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Sources and intake of resistant starch in the Chinese diet

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Abstract

Resistant starch (RS) escapes digestion in the small intestine and may ferment in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistant starch content in typical starchy foods and to estimate the daily resistant starch intake and identify key sources of dietary resistant starch in the Chinese diets. The resistant starch contents of 121 foods were determined using a method that mimicked gastrointestinal conditions. Tubers and legumes had high resistant starch contents. Rough food processing retained large amounts of resistant starch. In general, the content of RS decreased when foods were cooked. Deep fried and roasted foods had higher levels of resistant starch than braised foods. The average resistant starch intake in the Chinese population was estimated to be 14.9 g per day based on a dietary survey. The main resistant starch sources in the Chinese diet were cereal and tuber products. Based on dietary habits, however, the resistant starch intake varies considerably among individuals.

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... RS also acts as a prebiotic by supporting the growth of probiotics, which contribute to the prevention of various human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer (Raigond et al., 2015). Green bananas, legumes, and tubers are typical starch sources rich in RS (Chen et al., 2010). The RS content of legumes varied from 11.4% to 32.2%. ...
... Beans have also been considered an essential part of a healthy human diet for centuries (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2016) as a source of complex carbohydrates, proteins, bioactive compounds, minerals, and vitamins (Messina, 2014). Besides, green bananas and potatoes are common ingredients with high RS content of up to 40-50% (Ovando-Martinez et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2010). Increasing the RS amount in noodles may result in lower glycaemic carbohydrate content, suitable for people with diabetes or obesity. ...
... Potato starch has the highest RS content (56.70%), followed by green banana powder (41.55%), black bean powder (16.51%), and red bean powder (15.55%). In this study, the RS content of potato starch was significantly lower than that determined by Chen et al. (2010), who showed that potato starch has 79.3% RS. The RS content of green banana powder was similar to the research results of Moongngarm (2013), showing that the RS content ranged from 35.14 to 45.87%, depending on the banana variety. ...
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Resistant starch has been shown to be associated with many health benefits. The study was conducted to analyze amylose and resistant starch content in selected starchy materials (black beans, red beans, green Xiem bananas, and potatoes) and investigate the influence of their flour/starch mixing ratio on the quality of noodles. The microstructure of noodles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that potato starch had the highest resistant starch content (56.70%), followed by green Xiem banana flour (41.55%), black bean flour (16.51%), and red bean flour (15.55%). The raw materials with higher resistant starch also had higher amylose content. Amylose content, resistant starch content, and hardness of noodles increased when partly replacing wheat flour with the high level of RS flours/starches in the formulation. The data rank some test revealed that formula A3 (replacing 50% of wheat flour by other starchy food containing high levels of resistant starch) was chosen due to the product contained relatively high RS content (14.78%), well structured and well accepted by panellists. The texture of the cooked noodles was assessed to be similar to that of the control sample (100% wheat flour). This study proved that it is possible elaborate noodles to replace a part of wheat flour with starchy food containing high levels of well accepted in the formulation.
... The RS content of the samples is presented in [12]. The RS content of green bananas in the current study was comparable with the 48.88% found by Moongngarm et al. [13]; however, these results varied slightly from a study which obtained 52.7% RS content in raw green bananas [14], as well as Englyst et al. [15], who also obtained RS content of green bananas of 54.2% which was significantly higher than the current study. ...
... However, in a different study carried out in Korea, the RS contents of sweet potato starches ranged from 1.76% in Pungwonmi to 30.75% in Jeonmi [24]; these results were in tandem with the RS content of both yellow sweet potatoes and purple sweet potatoes. For a corn starch sample, a study by Chen et al. [12] found 7.83% RS which was very high compared to the current study with 2.82% RS but another study found lower RS content of corn starch from normal corn of 0.8% [25] and finally Raigond et al. [26] mentioned RS content of normal corn starch to be 1.5% before extrusion and it increased to 2.8% after extrusion. ...
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Starch is a complex carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. According to digestibility, starch has been categorized into rapidly digestible starch that takes 20 minutes after consumption to be fully digested, slow digestible starch which takes between 20 and 120 minutes to be fully digested in the small intestines, and resistant starch (RS) which resists digestion in the small intestine and undergoes fermentation in the large intestines, hence producing beneficial products for the human health. The study was carried out to compare the contents of RS in different starchy vegetables and analyze the physicochemical properties such as moisture content, amylose content, swelling, and water absorption capacity (WAC) of the chosen food samples and explain the relationship between the physicochemical properties and RS content of the food samples. Potato starch recorded a high resistant starch content at 56.43%, while corn starch was low at 2.82% RS. There was a positive correlation between RS and amylose content. However, there was a negative correlation between swelling capacity and WAC. The RS content of potato starch recorded the least swelling at 1.49 g/g compared to the high value of yellow sweet potatoes of 8.47 g/g. Water absorption capacity presented a similar trend to swelling. In six out of the eight samples analyzed, a high amylose content in starchy foods was an indication of high RS in the food, attributed to its long chain and double helices it forms after gelatinization. A high RS content in foods leads to low swelling capacity and low WAC. Therefore, low swelling in potato starch indicated a high RS content.
... Fermentation of resistant starches by colonic microbes produces short chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, which provide many favorable health benefits in proper lipid function and cancer prevention. 63 According to Eashwarage et al., 64 the resistant starch content of cowpea ranged from 9.04 ± 1.26 to 9.62 ± 0.19 g 100 g −1 (9%), whereas the resistant starch content of raw cowpea flour reported by Chen et al. 65 was 12.65%. Because cowpea seeds contain a remarkably high amount of resistant starch and dietary fiber, it can be considered as a low glycemic food. ...
... 66 Cowpea can also be considered as a meal with reduced calorific value, which helps to improve glucose regulation in diabetes patients, whereas, at the same time, it facilitates better weight control for the obese. 30 Sreerama et al. 67 reported the predicted glycemic index (pGI) of cowpea to be 41 ± 10% and Chen et al. 65 found that the pGI of cowpea ranges between 33% and 50%. Furthermore, Eashwarage et al. 64 found an inverse relationship (negative line with −0.659 of Pearson correlation) between the resistant starch content and pGI content of legumes including cowpea. ...
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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume consumed as a high‐quality plant protein source in many parts of the world. High protein and carbohydrate contents with relatively low fat content and complementary amino acid pattern to that of cereal grains make cowpea an important nutritional food in the human diet. Cowpea has gained more attention recently from consumers and researchers worldwide due to its exerted health beneficial properties including anti‐diabetic, anti‐cancer, anti‐hyperlipidemic, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐hypertensive properties. Among the mechanisms that have been proposed in the prevention of chronic diseases, the most proven are attributed to the presence of compounds such as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, phytochemicals and proteins and peptides in cowpea. However, studies on the anticancer and anti‐inflammatory properties of cowpea have produced conflicting results. Some studies support a protective effect of cowpea on the progression of cancer and inflammation, while other studies demonstrate no effect. Since there are only a few studies carried on this regard, further studies in this area are suggested. In addition, despite the so far reported favorable effects of cowpea on diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, a long‐term epidemiological study investigating the association between cowpea consumption and diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer is also recommended.
... Compared with other countries, mean usual RS intake in the United States is higher than Sweden (3.2 g/d) (44), similar to Europe (4 g/d) (45), but lower than China (14.9 g/d) (46) and Italy (8.5 g/d) (47). The RS intake represented in the Australian population in early 2000 was estimated to range from 3.4 to 9.4 g/d (48). ...
... A more recent update to the Australian estimates in 2012 reported a similar intake pattern, with dietary intake of RS ranging between 17% and 47% of the targeted 20-g/d intake (49). The Chinese population has the highest estimated RS intake at 14.9 g/d, with cereal and tuber products contributing to the majority of RS (46). Finally, a high RS intake in the Italian population was attributed to typical Italian starchy foods such as bread, pasta, and legumes (47). ...
Article
Background Resistant starch (RS) confers many health benefits, mostly due to nonenzymatic human digestion and gut microbiota fermentation capacity. The usual intake of naturally occurring dietary RS in US adults is unclear. Objectives This study estimated usual daily RS intake in grams per 1000 kcal in US adults by sex, age, and ethnic group, as well as the most frequent food category contributing to RS intake using data from the NHANES 2015–2016. Methods RS content of foods consumed was matched with Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies food codes. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate adults’ usual RS intake from 2 24-h dietary recalls. Day 1 RS contribution from food groups to overall RS intake was ranked for the total sample, across age-sex categories, and across ethnic groups. Results In total, 5139 US adults (48.4% male) had a mean daily usual intake of RS of 1.9 ± 0.0 g/(1000 kcal⋅d). Males and females had a similar intake of RS [2.0 ± 0.0 g compared with 1.9 ± 0.0 g/(1000 kcal⋅d)] with no differences between sexes within the same age category. When comparing ethnic groups within each age category, the non-Hispanic white males and females had significantly lower RS intake than all other ethnic groups [range: 1.7–1.8 compared with 2.1–2.3 g RS/(1000 kcal⋅d), respectively], with no differences among the other ethnic groups. French fries and other fried white potatoes, rice, and beans, peas, and legumes were the most frequently consumed food categories contributing to RS intake in all adults. Conclusions US adults should improve the intake of natural RS food sources. Increasing RS intake will improve gastrointestinal health as a prebiotic and potentially increase insulin sensitivity with adequate consumption (e.g., ∼15 g/d).
... The benefits of supplementing noodles with highly nutritious flour have been shown by Topping et al. (2008). Legume flour incorporation has been shown to improve protein content, dietary fiber, and product colour, as well as the RS content of pasta products (Chen et al., 2010). Resistant starch is described as starch that resists digestion in the small intestine and undergoes fermentation in the large intestine (Englyst et al., 1992). ...
