC animals. However, VX animals did have a significantly greater density of blood vessels within layer V of the forelimb motor cortex. These results demonstrate that increases in forelimb motor activity sufficient to induce cortical angiogenesis does not alter the topography of forelimb movement representations within forelimb motor cortex.
Article
Many recent neuroimaging studies have highlighted the role of prefrontal regions in the sustained maintenance and manipulation of information over short delays, or working memory (WM). In addition, neuroimaging findings have highlighted the role of prefrontal regions in the formation and retrieval of memories for events, or episodic long-term memory (LTM), but it remains unclear whether these regions are distinct from those that support WM. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify patterns of prefrontal activity associated with encoding and recognition during WM and LTM tasks performed by the same subjects. Results showed that the same bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal regions (at or near Brodmann's Areas [BA] 6, 44, 45, and 47) and dorsolateral prefrontal regions (BA 9/46) were engaged during encoding and recognition within the context of WM and LTM tasks. In addition, a region situated in the left anterior middle frontal gyrus (BA 10/46) was engaged during the recognition phases of the WM and LTM tasks. These results support the view that the same prefrontal regions implement reflective processes that support both WM and LTM.