Estrogen Receptor Signaling through Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Down-Regulates Blood-Brain Barrier Breast Cancer Resistance Protein

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School Duluth, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812, USA.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.97). 05/2010; 334(2):467-76. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.110.168930
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-driven efflux pump at the blood-brain barrier that limits central nervous system pharmacotherapy. Our previous studies showed rapid loss of BCRP transport activity in rat brain capillaries exposed to low concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol (E2); this occurred without acute change in BCRP protein expression. Here, we describe a pathway through which sustained, extended exposure to E2 signals down-regulation of BCRP at the blood-brain barrier. Six-hour exposure of isolated rat and mouse brain capillaries to E2 reduced BCRP transport activity and BCRP monomer and dimer expression. Experiments with brain capillaries from estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta knockout mice and with ER agonists and antagonists showed that E2 signaled through ERbeta to down-regulate BCRP expression. In rat brain capillaries, E2 increased unphosphorylated, active phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN); decreased phosphorylated, active Akt; and increased phosphorylated, active glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3. Consistent with this, inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or Akt decreased BCRP activity and protein expression, and inhibition of PTEN or GSK3 reversed the E2 effect on BCRP. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, abolished E2-mediated BCRP down-regulation, suggesting internalization followed by transporter degradation. Dosing mice with E2 reduced BCRP activity in brain capillaries within 1 h; this reduction persisted for 24 h. BCRP protein expression in brain capillaries was unchanged 1 h after E2 dosing but was substantially reduced 6 and 24 h after dosing. Thus, E2 signals through ERbeta, PTEN/PI3K/Akt/GSK3 to stimulate proteasomal degradation of BCRP. These in vitro and in vivo findings imply that E2-mediated down-regulation of blood-brain barrier BCRP has the potential to increase brain uptake of chemotherapeutics that are BCRP substrates.

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Available from: Björn Bauer, Mar 12, 2014
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    • "In agreement , Hartz et al . ( 2010 ) described that estradiol signals through ERβ and ERα to initiate Bcrp internaliza - tion and acts via ERβ to stimulate proteosomal degradation of Bcrp in murine brain capillaries . In contrast , Ee et al . ( 2004 ) found that estradiol enhanced Bcrp mRNA levels in cells stably expressing ERα , at similar estradiol concentra - tions . "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is known for its protective function against the toxic effects of exogenous compounds. In addition to this, a role in the transport of endogenous compounds has been described. Since BCRP in the plasma membrane was shown to be regulated by sex steroids, we investigated the presence and possible role of BCRP in steroid hormone-producing organs. Therefore, the presence and localization of Bcrp was investigated in endocrine organs of wild-type mice. Furthermore, the interaction of various steroid hormones with human BCRP activity was studied. Quantitative PCR revealed Bcrp mRNA in the pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreas, ovary, testis and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of Bcrp in the cortex of the adrenal gland and in plasma membranes of adipocytes. In the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovary and testis, Bcrp was mainly located in the capillaries. The interaction between BCRP and 12 steroid hormones was studied using membrane vesicles of HEK293-BCRP cells. Estradiol, testosterone, progesterone and androstenedione inhibited BCRP-mediated uptake of (3)H-estrone sulphate (E(1)S) most potently, with calculated inhibitory constant (Ki) values of 5.0 ± 0.2, 36 ± 14, 14.7 ± 1.3 and 217 ± 13 μM, respectively. BCRP function was attenuated non-competitively, which implies an allosteric inhibition of BCRP-mediated E(1)S transport by these steroids. In conclusion, localization of Bcrp in endocrine organs together with the efficient allosteric inhibition of the efflux pump by steroid hormones are suggestive for a role for BCRP in steroid hormone regulation.
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    • "However, E2 has also been reported to increase BCRP protein expression in a human breast cancer cell line by signaling through ERα[30]. In a human placenta cell line, E2 signaled through ERβ to up-regulate BCRP [31]; and Anika M S Hartz et al. found that E2 signals through ERβ, PTEN/PI3K/Akt/GSK3 to down-regulate the expression of BCRP [32]. Thus, both ERαand ERβ can be involved in E2 regulation of BCRP, but the signals involved and the effect on BCRP (up- or down-regulation) seem to be inconsistent and tissue-specific. "
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