... Azkia et al. (2021) found the RS content of noodles formulated with sorghum, mung bean, and sago starch to range between 16.35 and 21.57%, which is comparable with the current study. However, the Chinese diet by Chen et al. (2010) found the RS content of noodles using mung bean starch to be 34.1 g/100 g total starch (TS), which is higher than the current study. The RS content of the noodles reduced significantly after cooking, caused by a higher degree of gelatinization of starch a -uncooked noodles b -cooked noodles within the noodles which exposed them to digestive enzymes (Tian et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background. Increased consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) has been shown to prevent or manage type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer. Materials and methods. The current study was carried out to identify the effects of supplementing noodles with high RS flour from red kidney beans, black turtle beans, mung beans, and potato starch on their RS content , quality properties, morphological appearance and consumer perception. The noodles were labelled F0 with 100% wheat flour, F1 with 22.5% high RS flour, F2 with 30% high RS flour, and F3 with 37.5% high RS flour. Results. The obtained results showed that the content of resistant starch in the noodles increased when some of the wheat flour was added/replaced with flour high in resistant starch content. The bright color of the noodles, L*, decreased significantly from the control sample F0 to the F3 formulation of noodles, which was attributed to the dark color of the supplemented flour, and the yellowness of the noodles also decreased. The addition of high RS flour had no significant effect on the hardness of the noodles. However, the cooking loss increased in the noodles from 6.09% in F0 to 9.87% in F3. The images from scanning electron microscopy showed increased pores in the noodles supplemented with high RS flour, which may explain the increased cooking loss. Consumers preferred the F2 noodles with 30% high RS flour supplementation. The incorporation of high RS flour into the noodle formulation increased RS content, but it had some negative effects on the quality parameters of the noodles. Conclusion. In order to achieve high RS noodles with acceptable quality, a suitable balance with the percentage of flour ought to be established when formulating products supplemented with high RS flour.
... Retrogradation process is highly expressed in the millet and sweet corn core (Sajilata et al., 2006) causing high content of resistant starch in these cereals after cooking. Murphy, Douglass, and Birkett (2008) and Chen et al. (2010) presented in their papers a comprehensive review of existing data on resistant starch content in various foods. Results for resistant starch content in cooked millet, rice and brown rice are somewhat lower in database of Murphy et al. (2008) than results in our study, but for cooked wheat, polished rice, millet and corn are in good correlation with data of Chen et al. (2010). ...
... Murphy, Douglass, and Birkett (2008) and Chen et al. (2010) presented in their papers a comprehensive review of existing data on resistant starch content in various foods. Results for resistant starch content in cooked millet, rice and brown rice are somewhat lower in database of Murphy et al. (2008) than results in our study, but for cooked wheat, polished rice, millet and corn are in good correlation with data of Chen et al. (2010). ...
Article
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The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8g/100g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5g/100g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20g and 1.60g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan.
... The benefits of supplementing noodles with highly nutritious flour have been shown by Topping et al. (2008). Legume flour incorporation has been shown to improve protein content, dietary fiber, and product colour, as well as the RS content of pasta products (Chen et al., 2010). Resistant starch is described as starch that resists digestion in the small intestine and undergoes fermentation in the large intestine (Englyst et al., 1992). ...
... Azkia et al. (2021) found the RS content of noodles formulated with sorghum, mung bean, and sago starch to range between 16.35 and 21.57%, which is comparable with the current study. However, the Chinese diet by Chen et al. (2010) found the RS content of noodles using mung bean starch to be 34.1 g/100 g total starch (TS), which is higher than the current study. The RS content of the noodles reduced significantly after cooking, caused by a higher degree of gelatinization of starch a -uncooked noodles b -cooked noodles within the noodles which exposed them to digestive enzymes (Tian et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Increased consumption of foods high in resistant starch (RS) has been shown to prevent or manage type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer. Materials and methods. The current study was carried out to identify the effects of supplementing noodles with high RS flour from red kidney beans, black turtle beans, mung beans, and potato starch on their RS content, quality properties, morphological appearance and consumer perception. The noodles were labelled F0 with 100% wheat flour, F1 with 22.5% high RS flour, F2 with 30% high RS flour, and F3 with 37.5% high RS flour. Results. The obtained results showed that the content of resistant starch in the noodles increased when some of the wheat flour was added/replaced with flour high in resistant starch content. The bright color of the noodles, L*, decreased significantly from the control sample F0 to the F3 formulation of noodles, which was attributed to the dark color of the supplemented flour, and the yellowness of the noodles also decreased. The addition of high RS flour had no significant effect on the hardness of the noodles. However, the cooking loss increased in the noodles from 6.09% in F0 to 9.87% in F3. The images from scanning electron microscopy showed increased pores in the noodles supplemented with high RS flour, which may explain the increased cooking loss. Consumers preferred the F2 noodles with 30% high RS flour supplementation. The incorporation of high RS flour into the noodle formulation increased RS content, but it had some negative effects on the quality parameters of the noodles. Conclusion. In order to achieve high RS noodles with acceptable quality, a suitable balance with the percentage of flour ought to be established when formulating products supplemented with high RS flour.
... RS intakes vary between countries, and whereas Africans consume 20-30 g/day and Chinese consume 15 g/day, dietary RS intakes among Europeans and Americans are 3 and 3-8 g/day, respectively. Dietary RS sources predominantly include cereals (approximately 50%) such as bread, corn flakes, pastas, and vegetables (Chen et al., 2010;Maziarz et al., 2013;Murphy, Douglass, & Birkett, 2008). ...
Article
Postprandial increase in blood triglyceride levels is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, and dietary resistant starch (RS) is increasingly being considered for its contribution to disease prevention. Specifically, RS has beneficial effects on of the glycemic index, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and weight management. However, the effects of once-daily intake of RS on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia remain poorly characterized. In this study, the effects of a single administration of cornstarch-derived RS on postprandial increases in blood triglyceride levels were investigated in rats using oral fat tolerance/loading tests. Following the administration of lipid meals, increases in serum triglycerides levels were significantly reduced in rats fed corn oil containing 500 mg/mL RS. Moreover, fecal lipid volumes and wet weights following lipid meals were significantly greater in rats fed corn oil containing 500 mg/mL RS than in the corn oil only group, confirming the inhibition of dietary fat absorption. Finally, a significant positive correlation was observed between fecal lipid contents and wet weights in rats administered RS. These results suggest that RS intake with dietary fats induces defecation and confirm results of recent reports on the health-promoting potential of once-daily RS intake.
... With respect to legume preparations, RS values reported for cooked beans in the database by Murphy et al., 25 were in the similar range as observed for usal in the current study with cooked/canned chickpeas in the database showing 2.6 g % RS, the value close to 2.38± 0.3 g % RS in bengal gram (kabuli) usal (Table 2) in the current study. Chen et al., 26 reported RS content of boiled soyabean, common cowpea and garden pea, consumed in Chinese diet, to be 1.27 g, 3.72 g and 3.84 g respectively in 100 g esculent. In contrast, much higher values have been reported for commonly consumed cooked legume products in Swedish diet 27 . ...
Article
Foods rich in resistant starch (RS) can play an important role in the management of chronic diseases. Legumes contain higher amount of RS than cereals, roots and tubers. Therefore the current study was undertaken to estimate RS content of some commonly consumed Indian legume preparations. 26 cooked legume based products including 6 readymade traditional snacks were tested for their RS content using Megazyme Assay Kit for Resistant Starch. RS content was estimated for 100 g cooked food and for the cooked portion obtained by using 30 g of major ingredient. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test was used to compare the mean RS content in one portion of different categories of legume preparations. Level of significance was set at p<0.05. RS content of four types of plain pressure cooked dhal, common to Indian cooking, was in the range of 1.21 g % to 2.16 g % whereas aamti, a thinner preparation of dhal contained RS in the range of 0.42 g % to 0.69 g %. In both types of dhal preparations, red gram dhal showed highest RS content followed by bengal gram dhal. Usal made using bengal gram (kabuli) contained 2.38 g % RS followed by 1.42 g % RS in bengal gram (brown) usal. RS in bengal gram flour based traditional recipes like zunka, dhirda and pithle was 1.23 g %, 1.48 g % and 0.09 g % respectively. When mean RS content of one portion of different categories of legume preparations was compared, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) found among any of the categories. The results of the study generated useful data with respect to RS content in 100 g as well as RS in one portion of legume preparations and identified preparations with red gram dhal, bengal gram (kabuli and brown variety) and lentil as relatively higher in RS content.
... The degree of gelatinization or cooking methods, rigid cell walls, and retrogradation are some examples for the extrinsic factors. It is noted that not all starchy foods produce the same glycemic response [14]. Food with low carbohydrate will have high glycemic index if that carbohydrate is digest and absorb rapidly. ...
Article
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Consumption of dietary fiber rich food has shown many health benefits against a range of disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and colon cancer. Total dietary fiber (TDF) is composed of two; soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF). Legumes are rich source of dietary fiber and resistant starch (RS). In addition, legume starch has low predicted glycemic index (pGI). This study was carried out to develop a dietary fiber rich multi legumes flake mix with low predicted glycemic index from selected legume varieties in Sri Lanka. Accordingly, 04 legumes such as mung bean, cowpea, soybean and horse gram were used. The multi legumes flake mix was prepared in 3 different formulae (F1, F2, and F3) by using sorghum (50%) as the base. Different legume proportions of soybean: horse gram: cowpea and mung bean in those formulae were F1–5%, 20%, 15%, 10%, F2– 10%, 5%, 15%, 20% and F3–5%, 15%, 20%, 10% respectively. Sensory evaluation was carried out with 3 flavors; coconut milk+spices, coconut milk+sugar, milk powder+sugar for F1 formula. The taste and overall acceptability of three flavors were significantly different at p<0.05 and the spicy flavor had the highest mean score. Subsequently those three formulae were prepared in spicy flavor and those were analyzed for chemical composition and pGI value. Among 3 formulae, F1 had the highest TDF 13.84% (SD 0.08), highest RS 4.07% (SD 4.07) and the lowest pGI 33.52 (SD 0.11). The resistant starch content of three formulae showed inverse correlation with predicted glycemic index (r=-0.936, p<0.05). Accordingly, F1 formulation can be considered as the best formula for the preparation of dietary fiber rich multi legumes flake mix.
... According to Refs. [62,64], it has a predicted glycemic index of 33-50. The amount of nutritive starch which is not quickly processed and immersed but acts as a substitute in the large intestine and is partly or fully fermented is referred to as resistant starch [65]. ...
