Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a relatively rare but aggressive type of renal malignancy with variable morphologic features. One of the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CDC is the exclusion of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis from the differential diagnosis. PAX8 is a novel lineage restricted transcription factor expressed in renal tubules. We investigated the expression pattern of PAX8 in CDC and its utility, in combination with p63, in resolving the differential diagnosis of CDC versus upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UUC).
Archival tissues from 21 CDC and 34 UUC were retrieved from our institutional files. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8 and p63 were performed on routine and tissue microarray sections using standard immunohistochemistry protocol. Intensity of nuclear staining was evaluated for each marker and assigned an incremental 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ score. Extent of staining was categorized as focal (<25%), nonfocal (25% to 75%), or diffuse (>75%).
CDC: All 21 (100%) CDC were positive for PAX8. Intensity of expression was moderate to strong (2+/3+) in 19 cases (90%). Extent of staining was diffuse in 13 of 21 tumors. The p63 was positive in 3 of 21 (14%) CDC cases (PAX8+/p63+). UUC: The 34 UUC included 5 pT1, 4 pT2, and 25 pT3/pT4 tumors. Thirty-one of 34 (91.2%) UUC were negative for PAX8, whereas 33 of 34 (97%) were p63 positive. Staining intensity was moderate in 15 cases (44%), of which 12 were nonfocal or diffuse. The unique p63-negative UUC was a pT1 tumor that was also negative for PAX8 (PAX8-/p63-).
We propose the use of the combination of PAX8 and p63 in the diagnosis of poorly differentiated renal sinus epithelial neoplasms where the differential diagnosis includes CDC versus UUC. The immunoprofile of PAX8+/p63- supports the diagnosis of CDC with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. In contrast, a (PAX8-/p63+) profile supports the diagnosis of UUC with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 100%. The inverse PAX8/p63 expression seen in CDC and UUC supports a renal tubular rather than an urothelial differentiation in CDC given the nephric lineage restriction of PAX8.
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"Previously, PAX8 was found to be markedly associated with renal tumors (19,20). Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) stained positive for PAX8 in 90% of the cases studied and 100% of normal kidney samples stained PAX8-positive (15). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paired-box gene 8 (PAX8) encodes a transcription factor associated with important roles in embryogenesis and disease, and is a member of the PAX gene family. PAX8 has been demonstrated to be crucial in determining cell fate during the development of the thyroid, kidney, brain, eyes and Müllerian system and regulates expression of the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1). Several previous studies have reported that PAX8 is expressed at high levels in specific types of tumor, including thyroid and renal carcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, PAX8 has been reported to be useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. The consistency of PAX8 staining in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs) and the fallopian tube has provided morphological evidence that EOC may originate from the fallopian tube. The molecular mechanism of PAX8 in the carcinogenesis of these tumors remains unclear and requires further studies.
"Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PAX8 and GATA3 is a valuable diagnostic tool. Studies have shown that PAX8 IHC is a sensitive marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC)     . PAX8 IHC has also been observed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic tissues of Müllerian and Wolffian origin as well as the endocrine pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus           . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry for PAX8 and GATA3 are sensitive markers for renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma, respectively. However, there are limited data on these markers in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SARCRCC) and sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SARCUC). Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from 45 cases of SARCRCC and 45 cases of SARCUC of the lower urinary tract, with an additional 11 SARCUCs of the upper tract. PAX8 and GATA3 were also evaluated in TMAs from 161 sarcomas from other sites, 14 atypical epithelioid angiomyolipomas (AMLs) of the kidney, 23 bladder inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), and 2 bladder and 4 renal leiomyosarcomas. In the SARCRCC, PAX8 and GATA3 were positive in the sarcomatoid areas in 31 (69%) and 0 (0%) of cases, respectively. In the bladder SARCUC, GATA3 and PAX8 were positive in 14 (31%) and 2 (4%) of cases, respectively. Of the 11 SARCUCs of the upper urinary tract, 2 (18%) cases were PAX8 positive and 2 (18%) separate cases were GATA3 positive. Only 1 tumor present on the sarcoma TMAs, a Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, was PAX8 positive, and all sarcomas were GATA3 negative. Of the AMLs, IMTs, and leiomyosarcoma, only 1 case of IMT showed moderate GATA3 positivity, and all were negative for PAX8. PAX8 can be used to distinguish SARCCRCC from atypical epithelioid AMLs and primary renal or retroperitoneal sarcomas. However, in a kidney/renal pelvic tumor, PAX8 shows overlap in staining between SARCUC and SARCRCC. GATA3 lacks sensitivity but is more specific for SARCUC.
"For personal use only. PAX8, TTF-1 and napsin A in lung carcinomas 33 and endocervical carcinomas (Albadine et al. 2010, Fabbro et al. 1994, Fujiwara et al. 2010, Tong et al. 2009, Tong et al.). Consistent with these reports, we found that carcinomas metastatic to the lung from these organs tend to be positive for PAX8. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TTF-1 and napsin A are useful biomarkers for differentiating primary lung adenocarcinoma from metastatic tumors. Studies have shown, however, that TTF-1 and napsin A also can be expressed in extrapulmonary carcinomas, and that a small fraction of primary lung adenocarcinomas do not co-express these two markers. We attempted to determine whether a tissue-specific transcriptional factor, PAX8, can help determine primary sites of lung carcinomas. Immunohistochemical stains for PAX8, TTF-1 and napsin A were performed on 103 cases of metastatic lung carcinomas from a variety of origins and 120 cases of primary lung adenocarcinomas. Our data demonstrated that all 103 metastatic carcinomas were negative for napsin A, while 14 (13.6%; four thyroid, two endometrium, three colon, one prostate, one salivary adenoid cystic, two renal cell carcinomas, and one ovary) showed weak to strong TTF-1 nuclear staining in 5-60% of the tumor cells. All primary lung adenocarcinomas were negative for PAX8, whereas 46 (44.7%) metastatic carcinomas from the kidney (29/33), ovary (6/8), endometrium (5/5), endocervix (1/1), thyroid (4/5) and urinary tract (1/3) were positive for PAX8. Our data demonstrate that of combined use of PAX8, TTF-1 and napsin A is reliable to separate reliably lung primary from metastatic tumors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Biotechnic & Histochemistry