PAX8 (+)/p63 (−) Immunostaining Pattern in Renal Collecting Duct Carcinoma (CDC)

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The American journal of surgical pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 05/2010; 34(7):965-9. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181dc5e8a
Source: PubMed


Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a relatively rare but aggressive type of renal malignancy with variable morphologic features. One of the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for CDC is the exclusion of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis from the differential diagnosis. PAX8 is a novel lineage restricted transcription factor expressed in renal tubules. We investigated the expression pattern of PAX8 in CDC and its utility, in combination with p63, in resolving the differential diagnosis of CDC versus upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UUC).
Archival tissues from 21 CDC and 34 UUC were retrieved from our institutional files. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8 and p63 were performed on routine and tissue microarray sections using standard immunohistochemistry protocol. Intensity of nuclear staining was evaluated for each marker and assigned an incremental 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ score. Extent of staining was categorized as focal (<25%), nonfocal (25% to 75%), or diffuse (>75%).
CDC: All 21 (100%) CDC were positive for PAX8. Intensity of expression was moderate to strong (2+/3+) in 19 cases (90%). Extent of staining was diffuse in 13 of 21 tumors. The p63 was positive in 3 of 21 (14%) CDC cases (PAX8+/p63+). UUC: The 34 UUC included 5 pT1, 4 pT2, and 25 pT3/pT4 tumors. Thirty-one of 34 (91.2%) UUC were negative for PAX8, whereas 33 of 34 (97%) were p63 positive. Staining intensity was moderate in 15 cases (44%), of which 12 were nonfocal or diffuse. The unique p63-negative UUC was a pT1 tumor that was also negative for PAX8 (PAX8-/p63-).
We propose the use of the combination of PAX8 and p63 in the diagnosis of poorly differentiated renal sinus epithelial neoplasms where the differential diagnosis includes CDC versus UUC. The immunoprofile of PAX8+/p63- supports the diagnosis of CDC with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. In contrast, a (PAX8-/p63+) profile supports the diagnosis of UUC with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 100%. The inverse PAX8/p63 expression seen in CDC and UUC supports a renal tubular rather than an urothelial differentiation in CDC given the nephric lineage restriction of PAX8.

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Available from: Rajni B Sharma
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    • "Previously, PAX8 was found to be markedly associated with renal tumors (19,20). Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) stained positive for PAX8 in 90% of the cases studied and 100% of normal kidney samples stained PAX8-positive (15). "
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    ABSTRACT: Paired-box gene 8 (PAX8) encodes a transcription factor associated with important roles in embryogenesis and disease, and is a member of the PAX gene family. PAX8 has been demonstrated to be crucial in determining cell fate during the development of the thyroid, kidney, brain, eyes and Müllerian system and regulates expression of the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1). Several previous studies have reported that PAX8 is expressed at high levels in specific types of tumor, including thyroid and renal carcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In addition, PAX8 has been reported to be useful for the detection and differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. The consistency of PAX8 staining in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs) and the fallopian tube has provided morphological evidence that EOC may originate from the fallopian tube. The molecular mechanism of PAX8 in the carcinogenesis of these tumors remains unclear and requires further studies.
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    • "Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PAX8 and GATA3 is a valuable diagnostic tool. Studies have shown that PAX8 IHC is a sensitive marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. PAX8 IHC has also been observed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic tissues of Müllerian and Wolffian origin as well as the endocrine pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Human pathology
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    • "For personal use only. PAX8, TTF-1 and napsin A in lung carcinomas 33 and endocervical carcinomas (Albadine et al. 2010, Fabbro et al. 1994, Fujiwara et al. 2010, Tong et al. 2009, Tong et al.). Consistent with these reports, we found that carcinomas metastatic to the lung from these organs tend to be positive for PAX8. "
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