Article
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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a popular legume crop farmed primarily in Africa and used for human and livestock diets all over the world. Despite this, little study has been done on it, and it is the least used pulse crop in comparison to others. Therefore, the goal of this thorough paper was to provide insight and synthesis into the dietary and phenolic status of cowpeas, as well as their impact on human and animal diets. In addition, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, dietary fibers, minerals, and vitamins are abundant in cowpea seeds, leaves, and green pods. Cowpea is a water deficiency tolerant crop that could be used as food for humans and feed for livestock with the bulk of their macro and micronutrients. It also contains anti-nutritional elements that could be inconvenient to human and non-ruminant animal nutrition. However, various processing methods are employed to diminish or eliminate the negative effects of anti-nutritional components. Ruminants consume cowpea seeds for up to 30% of their diets. Raw cowpea seeds, for example, are included in the nutrition of ruminants, but they should not be used in non-ruminant diets without treatment. Its hulls are a low-cost prospective feed for chicken diets, with a maximum use of 15% in starter and finisher rations. Cowpea leaves and green pods are used to control or treat a variety of human diseases, including measles, smallpox, adenitis, burns, and ulcers, in addition to their nutritional benefits. Similarly, the seeds of the cowpea plant are important for the medication of different diseases, such as astringent, antipyretic, and diuretic. For liver and spleen problems, intestinal cramp, leucorrhoea, menstrual abnormalities, and urine expulsions, decoction or soup is employed. Cowpea may also fix up to 80% of the nitrogen in the soil, lowering the demand for and expense of nitrogen fertilizer. Commonly, cowpea plants and their by-products are important for less-expensive protein-based human and animal diets for less developed countries' livelihoods.
... higher resistant starch content (49.4% for Atlantic and 46.1% for Superior) compared to starches extracted from mungbean (31.5% for Berken and 35.0% for TexSprout) and corn (28.3% for Pioneer and 20.0% for Southern State). These results are in agreement with previous reports that tuber and legume starches contain higher amount of resistant starch than cereal starches (Chen et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2006). There are four types of resistant starch (RS), termed RS 1 , RS 2 , RS 3 , and RS 4 based on differences in composition, structure, and response to processing methods. ...
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Starches were isolated from Virginia-grown corn, potato, and mungbean, and their resistant starch content, molecular structure and physicochemical properties were investigated for potential applications. All starches, extracted with combination of chemical and physically method exhibited high purity with low protein, fat and ash, and high carbohydrate. Potato starches had the highest resistant starch content, while mungbean starches showed the highest amylose content. Amylose content as well as the starch granule size and structure were responsible for resistance to digestibility. Compared to their mungbean and corn counterparts, potato starches had the highest amylopectin molecular weights and largest granular size. A typical A-and B-type crystalline structure was assigned to corn and potato starches, respectively, while mungbean starches had a C A-type crystalline pattern. Both potato and mungbean starch granules were smooth, oval and irregular ellipsoids, while corn starches had polyhedral granules. The gelatinization transition temperatures (T o, Tp, and Tc) of the starches were significantly different, with the order of corn> mungbean> potato. Water absorption capacity of corn starches was lower than that of potato and mungbean starches. The results would assist food scientists in determining the potential end-uses of starches.
... Breads and cereals provide about one-third of the average daily intake of RS (≈4 g). Some countries with higher average intakes include China (14.9 g/day), Italy (8.7 g/day), and Spain (5.7 g/day) (39,40). ...
Article
To address many current claims that disparage and discourage the ingestion of carbohydrates (CHOs), wheat, and cereal grains, even whole grains, as well as to celebrate the versatility, nutritional and health benefits, and contribution of these foods to the world food supply, we felt compelled to defend their role in the diet and write this series of reviews. Where data exist, cereal grains and wheat as a source of CHOs and other important nutrients will be the focus. CHO-rich staple foods, including those from a wide array of whole and refined grains, are inexpensive sources of energy, protein, and other nutrients. Grain-based staple ingredients have been incorporated into an enormous variety of foods, becoming cultural icons and national dishes that are accepted by populations around the world and adapted to specific agricultural necessities and cultural preferences. Dietary guidance by health promotion bodies around the world recommends that 45–65% of total calories be from CHOs and reinforces the message that grains play an important role in the diet. Whole grains in particular are associated with decreased risk of certain chronic diseases, and consumption of an optimal mix of whole and refined grains is associated with a number of health benefits. Cereal grains provide a wide variety of nutrients, dietary fibers, and phytochemicals. This combination uniquely positions them as a source of nutrition to both sustain and nourish a global population.
... Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer have recently become major threats to human health in many nations at least in part due to changes in eating and drinking habits. Although the etiology is multi-factorial, diet has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for development of these diseases 15 Below are some of the scientific arguments that attempt to explain the role of legumes in managing certain diseases. ...
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Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers) and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.
... Edible canna, taro and native potato starches were also reported to contain high RS [22][23][24], probably because of their large starch granules or presence of starch-protein interactions. Tubers and legumes generally tend to have high RS, but plant sources can vary (0-80%) in their RS contents [22,25]. Moreover, hydrothermal processing can cause an increase or decrease in the RS fraction depending on the process conditions and postprocess handling [22]. ...
Article
Tropical starches including cereal starches (waxy, non-waxy rice and maize), legume starch (mung beans), tuber starches (potatoes, edible cannas, taros and tapiocas) and starchy fruit (unripe bananas) were investigated for their resistant starch (RS) content, thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, starch digestibility and the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through fermentation processes in the colon by an in vitro method. Two commercial high-fibre modified starches from corn and tapioca were also investigated for comparison. It was found that RS content of the samples varied from 10 to 52 g/100 g dry sample. All starch samples showed a single endothermic peak located broadly around 60–99 °C except both the commercial modified starches. The starch samples also exhibited as the very rapidly digested starch resulting in high values of predicted glycaemic index, ranging from 53 to 94. In vitro fermentation of the starch samples showed that SCFA production increased as the RS content of the samples increased.
... Water yam starch was chosen for this study because, in our preliminary study, it showed peculiar branched chain length distribution, longer average DP, and higher relative crystallinity compared with corn, rice, potato, Hylon V, and Hylon VII starches after gelatinization followed by HTT. Also, its RS content was greater than the reported values for other tuber and root starches including cassava and yam starches [11,12]. ...
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Debranched water yam starch was subjected to repeated hydrothermal treatment (HTT), and its physicochemical and structural properties and digestion pattern were investigated. The B-type crystalline pattern of raw starch was recrystallized to B- and CA-type patterns by debranching and repeated HTT. The degree of relative crystallinity of debranched starch gradually increased and reached its maximum (43.3%) after five repetitions of HTT. The thermal transition temperatures and melting enthalpy of recrystallized starches increased progressively, reflecting the perfection of their crystalline structure, leading to the accumulation of boiling-stable crystalline structure under repeated HTT conditions. As a result, RS of HTT starches reached a very high level (>92.2%). The boiling-stable RS content depended on the repetition of this treatment and was maximized (81.0%) after five repetitions. ---------------------------- Link download (press GET to download fulltext): http://booksdescr.org/scimag/ads.php?doi=10.1002%2Fstar.201200149&downloadname=
... Edible canna and taro flours were also reported to contain high RS (Aboubakar et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2009). Probably because of their large starch granules or presence of starch-protein interactions, tubers and legumes generally tend to have high RS, but plant sources can vary (0-80%) in their RS contents (Giczewska & Borowska, 2003;Chen et al., 2010). Moreover, hydrothermal processing can cause an increase or decrease in the RS fraction depending on the process conditions and postprocess handling (Giczewska & Borowska, 2003). ...
Article
Unripe banana, edible canna and taro flours, which have been reported to contain significant amounts of fibre, were investigated for their physicochemical properties, resistant starch (RS) content and in vitro starch digestibility, and compared with commercial high-fibre-modified starches from corn and tapioca. Differential scanning calorimetry showed a single endothermic peak located around 70–83 °C for the samples except the modified starches, which exhibited no transition enthalpy. The samples showed different pasting behaviours in the Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA) ranging from full to restricted swelling. The RS content varied from 1–26 g per 100 g dry sample, and the estimated glycaemic indices (GIs) of the samples were from 67% to 99%. Generally, samples with high RS were low in GI values. The starches produced acceptable rice noodles but with reduced rate of starch digestion and GI. The effects of the unripe banana, edible canna and taro flours on starch digestibility were either comparable or better than the commercial modified starches. These flours can substitute commercial modified starches to lower GIs of noodles and identical foods.
... The cowpea contains a high amount of resistant starch and dietary fiber and can be considered a food of low glycemic index [36]. Cowpea resistant starch has been thoroughly studied by Eashwarage et al. [37] and Chen et al. [38], while total dietary fiber in cowpea was reported by Kirse and Karklina [39], Eashwarage et al. [37], and Khan et al. [40]. According to Gonçalves et al. [41], cowpea flour can be used as a supplement to provide additional vitamin A activity and zinc in cereal-based weaning foods. ...
Chapter
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About 1 billion people are currently suffering from chronic hunger, malnutrition , and vitamin A deficiency, while it is predicted that world food production needs to increase by 70% by 2050 to satisfy 9.9 billion predicted population in the world, relying on a natural resource base that is reaching its limits and with climate change adding further pressures on agriculture and acting as the main driver of crop diversity loss. The main goal of this chapter was to discuss the role of neglected crops (arrowroot, cassava, and cowpea) as potential sources of vitamin A with case studies of Mozambique country where the current population (30.5 million-mid-2018) is predicted to more than double by mid-2050 (67.4 million) while vitamin A deficiency and food insecurity are serious issues. Crops have an important role in rural communities and are nutrient dense and can be used in diet diversification and vitamin A alleviation. They are highly adapted to agroecological niches and marginal areas. The current research reinforces that neglected crops are potential sources of vitamin A with an extra extensive phytochemical composition that together are important in alleviating vitamin A deficiency. Their production promotion must be reinforced and incorporated in crop diversification.
... Foods containing the most level of RS are especially potatoes, legumes, banana, and cereals. Several factors can influence RS quantities, including botanical origin, starch nature (amylose/amylopectin ratio, interaction between starch/nutrients), food processing (starch gelatinization degree, particle size, cellular structure, and starch granules variation), and the presence of other components (lipids, protein, dietary fiber, anti-nutrients, and organic acids) (Chen et al., 2010). ...
Article
This research is focusing on the texture, rheology and sensory properties of pasta products enriched with the sweet potato starch (SPS) as well as on the content of resistant starch in these products. SPS was extracted from orange sweet potatoes using 1 mol. L‐1 Sodium chloride solution. Durum wheat flour semolina was partially supplemented with 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) by SPS in the pasta formulation and the influence of enrichment on the cooking quality, mechanical and sensory properties and the color was observed. SPS addition resulted in decreased water absorption, shorter dough development time, but the stability of the dough was also decreased. The optimum cooking time for pasta was reduced, but only slightly, on the other side, the swelling index increased, which negatively impacted on the firmness of the products. Increasing of the SPS content also resulted in higher stickiness values for pasta. When up to 20% of wheat flour was replaced, the color of finished products was less acceptable. In the products, the resistant and total starch content was determined. Pasta cooking resulted in the reduction of resistant starch content, which was then increased by storing products for 24 h. It can be concluded that the substitution of part of semolina flour with SPS increased the level of resistant starch but on the other side, it caused some significant differences from the quality of pasta made from semolina only. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... It is fermented to varying degress by micro flora naturally occurs in large intestine. The degree of degradation various among the poly saccharides and depends on factors such as types, components and poly saccharides structure of DF, water holding capacity physical structure of plants and bacteria flora in large intestine 20 . The extent of bacterial degradation of several potential consequences; 1. ...
... These values are comparable with C. esculenta (35.19%) and Trapa sp. (36.80%) starches from previous studies [35,36]. Lower RS was observed in T. bispinosa seed with 6.92%, whereas S. sagittifolia corm starch had a comparable value of RS (35.39%) and non-RS (37.37%). ...
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Several aquatic macrophytes such as Colocasia esculenta, Eleocharis dulcis, Nelumbo nucifera, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Trapa bispinosa, and Typha angustifolia possessed carbohydrate mainly in their storage and reproductive parts. Starch morphology, total starch, and amylose content of these six freshwater plant species were determined. Their functional properties, i.e., starch crystallinity, thermal properties, and rheological behaviour were assessed. Large starch granules were in N. nucifera rhizome (>15 μm), medium-sized was N. nucifera seed (8-18 μm), while the rest of the starches were small starch granules (<8 μm). Shapes of the starch granules varied from oval and irregular with centric hilum to elongated granules with the eccentric hilum. Eleocharis dulcis corm starch had significantly higher total starch content (90.87%), followed by corms of C. esculenta (82.35%) and S. sagittifolia (71.71%). Nelumbo nucifera seed starch had significantly higher amylose content (71.45%), followed by T. angustifolia pollen (36.47%). In comparison, the waxy starch was in N. nucifera rhizome (7.63%), T. bispinosa seed (8.83%), C. esculenta corm (10.61%), and T. angustifolia rhizome (13.51%). Higher resistant starch was observed mostly in rhizomes of N. nucifera (39.34%)>T. angustifolia (37.19%) and corm parts of E. dulcis (37.41%)>S. sagittifolia (35.09%) compared to seed and pollen starches. The XRD profiles of macrophytes starches displayed in all the corms and N. nucifera seed had A-type crystallinity. The T. bispinosa seed had CA-type, whereas the rest of the starches exhibited CB-type crystallinity. Waxy starches of C. esculenta corm had higher relative crystallinity (36.91%) and viscosity (46.2 mPa s) than regular starches. Based on thermal properties, high-amylose of N. nucifera seed and T. angustifolia pollen resulted in higher gelatinization enthalpy (19.93 and 18.66 J g⁻¹, respectively). Starch properties showed equally good potential as commercial starches in starch-based food production based on their starch properties and functionality. 1. Introduction Starch plays a vital role in food and nonfood industries, e.g., pharmaceutical, paper, textiles, biomedical, and polymer, because of its gelling characteristics, thickening, water binder, and food system stabilizing capacities [1]. Research on the structure and physicochemical properties of starch in cultivated plants, Zea mays (maize), Manihot esculenta (cassava), and Solanum tuberosum (potato) resulted in their extensive utilization in food industries. However, other plants besides those mentioned above may possess potential and promising alternative starch sources. Over the years, aquatic plants’ usage has become increasingly important; for example, rice, Oryza sativa, is a human staple diet [2]. Detailed studies of starch isolated from aquatic macrophytes are increasing and mostly focused on specific plants such as water chestnut, lotus, rice, and taro. Asian countries such as China and Japan had cultivated aquatic macrophytes such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis), water caltrop (Trapa bispinosa), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and arrowhead (Sagittaria sp.) for starch-based food. The research conducted showed that starches from macrophytes could also be a promising candidate as an energy source in the food-related industry. Water chestnut corm flour as a thickening agent and dusting powder in food preparation [3], arrowhead corms, and water caltrop fruits are eaten boiled or cooked and can be dried and ground into a powder [4, 5]. Taro tuber possesses low fat, high carbohydrate, and minerals content and suitable as a food ingredient for baby food, chips, and bread [6]. Lotus seeds, consumed boiled or processed into powder, are also used in the pharmaceutical industry to treat inflammation, arrhythmia, cancer, and skin diseases [7]. Most of the starch’s diverse uses are from cultivated species [8–11], and research on the wild species is still scarce [12]. Research on starch isolated from freshwater macrophytes such as cattails, arrowhead, yellow nutsedge, and duckweed and their physicochemical properties are also available and less prevalent [13, 14]. Although consumed by local communities, their local utilization was seldom reported in the literature. Nowadays, consumers are engaging with resistant starch (RS) to promote health benefits similar to high-amylose starch. RS is poorly digested starches and absorbed in healthy individuals’ small intestine due to its complex molecular structure [15]. They are either entirely or partially fermented as a food source for bacteria, primarily inhabiting the colon. There are limited studies conducted regarding RS in aquatic macrophytes starches. Investigating the aquatic macrophytes starches, among others, is to create awareness of their various uses and economic values. For those involved in aquatic macrophytes, it can be part of their added income generation. This study also investigated the potential use of aquatic macrophytes starches in other applications in a starch-based industry. Thus, the present study was to systematically evaluate the starch structure, composition, functional properties, and also their resistant starch (RS) content isolated from selected commonly consumed aquatic macrophytes such as taro, lotus, and water chestnut and rarely consumed, e.g., arrowhead, water caltrop, and cattail in Malaysia. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Plant Materials Two kilograms (2) kg of edible storage organ from five macrophytes species; corms of E. dulcis, S. sagittifolia, and C. esculenta; rhizomes of N. nucifera and T. angustifolia; seeds of N. nucifera and T. bispinosa; and pollen of T. angustifolia were peeled, washed, and isolated for starches. 2.2. Isolation of Native Starch Native starch was isolated following a method described by Vasanthan [16] with a slight modification. The plant materials were added to water in a ratio of 1 : 10. The mixture was then blended for 5-10 minutes until a smooth slurry is formed. Approximately 0.01% () sodium metabisulfite was added into the slurry and left for 30 minutes before filtering using 100 μm nylon mesh cloth. The filtrated starch was centrifuged at 8000 rpm at 20°C for 20 minutes. The supernatant was discarded, and the pellet was oven-dried at 40°C for 24 hours. The dried starch was ground using mortar and pestle, sieved (250 μm), labelled, stored in a tightly closed container, and kept dry in a desiccator (10% relative humidity). 2.3. Polarized Optical Microscopy A small amount (0.2 mg) of starch powder was placed on a microscope slide () by using a spatula. The starch was stained with 0.25% Lugol’s solution. The slide was then covered with a coverslip and observed under a compound light microscope (DM 750, Leica Microsystem, Wetzlar, Germany) equipped with a camera set (ICC50 W, Leica Microsystem, Wetzlar, Germany), polarized filter and analyzer. Images of starch granule and hilum were observed and captured. The granule sizes were measured using the ImageJ software (NIH, US). 2.4. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Structural characteristics of the starch granules were examined with scanning electron microscope Jeol JSM-6400 (Jeol Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDS) PGT Spirit at an acceleration of 20 keV. Samples of starch were mounted on aluminium specimen stubs with double-sided adhesive tape and sputtered with a 20-30 nm gold layer using a sputter coater before observation. 2.5. Chemical Properties and Resistant Starch Macrocomponents (total starch and amylose) and resistant starch were determined using the Megazyme assay kit with given procedures (Megazyme International Ireland Ltd., Bray, Ireland). Microcomponents, i.e., protein, lipid, and phosphorus, were determined the content by following the Official Method of AOAC International [17]. 2.6. X-Ray Diffraction Starch powders were scanned through the 2θ of 5°-45° using X-ray diffractograms (Xpert Pro MPD, Philips, Netherlands). Traces were obtained using a Cu-Kα radiation detector with a nickel filter and scintillation counter operating under the following conditions: 40 kV, 30 mA, scattering slit 25 nm, K-Alpha1 wavelength 1.78901 Å, K-Alpha1 wavelength 1.7929 Å, Ratio K-Alpha2/K-Alpha1 0.5, and scanning rate of 0.02°/min. The degree of crystallinity of samples was estimated and analyzed following the method of Zhang et al. [15]. 2.7. Starch Gelatinization Thermal properties of starches were studied using differential scanning calorimeter, DSC (Model-823e, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland). Starch (~10 mg, dry weight) was placed into a 40 μL capacity aluminium pan with the addition of 70% distilled water to achieve starch-water suspension. The DSC analyzer’s calibration was conducted using indium, and an empty aluminium pan was used as a reference. Sample pans were heated from 25 to 120°C at the rate of 10°C/min. Onset temperature (), peak temperature (), conclusion temperature (), and gelatinization enthalpy () (J/g dry starch) were determined in triplicate. 2.8. Rheological Behaviour Rheological properties of starches suspended in distilled water were determined by rotational rheometer (C-DG26.7/QC, RheolabQC, Anton Par Ltd, Germany). 6% () suspension of native starches were prepared by dispersing a suitable mass of dried starch granules in distilled water by a ratio of 1 : 17 with constant stirring. The viscosity (mPa s) and shear stress (Pa) were determined following the method by Chrungoo and Devi [18]. 2.9. Statistical Analysis The data recorded in all the tables were mean values and standard error. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA) was performed for the data and, if significant, followed by a post hoc Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) () using the SPSS 16.0 Statistical Software Program, IBM, Chicago, IL. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Starch Granule Morphology Starch granules of plant species varied in size from 1 mm up to 100 mm, for taxonomic discrimination to be possible. Nelumbo nucifera rhizome had significantly larger starch granules with 20.96 μm. In contrast, the smaller granules were in C. esculenta corm and T. angustifolia pollen with 2.95 and 2.09 μm, respectively (Table 1). Pomeranz [19] categorized the starch granule size based on commercial starch into three groups; large, 15-100 μm (potato starch), medium-sized, 10-25 μm (maize or corn starch), and small, 3-8 μm (rice starch). From the starch classification, N. nucifera rhizome possesses large starch granules while N. nucifera seed has medium-sized starch granules that ranged 8.11-17.78 μm. The corms of C. esculenta, E. dulcis and S. sagittifolia, T. bispinosa seed, T. angustifolia rhizome, and pollen have small starch granules ranging 0.4-13.44 μm. The size of starch granules affects starch granules gels and paste performance as the larger the granule, the faster it swells, due to less molecular bonding than smaller granule [20]. For example, potato starch possessed a large granule (15-100 μm), which resulted in faster gelatinization range (56-69°C). In contrast, the smaller granules of regular corn (5-25 μm) resulted in a slightly slower gelatinization range with 62-80°C (Pomeranz, 2019). In this present study, a large starch granule of N. nucifera rhizome gelatinizes faster than others. Besides, Pomeranz [19] also reported that small starch granules are relatively rare, which are suitable in dusting starches used in candy dusting, cosmetics, filling agent for the biodegradable polyethylene film, and tyre molding release agents. Also, in taro, its small starch has been proven to be easily digested, hence a potential commercial value in baby foods and patients with gastrointestinal problems for ease of bioassimilation [21]. The granular structure and shape were also varied, as shown in Figure 1. Small granules of C. esculenta corm and T. angustifolia had predominantly polygonal and irregular shapes with few oval shapes. In contrast, the larger granules normally were observed with predominantly longitudinal and rod-shaped such as in N. nucifera rhizome. Tester et al. [22] reported that starch granules were as simple or compound. Some plant contains compound granules (C. esculenta corm and N. nucifera rhizome) due to the fusing of different granules developing simultaneously within a single amyloplast during biosynthesis [23]. The rest of the species were as simple granules. Species Part Granules size (μm) The shape of starch granule Hilum Small starch granule (3-8 μm) C. esculenta Corm Polygonal, irregular, and oval Centric E. dulcis Corm Big elongated granule, small oval granule, and spherical with smooth surfaces Centric S. sagittifolia Corm Round and oval with smooth surfaces Centric and eccentric T. bispinosa Seed Elongated with smooth surfaces Centric T. angustifolia Rhizome Round and oval with smooth surfaces Centric T. angustifolia Pollen Polygonal, irregular, and oval Centric Medium-sized starch granule (10-25 μm) N. nucifera Seed Oval and ellipsoidal with a smooth surface Centric Large starch granule (15-100 μm) N. nucifera Rhizome Small oval granules, large longitudinal, rod-shaped granules Centric and eccentric Data are mean values of , and different superscripts (a>b>c>d>e) are significantly different (DMRT, ).
... Published RS values for individual foods vary widely. Therefore, a database created from the minimum and maximum RS values published by various authors [46,[68][69][70] has been created by Edith Cowan University researchers and will be utilised in this study to calculate RS intake. This database has previously been used for nutrition research [71]. ...
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Background Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is prevalent with lasting health implications for the mother and offspring. Medical nutrition therapy is the foundation of GDM management yet achieving optimal glycaemic control often requires treatment with medications, like insulin. New dietary strategies to improve GDM management and outcomes are required. Gut dysbiosis is a feature of GDM pregnancies, therefore, dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota may offer a new avenue for management. Resistant starch is a fermentable dietary fibre known to alter the gut microbiota and enhance production of short-chain fatty acids. Evidence suggests that short-chain fatty acids improve glycaemia via multiple mechanisms, however, this has not been evaluated in GDM. Methods An open-label, parallel-group design study will investigate whether a high dietary resistant starch intake or resistant starch supplement improves glycaemic control and changes the gut microbiome compared with standard dietary advice in women with newly diagnosed GDM. Ninety women will be randomised to one of three groups - standard dietary treatment for GDM (Control), a high resistant starch diet or a high resistant starch diet plus a 16 g resistant starch supplement. Measurements taken at Baseline (24 to 30-weeks’ gestation), Day 10 and Day 56 (approximately 36 weeks’ gestation) will include fasting plasma glucose levels, microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in stool, 3-day dietary intake records and bowel symptoms questionnaires. One-week post-natal data collection will include microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations of maternal and neonatal stools, microbial composition of breastmilk, birthweight, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Mixed model analysis of variance will assess change in glycaemia and permutation-based multivariate analysis of variance will assess changes in microbial composition within and between intervention groups. Distance-based linear modelling will identify correlation between change in stool microbiota, short-chain fatty acids and measures of glycaemia. Discussion To improve outcomes for GDM dyads, evaluation of a high dietary intake of resistant starch to improve glycaemia through the gut microbiome needs to be established. This will expand the dietary interventions available to manage GDM without medication. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12620000968976p . Registered 28 September 2020
... Studies have shown the benefits of resistant starch and amylose on human health and microbiota. Resistant starch cannot be fully digested by human digestive enzymes, becomes suitable for the use of probiotic microorganisms and provides health benefits by increasing the production of SCFAs in the large intestines with its fermentation (Chen et al., 2010). ...
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In this study bifidogenic potential of cowpea extract on the fermentation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in modified TPY (Tryptone Peptone Yeast Extract) broth and milk were investigated. The optical density (OD650) in microbial cells, probiotic bacteria count, viability proportion index (VPI), prebiotic activity score (PAS) properties, lactic acid, total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and amino acid concentration were effected with cowpea extract bioactive substrates in in vitro and milk models. The addition of cowpea effected milk gelation and physicochemical characteristics. As a result, the counts of bacteria remained with the suggested minimal concentration in probiotic food (>6 log10 cfu/mL) during the fermentation and storage. Cowpea flour extract showed high antioxidant activity as a result of the degradation of the phenolic compounds it contains by bacteria. The results of the current study show that cowpea has positive effects on nutritional and functional properties as well as in the fermentation process of in vitro and fermented milk.
... Surface Electron Microscopic studies revealed that starch granules connected with each other after boiling. Stir-frying showed mud-like surface, whereas oil-immersed and compact surface was observed in fried potatoes (Chen et al., 2010;Tian, Chen, Chen, Liu, & Ye, 2018). Both varieties showed similar trend of reducing sugars during in vitro digestion. ...
... For this reason, taro should be preferentially consumed after cooking in order to avoid these undesired effects. [13] [14] [15] [14] [16][17] [18] [11] ...
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Encyclopedia entry available at https://encyclopedia.pub/7369
... Edible canna and taro flours were also reported to contain high RS (Aboubakar et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2009). Probably because of their large starch granules or presence of starch-protein interactions, tubers and legumes generally tend to have high RS, but plant sources can vary (0-80%) in their RS contents (Giczewska & Borowska, 2003;Chen et al., 2010). Moreover, hydrothermal processing can cause an increase or decrease in the RS fraction depending on the process conditions and postprocess handling (Giczewska & Borowska, 2003). ...
... In the autoclaving process, the starch granule structure is damaged and swollen so that it is irregular in shape. Then in cooling process, starch retrogradation occurs, which gelatinized starch will be converted into crystals, where the crystalline form will be resistant to digestive enzymes [16]. ...
... [12]. na-Not applied ** [13,14]. ...
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Resistant starch (RS) has been reported to reduce body fat in obese mice. However, this effect has not been demonstrated in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of RS in 19 volunteers with normal body weights. A randomized, double-blinded and crossover design clinical trial was conducted. The study subjects were given either 40 g high amylose RS2 or energy-matched control starch with three identical diets per day throughout the study. The effect of RS was evaluated by monitoring body fat, glucose metabolism, gut hormones, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and metabolites. The visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were significantly reduced following RS intake. Acetate and early-phase insulin, C-peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion were increased, and the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were decreased after the RS intervention. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, certain gut microbes were significantly decreased after RS supplementation, whereas the genus Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 showed an increase in abundance. Other potential signatures of the RS intervention included Akkermansia, Ruminococcus_2, Victivallis, and Comamonas. Moreover, the baseline abundance of the genera Streptococcus, Ruminococcus_torques_group, Eubacterium_hallii_group, and Eubacterium_eligens_group was significantly associated with the hormonal and metabolic effects of RS. These observations suggest that a daily intake of 40 g of RS is effective in modulating body fat, SCFAs, early-phase insulin and GLP-1 secretion and the gut microbiota in normal-weight subjects.
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Among four wheat preparations (freshly cooked) RS content varied from 0.47g% in Puri to 0.61g% (food as eaten) in Paratha (Table 3). Chapatti and Bhatura contained 0.49g% and 0.54g% RS (food as eaten) respectively. These are typical Indian wheat based preparations, and unlike boiled rice, very few studies have been done on these wheat preparations with respect to their RS content. Premavalli et al ²⁹have reported findings of a study in which the RS content of Wheat roti (chapatti) was found to be 1.4g/ 100g total starch. In another study²⁸, RS content in chapatti, paratha, puri (all made from wheat flour) was found to be 2.9g%, 2.2g%,and 1.4g% (dry weight basis) respectively. In both these studies RS values reported are higher than the values obtained in the current study. This could be because, in these studies the results are reported either on ‘total starch’ basis or ‘dry weight’ basis. Both would give higher values as compared to results, when reported on the basis of ‘food as eaten’. RS in five pulse preparations was estimated in the current study (Table 3). It ranged from 0.09g% in freshly cooked Pithle to 2.38g% in cooked Chhole. The RS values for germinated Moong, MoongUsal, and soaked Kabuli chana were 0.79g%, 0.87g% and 0.73g% (food as eaten) respectively. Except for Pithle RS content of all other pulse preparations was higher than rice (except Khichdi) and wheat preparations. But these values were much lower as compared to values reported by Katyalet al³⁰for pressure cooked decorticated pulses, where it was approximately 8.5g in 100g. Decorticated legumes may have higher values due to changes occurring in starch structure during decortications which involves removal of the outer covering of the grain either by dry or wet method. This may contribute to RS formation. Removal of outer cover also increases starch concentration, possibly leading to an increase in RS. RS values reported by Yadav et al²⁷ for conventionally boiled or pressure cooked pulses varied from a minimum of 3.4% in pea to a maximum of 4.9% in lentils. These values were also higher than the values obtained in the current study. But in this study by Yadav etal the legumes were first converted into flours and then cooked using moist heat method. Pressure cooking was done using an autoclave and not a pressure cooker. These differences in the processing and cooking techniques could partly be responsible for differences in RS content of cooked legumes reported in different studies.
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Background: Gut microbiota in diabetics, the number is in an unstable condition, and sufferers tend to need foods low in calories not to raise blood sugar levels drastically. Nipah grown in coastal areas has a fairly high starch content, potentially as a source of resistant starch that a beneficial colon microbiota can ferment. The purpose of writing this review is to expand knowledge and provide information to the wider community regarding the potential of Nipah, which can be used as a source of new resistant starch that can be used in diabetes and modulation of normal microflora of the body. Method: This review writing procedure is done by searching various literature electronically, namely accessing International and National article searches and books through databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and others. The collected data is then processed using Mendeley and then synthetic with narrative methods to conclude (interpretation). Results: Results in the writing of this review, namely obtained Nipah fruit flour with a high enough starch content, which is 35.66%, which has the potential as a source of resistant starch. Conclusion: The writing of this review is that the high content of Nipah starch can be developed into a cheap, resistant starch innovation specifically for people with diabetes.
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Consumption of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is growing worldwide. Heavy metal contamination can affect sweet potato quality. It is necessary to assess that effects of soil nutrient load on the distribution of metal in sweet potatoes. Levels of metals in soil and tissue of sweet potato roots were determined from samples acquired from eight sites in eastern South Africa. The metal content was assessed to determine whether they conform to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and to assess for potential toxicities. At Stanger, north of Durban, the typical elemental concentrations (μg·g dry mass) in sweet potato and exchangeable/total concentrations in soil were Ca (1712 and 1306/2261), Cr (3.24 and 0.15/49.90), Cu (6.88 and 3.64/26.7), Fe (33.1 and 95.4/23505), Mg (1822 and 45.3/3007), Pb (21.9 and ND/124.7), and Zn (6.64 and 9.99/66.6). At some sites As and Pb levels were higher than permissible levels for vegetables in South Africa. Relative to total elemental concentration in soil, a low percentage was in exchangeable form. The elements Cr and Mg appeared to be easily taken up by sweet potato, but concentrations of nutrients in plant tissue depended on where the plant was grown.
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Green bananas occupy an important position in the diet of Tanzanians with potential beneficial health effects. Banana flours prepared from five Tanzania banana varieties (Mzuzu, Malindi, Mshale, Bukoba, and Moshi) were compared for the proximate composition, structure, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, and in vitro digestibility properties. The total starch content of banana flours was 58.01%–68.74%, and the amylose content was 16.67%–23.11%. All the samples exhibited B-type crystals. Bukoba had the highest pasting temperature and peak viscosity, and Malindi had the lowest breakdown. The peak temperature (Tp) and the enthalpy change (ΔH) of samples differed from 65.99 °C to 67.25 °C and from 7.98 to 12.59 J/g, respectively. The total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content in banana flour were positively correlated with DPPH and FRAP values, respectively. Bukoba and Moshi presented the stronger antioxidant activities among the varieties. Banana flours with the high resistant starch (RS) content (89.20%–90.86% of total starch) were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Banana flour can be considered as a potential source of bioactive components. The varying physicochemical properties of banana flours from different varieties could broaden their application as formulations in food and nonfood industries and promote the rational utilization of banana resources of Tanzania.
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Diabetes and obesity are metabolic diseases that have become alarming conditions in recent decades. Their rate of increase is becoming a growing concern worldwide. Recent studies have established that the composition and dysfunction of the gut microbiota are associated with the development of diabetes. For this reason, strategies such as the use of prebiotics to improve intestinal microbial structure and function have become popular. Consumption of prebiotics for modulating the gut microbiota results in the production of microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids that play essential roles in reducing blood glucose levels, mitigating insulin resistance, reducing inflammation, and promoting the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the host, and this accounts for the observed remission of metabolic diseases. Prebiotics can be either naturally extracted from non-digestible carbohydrate materials or synthetically produced. In this review, we discussed current findings on how the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites may influence host metabolism to promote health. We provided evidence from various studies that show the ability of prebiotic consumption to alter gut microbial profile, improve gut microbial metabolism and functions, and improve host physiology to alleviate diabetes and obesity. We conclude among other things that the application of systems biology coupled with bioinformatics could be essential in ascertaining the exact mechanisms behind the prebiotic-gut microbe-host interactions required for diabetes and obesity improvement.
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Diabetes and obesity are metabolic diseases that have become alarming conditions in recent decades. Their rate of increase is becoming a growing concern worldwide. Recent studies have established that the composition and dysfunction of the gut microbiota are associated with the development of diabetes. For this reason, strategies such as the use of prebiotics to improve intestinal microbial structure and function have become popular. Consumption of prebiotics for modulating the gut microbiota results in the production of microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids that play essential roles in reducing blood glucose levels, mitigating insulin resistance, reducing inflammation, and promoting the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the host, and this accounts for the observed remission of metabolic diseases. Prebiotics can be either naturally extracted from non-digestible carbohydrate materials or synthetically produced. In this review, we discussed current findings on how the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites may influence host metabolism to promote health. We provided evidence from various studies that show the ability of prebiotic consumption to alter gut microbial profile, improve gut microbial metabolism and functions, and improve host physiology to alleviate diabetes and obesity. We conclude among other things that the application of systems biology coupled with bioinformatics could be essential in ascertaining the exact mechanisms behind the prebiotic–gut microbe–host interactions required for diabetes and obesity improvement.
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The effect of drying temperature and air velocity on the chemical composition, colour parameters, total and resistant starch contents, bioactive and pasting properties of the taro flours were investigated in the present study. For this aim, taro tubers were dried at different temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) and air velocity (0.75, 1.25 and 2.00 m/s) levels. Generally all of the characteristics of the flours were significantly affected by drying conditions. Resistant starch of the flours changed between 33.1 g and 51.4 g/100 g flour and the flour produced at 50 °C and 2.00 m/s had the highest resistant starch content. Total phenolic content of the flours varied between 1.20 and 4.17 g GA/L and it generally increased with increasing air velocity. Pasting properties of the starches were also markedly influenced and the flour manufactured at 50 °C with 0.50 m/s air velocity showed the lowest retrogradation and syneresis rate considering setback values. Final viscosity of the taro flours ranged between 2219 and 3085 cP. The results of the present study indicated that drying temperature and air velocity should be adjusted regarding physicochemical properties of the taro flours, determining probable usage areas of the flours.
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The digestibility of the starch in plant foods is highly variable, and is dependent on a number of factors, including the physical structure of both the starch and the food matrix. An in vitro technique has been developed to categorize starch in plant foods according to its likely rate and extent of digestion in the human small intestine. The in vitro method provides values for rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch (RS). In the present study values for the RS content of foods, as measured by the analytical technique, were compared with the recovery of starch from these foods when fed to healthy ileostomates. Nine ileostomy subjects were given a polysaccharide-free diet with a breakfast supplement, on each of 2 d (two subjects) or 3 d (seven subjects), of biscuits made from wheat, potato or banana flours or from moist-heat-processed wheat or maize flours. RS intakes measured in vifro ranged from 8·5 to 15·0 g/d for the test biscuits, and mean starch recoveries in ileostomy effluent were 100·4 (n5, range 91−106)% of those values, but there was substantial variation between individuals. It is proposed that RS is defined as ‘the sum of starch and starch-degradation products that, on average, reach the human large intestine’. The analytical method for the measurement of RS in vitro based on this definition is shown to provide an accurate prediction of the average amount of starch that is likely to escape complete digestion and absorption in the human small intestine.
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For nutritional purposes, starch in foods may be classified into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS). RS may be further divided into three categories according to the reason for resistance to digestion. A method is reported for the measurement of total starch, RDS, SDS, RS and three RS fractions in starchy foods, using controlled enzymic hydrolysis with pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The released glucose is measured by colorimetry, using a glucose oxidase kit. Values for RDS and SDS in foods obtained by the method reflect the rate of starch digestion in vivo. Values for RS are similar to the amounts of starch escaping digestion in the small intestine of ileostomates, and are a guide to the amounts of starch likely to enter the colon for fermentation. Results are given for a number of starchy foods.
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In the present study, the potential of including intact kernels from different cereals was evaluated as a means of developing bread with 'lente' characteristics. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to bread products were studied in healthy subjects. In parallel, the in-vitro enzymic starch availability was investigated. Also studied were the contents of in-vitro indigestible starch. Coarse bread (CB) products composed of 80% pre-boiled kernels from wheat, rye, oats or barley and 20% white wheat flour were baked. In the case of barley, two forms for pre-treatments was used, boiling and scalding. A bread with 80% wholemeal barley flour and 20% white wheat flour (WMB) was also included and a white wheat bread (WWB) was used as reference. The glycaemic and insulinaemic indexes (GI and II, respectively) were calculated from the 95 and 120 min incremental blood glucose and insulin areas. The GIs were significantly lower with CB from wheat, rye and barley than with WWB. In contrast, the GIs with CB from oats and WMB from barley were similar to that with WWB. The GIs and IIs were generally closely correlated. However, the II with CB from oats was significantly lower than with WWB despite similar GI. The GIs, and in particular IIs, were closely correlated with the hydrolysis rate index (HI) obtained in vitro, and this procedure can be recommended as a tool for ranking of starchy food. It is concluded that the botanical structure is an important determinant of the enzymic availability and hence of the metabolic responses. The in-vitro indigestible starch content was highest in CB from barley (1.2% dry weight basis) and lowest in CB from oats (0.5%).
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The purpose of this work was to develop a method for measurement of the major forms of resistant starch (RS) in foods. The analytical procedure was chosen to mimic physiologic conditions, and included chewing as a prestep before incubation with pepsin, pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The undigestible polysaccharides, including RS, were recovered by ethanol precipitation and subsequent filtration. RS was analyzed as total starch in the filter residue. The residues were also used for gravimetric determination of dietary fiber after correcting for remaining protein, ash and RS. The potentially available starch fraction was determined from analysis of glucose in the filtrate. The foods included were prepared to resemble products for which RS figures were available from in vivo measurements, and/or from analysis with other current in vitro methods. For six of these foods, and for three additional starchy materials, RS figures were compared with in vivo and/or in vitro data for identical products. The pooled standard deviation for the suggested RS method was 2.9%. A high correlation was obtained with in vivo figures from the literature for 19 realistic foods (r = 0.97; y = 0.77x + 0.45). After correction for RS, dietary fiber figures corresponded well with conventional gravimetric dietary fiber analysis for 14 starchy foods (r = 0.97). It is concluded that the procedure described here provides a convenient way to estimate RS content of realistic foods, allowing parallel determination of the potentially available starch fraction and dietary fiber.
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In a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study, 12 Australians (of white descent) consumed a diet typical of low-income communities in China and an average Australian diet so that effects on fecal markers thought to be relevant to colon cancer risk could be compared. The Chinese diet contained 35.3 g starch/MJ daily [including 2 g resistant starch (RS)/MJ and 1.5 g nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs)/MJ]; the Australian diet contained 12 g starch/MJ daily (including 0.8 g RS and 2.7 g NSPs/MJ). Subjects followed each diet for 3 wk. Serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after the low-fat, high-starch Chinese diet than after the Australian diet (mean +/- SEM: 4.17 +/- 0.30 compared with 5.04 +/- 0.28 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05), a difference indicative of dietary compliance. Fecal pH was lower after the Chinese diet (6.51 +/- 0.04) than after the Australian diet (6.63 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). For all other fecal markers examined, however, the Chinese diet produced less favorable changes, including lower fecal bulk (86 +/- 11 compared with 141 +/- 20 g wet wt/d, P < 0.01), slower transit through the gut (69 +/- 6 compared with 56 +/- 7 h, P = 0.06), lower fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids [72.8 +/- 7.3 compared with 98 +/- 7.6 mmol/L (including butyrate: 12.2 +/- 1.3 compared with 18.4 +/- 2.3 mmol/L), P < 0.05], and higher fecal concentrations of potentially damaging ammonia (540 +/- 50 compared with 450 +/- 40 mg/L, P < 0.01) and phenols (109.2 +/- 13.2 compared with 68.5 +/- 12.9 mg/L, P < 0.01). These results suggest that consumption of a high-starch diet alone is insufficient to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.
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The aims of this study were to measure the amount of starch from partially resistant starches (retrograded and complexed high-amylose cornstarches) escaping small-intestinal digestion in healthy humans by use of an intubation method and to compare these data with data obtained by indirect in vitro methods. Experiments were carried out in vivo in 6 healthy humans by using ileal intubation and stool analysis and in vitro by using 3 different methods for analyzing resistant starch. In intubated subjects, 51 +/- 2% of the retrograded and 21 +/- 2% of the complexed starch was delivered to the ileum and was fermented almost completely in the colon. In vitro estimates of the absorption of resistant starch were much lower. We conclude that technologically modified starches may substantially increase the amount of carbohydrate available for colonic fermentation in humans, but that in vitro measurements of resistant starch are inaccurate for predicting malabsorption in healthy humans.
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Resistant starch (RS) has been defined as the sum of starch and starch-degradation products that reach the human large intestine (Champ, 1994), and it is now regarded as a sub-fraction of starch with a positive impact on colonic welfare and lipid metabolism. An early estimate of the RS intake in Europe gave an average value of approximately 4 g/d (Dyssler & Hoffem, 1994 a ). However, since no information is available for Italy, the aim of the present study was to estimate the intake of RS in the Italian diet by direct analysis of RS in a range of typical foods representing the main sources of starch intake in the country. The selection of representative foods and of food consumption data were based on published results of the National Food Consumption Study conducted during the 1980s by the National Institute of Nutrition on 10 000 households, using weighed-food records plus inventory methodologies (Saba et al. 1990; Turrini et al. 1991). Three main groups of foods were considered: cereals (pasta, rice, bread and bread products, and pastries), potatoes, legumes. Different commercial brands for each sample were purchased, according to the known presence on the market. Samples were prepared ‘as eaten’ and submitted to simulated chewing, followed by total and resistant starch determination using the enzymic procedure published as a result of the EC Concerted Action EURESTA (Champ, 1992). From these results, the estimated average intake of RS in Italy was found to be 8.5 g/d, with regional differences (from 7.2 g/d in the north-west to 9.2 g/d in the south) mainly due to the different consumption of some typical Italian starchy food (bread, pasta, legumes).
Article
The purpose of this work was to develop a method for measurement of the major forms of resistant starch (RS) in foods. The analytical procedure was chosen to mimic physiologic conditions, and included chewing as a prestep before incubation with pepsin, pancreatin and amyloglucosidase. The undigestible polysaccharides, including RS, were recovered by ethanol precipitation and subsequent filtration. RS was analyzed as total starch in the filter residue. The residues were also used for gravimetric determination of dietary fiber after correcting for remaining protein, ash and RS. The potentially available starch fraction was determined from analysis of glucose in the filtrate. The foods included were prepared to resemble products for which RS figures were available from in vivo measurements, and/or from analysis with other current in vitro methods. For six of these foods, and for three additional starchy materials, RS figures were compared with in vivo and/or in vitro data for identical products. The pooled standard deviation for the suggested RS method was 2.9%. A high correlation was obtained with in vivo figures from the literature for 19 realistic foods (r = 0.97; y = 0.77x + 0.45). After correction for RS, dietary fiber figures corresponded well with conventional gravimetric dietary fiber analysis for 14 starchy foods (r = 0.97). It is concluded that the procedure described here provides a. convenient way to estimate RS content of realistic foods, allowing parallel determination of the potentially available starch fraction and dietary fiber.
Article
Starches were purified from barley flours milled from Waxbar, Glacier, high-amylose Glacier (HAG) and hull-less high-amylose Glacier (HHAG) cultivars. Wheat starch, maize amylopectin, maize amylose, and normal maize starch were used for comparative controls. Starches were either boiled or moisture-autoclaved (3 or 12 times) with subsequent cooling overnight, after which enzyme-resistant starch (ERS) was measured. In vitro digestibility and hydrolysis rates over time were determined. Post- prandial glucose responses in rats were investigated with starches from Waxbar, Glacier, HAG, and wheat. Production of ERS varied from 0.6% in waxy starches to 18.6% in the high-amylose barleys, compared to 44.2% in maize amylose starch. Boiling of starches produced only marginal effects on digestibility and hydrolysis rates, and no effects on blood Both rate and extent of starch hydrolysis in vitro are regarded as predictors of metabolic responses to complex carbohydrate in vitro (O'Dea and Holm 1985). It has been well established that starch hydrolysis differences correlate with postprandial blood glucose changes in humans under experimental conditions (Brand et al 1985, Bornet et al 1989, Lund and Johnson 1991).
Article
Starch was isolated from either raw or steam-heated black, red, and lima beans. Isolates from steam-heated legumes were rich in indigestible (resistant) starch (19-31%, dmb), a fact not observed when raw seeds were used. Similarly, resistant starch measured directly in conventionally and high-pressure steamed beans was 3-5 times higher than in the raw pulses, suggesting retrogradation as the major mechanism behind the reduction in digestibility. Thus, steam-heating comes forth as an effective way to produce resistant starch in legumes. Prolonged steaming as well as short dry pressure heating decreased the enzymatically assessed total starch content of whole beans by 2-3% (dmb), indicating that these treatments may induce formation of other types of indigestible starch.
Article
To predict physiologic functions of recrystallized amylose (RCA), the true resistant starch (RS) content of RCA in the small intestine was directly measured using ileorectostomized rats where the distal ileum was anastomosed to the rectum (the cecum and colon were surgically resected together). The estimated in vivo resistant starch content of RCA was the same as the value obtained from the in vitro enzymatic RS determination (∼50%). RCA resistance to amylolytic enzymes in the small intestine was retained even after RCA incorporation into processed foods, and a bread containing 20% RCA showed a significantly lower glycemic response in rats compared with that of a control bread. Also, RCA ingestion significantly and dose-dependently decreased the body fat accretion and lowered serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in rats compared with cornstarch. These lipid-lowering effects of RCA were comparable to those obtained with high-amylose cornstarch. The restricted energy value as well as suppressed insulin response with RCA ingestion might be related to preferable changes in lipid metabolism. These nutritional properties of RCA may suggest a possible benefit as an alternative source of resistant starch for preventing diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and so on.
Article
Resistant starch (RS) encompasses forms of starch, which are not accessible to digestive enzymes. By far, retrograded starch, and particularly retrograded amylose, are the most thermally stable forms. Retrograded amylose is especially useful as a source of thermally stable RS3 for commercial food applications, since it survives most food processes.Retrograded starch has been studied extensively for understanding the behavior of gels and certain staling processes in foods. Characterization of retrograded starch has been done as it interferes with the total dietary fiber (TDF) assay, with an emphasis on the negative impact of retrogradation. Until recently, little is known on the nutritional and commercial value for retrograded starch as an RS3 product.Early studies into the digestibility implied that retrograded amylose was non-nutritive, but more recent studies show that amylases, in fact, slowly attack the structure. Consequently, glucose and other oligosaccharides are released from retrograded starch over a sustained period through the normal digestive process. Modulation of glucose release and uptake in humans can be an important consideration in the use of resistant starch in food products for certain target groups, such as diabetics and athletes.Sources of resistant starch are reviewed, with a focus on the principles behind the production of a food ingredient highly concentrated in retrograded amylose. Applications include a product for modulating the glucose response of diabetics, and effects on an extruded cereal product.
Article
A method for resistant starch (RS) determination in food and food products is proposed. The main features are: removal of protein; removal of digestible starch; solubilization and enzymatic hydrolysis of RS; and quantification of RS as glucose released. Stomach and intestine physiological conditions (pH, transit time) were approximately simulated. All operations were performed in a 50ml centrifuge tube. Reference materials and food products were analysed by three laboratories. Statistical analysis included repeatability and reproducibility. This procedure is quite satisfactory for starchy foods containing appreciable quantities of RS and it may be useful for nutritional labelling of foodstuffs. For samples containing ⩽ 1% RS, differences are not significant and they can be considered as foods with a negligible RS content.
Article
An in vitro procedure to measure the rate of starch digestion in starchy common foodstuffs was developed. A first-order equation that rules the hydrolytic process was found: CC∞ (1−e−kt). Besides an in vivo assay, to calculate the glycemic index (GI), was carried out on thirty healthy volunteers. This is a simple in vitro method that could be used to estimate the metabolic glycemic response to a food. The best correlated value with in vivo glycemic responses was the percentage of starch hydrolysis at 90 min (r= 0.909, p≤0.05, GI1 = 39.21 + 0.803(H90)).
Article
Starch not hydrolyzed in the small intestine is considered to be enzyme-resistant starch (RS). Because individuals differ in their ability to digest starch, there is no absolute distinction between RS and digestible starch. A method for in vitro determination of RS should be validated using a human population average value. In any starch material, the constituent molecules will have a range of susceptibility to amylolytic activity in vitro. For a starch or starch-containing ingredient it is possible to alter this range by judicious selection of processing conditions to increase the proportion that tests as RS. The starch material will also have a range of thermal stabilities before and after processing, which may or may not reflect the range of susceptibility to hydrolysis. The manufacture of RS may be thought of as enhancement of the proportion of the starch that tests as RS. To compare the effect of different processing schemes, it is critical to stipulate the method used to estimate RS content. This review focuses on strategies for increasing the proportion of types 2 and 3 RS in a starch-containing ingredient. Special emphasis is given to increasing RS levels of granular starch.
Article
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and especially dietary fibre. As beans are never eaten raw, the effects of soaking, cooking, soaking–cooking and canning on soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents of beans are studied. Total dietary fibre content was determined by enzyme-gravimetric method. The fraction of insoluble dietary fibre was corrected for the content of resistant starch, determined as part of the total starch in insoluble fibre. The results indicate that thermal processing decreased the insoluble fibre content, and consequently the total dietary fibre content of beans. Soaking and cooking of beans significantly (P⩽0.05) increased the resistant starch content. The data on dietary fibre content of processed food are much more relevant than those of raw food. Thus food composition tables should contain as much data on processed food as possible.
Article
Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide.
Article
Studies were performed in three ileostomate subjects to determine the effect of intake of various carbohydrate-containing foods on the ileostomy losses of macronutrients. The percent recovery of available carbohydrate in ileostomy effluent varied between 1.09% and 22.63% for the various foods. Available carbohydrate recovery (%) was positively correlated with fiber (r = 0.91) and protein (r = 0.46) intake, but negatively with available carbohydrate intake (r = -0.66). Stepwise regression indicated that dietary fiber intake was the principal factor determining the amount of available carbohydrate in ileostomy effluent. Fiber intake was negatively correlated with water concentration of the effluent (r = -0.61). This study demonstrates that although fiber has been considered the chief substrate available for colonic fermentation, as the fiber intake increases, so the total fermentable load entering the colon is likely to increase due to losses of available carbohydrates in addition to fiber. Simple assessment of dietary fiber is likely to grossly underestimate the fermentable load on high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets.
Article
We developed an in vitro assay system that mimics the physiological conditions for starch digestion. In this system all undigested starch was termed resistant starch (RS). The richest sources of RS were firm bananas and roasted chickpeas. Different food-processing techniques produced different amounts of RS. RS in uncooked oats (0.161 g/g dry wt) and firm bananas (0.247 g/g dry wt) was reduced by cooking to 0.028 and 0.032 g/g dry wt, respectively. Cooling boiled potato overnight at 4 degrees C produced a 2.8-fold increase in the amounts of RS. Whole rice contained more RS than did ground rice whereas grinding did not affect amounts of RS in roasted chickpeas. Amounts of RS in food decreased with increased chewing, indicating that chewing can also affect the amount of starch escaping digestion. This assay may be useful in predicting which foods and processing techniques result in high amounts of starch escaping digestion in the small intestine.
Article
The aim of this study was to assess differences between starchy foods in the amount of carbohydrate which escapes small intestinal absorption. One ileostomate volunteer tested in metabolic feeding trials a total of 20 starchy foods (nine of which were repeated on two to seven occasions, mean 3.5 +/- 1.7). This ileostomate volunteer exhibited macronutrient and fiber losses that were within 97.3 +/- 6.6% of the mean, for a range of foods eaten by three other ileostomates and was therefore believed to be representative. Measurement of available carbohydrate in ileal effluent demonstrated a wide range of recoveries from 2.7 to 18% from different starchy foods. The available carbohydrate losses related to the fiber content (r = 0.885, p less than 0.001), in vitro digestibility of the food (r = -0.867, p less than 0.01), and their glycemic responses (r = -0.611, p less than 0.05). Our data support the concept that available carbohydrate losses to the colon may be greater in many foods than the carbohydrate entering the colon as dietary fiber. The food factors responsible are diverse and the possible metabolic consequences of carbohydrate malabsorption may be broad.
Article
Digestion and absorption from the small intestine of starch and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (dietary fiber) from potato cooked and treated in various ways have been studied in ileostomy subjects. Test meals (300 g) of potato were fed following 24 h on a plant polysaccharide-free diet. Regardless of the treatment the potato had received, greater than 90% of NSP was recovered in ileostomy effluent. Starch from freshly cooked potato was well digested, only 3% being recovered; however, 12% from cooked and cooled potato escaped digestion in the small intestine. Digestibility of starch made resistant to alpha-amylase by cooling improved on reheating. Overall, 9, 18, and 14% of total carbohydrate fed was recovered from freshly cooked, cooled, and reheated potato, respectively. Digestibility of cooled potato was identical when eaten as large lumps or as finely sieved potato. In vitro studies with pancreatin also demonstrated incomplete digestion of cooled potato.
Article
To quantify passage of unabsorbed dietary starch into the colon, 7 healthy volunteers had a multilumen tube positioned close to the ileocecal junction. Marker solution was perfused slowly, 20-40 cm above an aspiration site, to estimate, by marker dilution, flow through the ileum. On consecutive days, subjects ate liquidized meals containing 20 or 60 g starch; ileal aspirates were analyzed for starch and glucose for 5-6 h fasting and 4-7 h postprandially. Volume and carbohydrate concentrations were used to derive total carbohydrate traversing the ileum. In different subjects, unabsorbed carbohydrate was 453-4023 mg (2.3%-20.1%, mean 9.3%) for the smaller meal and 1332-6352 mg (2.2%-10.4%, mean 6.0%) for the larger. In 4 volunteers, hydrogen breath tests were performed on separate occasions after sucrose (50 g), lactulose (26 g), and the 20-g meal. Lactulose increased hydrogen excretion; sucrose and the test meal did not. We conclude that 2%-20% of dietary starch escapes absorption in the small bowel, confirming others' results using breath tests alone. Breath tests, though more convenient than intubation studies, may be a less sensitive index of starch malabsorption.
Article
Six subjects with ileostomies consumed five diets containing 61-164 g starch/d of which 0.4-34.8 g was resistant starch (RS). Ileal excretion of starch was 97% of that measured as dietary RS in vitro with no significant difference between RS fed and starch recovered on any of the test diets. Variation in starch excretion between subjects was partly due to differences in mouth-to-stoma transit time. In vitro fermentation of ileal effluent from RS-supplemented diets produced significantly more short-chain fatty acids, a higher molar proportion of butyrate (17% compared with 12%), and a lower concentration of ammonia compared with control subjects. These results indicate that the amount of starch that reaches the large intestine can be predicted from measurements in vitro for a wide range of RS intakes under normal eating conditions. They also support the hypothesis that RS, through fermentation, has distinctive influences on the colonic environment.
Article
The glycaemic index (GI) is an in vivo measurement based on the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing foods, and allows foods to be ranked on the basis of the rate of digestion and absorption of the carbohydrates that they contain. GI values are normalized to a reference amount of available carbohydrate and do no reflect the amounts of carbohydrate normally present in foods; for example, a food with a low content of carbohydrates will have a high GI value if that carbohydrate is digested and absorbed rapidly in the human small intestine. This is potentially confusing for a person wishing to control his or her blood glucose levels by the choice of foods. The rate and extent of starch digestion in vitro has been measured using a technique that classifies starch into three major fractions: rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS). In addition, this technique gives a value for rapidly available glucose (RAG), which includes RDS, free glucose and the glucose moiety of sucrose. When the values for thirty-nine foods were expressed on the basis of the available carbohydrate content of these foods, highly significant (P < 0.001) positive correlations were observed between GI and both RDS and RAG. The measurement of RAG in vitro provides values for direct calculation of the amount of glucose likely to be rapidly absorbed in the human small intestine and, thus, to influence blood glucose and insulin levels. These values can be used to compare foods, as eaten, on an equal-weight basis. Food-table RAG values would allow simple calculation of the total amount of RAG provided by single foods, by whole meals and by whole diets. Studies are planned in which RAG and the glycaemic response in man will be measured for identical food products.
Article
According to the definition of resistant starch (RS), the true value of foodstuff-derived RS can be assessed only from that found in the contents of the terminal ileum. To date, a few methods exist for in vivo measurement of RS in the terminal ileum, but their accuracy is questionable. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of RS in the terminal ileum to determine its true value as dietary fiber (DF). Volunteers (n = 7 men) were given a test meal containing 10 g of heat moisture-treated high amylose cornstarch (HMT-HAS) containing 8.8 g of RS as measured by Englyst's method. A double-lumen tube was positioned in the terminal ileum using the endoscopic retrograde bowel insertion method (ERBI). Intestinal contents were aspirated, and the amount of RS was measured as the glucose concentration (Englyst's method), and compared with the values for RS administrated orally using the same method. The mean amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS collected in the terminal ileum was 3.37 +/- 0.95 g (mean +/- SD), which was 34.5 +/- 9.7% of the in vitro RS value. Furthermore, there were large individual differences in recoveries, ranging from 22.2 to 47.5%. The measured amount of HMT-HAS-derived RS was much smaller in our in vivo study than that measured in vitro, suggesting that in vitro measurement may inaccurately estimate the RS and DF levels of foodstuffs. The problem is further compounded by the large individual in vivo variations in RS values from subjects consuming identical diets.
Article
Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.
Resistant starch -Proceedings from the 2nd Plenary Meeting of Euresta -European Flair Concerted Action 11 on Physiological Implications of the Consumption of Resistant Starch in Man
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Estimation of resistant starch intake in Europe European Flair—Concerted Action no
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Case-control study of relationship between intake of resistant starch and colorectal cancer
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Xu GF, Shi M. Case-control study of relationship between intake of resistant starch and colorectal cancer. J Nutr. 2006;28:11-4.