Sleep Restriction Is Associated With Increased Morning Plasma Leptin Concentrations, Especially in Women

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Biological Research for Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.43). 05/2010; 12(1):47-53. DOI: 10.1177/1099800410366301
Source: PubMed


We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food.
Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep.
Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p < .001). Increases were significantly greater among women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p < .001) and among participants with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those with lower (Z = -2.09, p = .036), though participants in all categories (sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and age) demonstrated significant increases. There was also a significant effect of allowed TIB on leptin levels following the 2 additional nights of sleep restriction (p < .001). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes in leptin levels.
These findings suggest that sleep restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

Download full-text


Available from: Norah Simpson
  • Source
    • "(Nedeltcheva et al., 2009). In other sleep-restriction studies with ad libitum food access, one which restricted healthy women to one day of only 3 h of sleep (Omisade et al., 2010) and another which restricted healthy men and women to fi ve consecutive nights of 4 h in bed (Simpson et al., 2010), sleep restriction was associated with elevated leptin levels. In the latter study, greater increases were seen in women compared to men. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rates of obesity and sleep disturbances are substantial in adults. A number of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found that insufficient sleep and possibly longer sleep are associated with obesity and related eating patterns. Methodological discrepancies and limitations in the literature create ambiguity about the nature and potential mechanisms underlying these relationships. Insomnia and circadian patterns in eating and sleeping have also been examined in relation to weight. Although these studies are not as extensive as those examining sleep duration, the extant literature suggests possible associations between obesity and both insomnia (particularly when combined with short sleep duration) and circadian eating behaviours. However, research has only just begun to examine the benefits of combining sleep interventions with obesity treatment. The goal of the current review is to summarize research examining behavioural sleep patterns and disorders in relation to obesity, to discuss methodological considerations, and to provide an overview of studies examining whether addressing sleep disturbances can augment weight loss treatment effects. We conclude that future studies are needed that take into account sleep duration, sleep disorder co-morbidity, and chronobiology to explore the impact of sleep interventions on weight loss.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Review of Psychiatry
  • Source
    • "Given this gap in the literature, and given emerging evidence of increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes with habitual short sleep duration [27-29] and hyperleptinemia [23-26], we sought to evaluate the extent to which, if at all, maternal self-reports of habitual sleep duration during early pregnancy is associated with early pregnancy plasma leptin concentrations. Given emerging evidence suggesting that women and overweight/obese individuals may be particularly vulnerable to the physiological consequences of sleep restriction [22], we also examined the extent to which observed association differ by maternal pre-pregnancy lean or overweight/obesity status. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early-pregnancy short sleep duration is predictive of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia; mechanisms for these associations are unknown. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived peptide involved in regulating food intake and energy expenditure, may play a role in these observed associations. Given inconsistent reports linking short sleep duration with leptin, and absence of studies among pregnant women, we examined the association of maternal sleep duration with plasma leptin in early pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 830 pregnant women. Plasma leptin was measured in samples collected around 13 weeks gestation. Sleep duration was categorized as: <=5, 6, 7-8 (reference), and >=9 hours. Differences in leptin concentrations across categories were estimated using linear regression. Analyses were completed for lean and overweight/obese women. Overall, women with long sleep duration had elevated plasma leptin (p-value = 0.04). However, leptin concentrations were not statistically significantly elevated in women with a short sleep duration. There was no association of leptin with sleep duration among lean women. Among overweight/obese women, a U-shaped relation between leptin and sleep duration was observed: Mean leptin was elevated (beta = 21.96 ng/ml, P < 0.001) among women reporting <=5 hour of sleep compared with reference group; and women reporting >=9 hours of sleep also had elevated leptin (beta = 4.29 ng/ml, P = 0.09). Short sleep duration, and to a lesser extent long sleep duration, were associated with elevated leptin among overweight/obese women. These data add some evidence to help understand mechanistic relationships of sleep duration with pregnancy complications.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Research Notes
  • Source
    • "Leptin concentrations were also increased by five nights of sleep restriction to 4 h/night in 14 healthy men who had adequate energy intake and reduced energy expenditure, without change in appetite or hunger [25]. In this design, a similar increase of leptin was seen in 23 healthy young men [26] and 136 subjects [27]. Blood samples were not obtained until between 10:30 h and 12:00 h several hours after being awakened, and there was free access to food throughout the study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leptin, a pleiotropic protein hormone produced mainly by fat cells, regulates metabolic activity and many other physiological functions. The intrinsic circadian rhythm of blood leptin is modulated by gender, development, feeding, fasting, sleep, obesity, and endocrine disorders. Hyperleptinemia is implicated in leptin resistance. To determine the specificity and sensitivity of leptin concentrations in sleep disorders, we summarize here the alterations of leptin in four conditions in animal and human studies: short duration of sleep, sleep fragmentation, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and after use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat OSA. The presence and causes of contradictory findings are discussed. Though sustained insufficient sleep lowers fasting blood leptin and therefore probably contributes to increased appetite, obesity and OSA independently result in hyperleptinemia. Successful treatment of OSA by CPAP is predicted to decrease hyperleptinemia, making leptin an ancillary biomarker for treatment efficacy. Current controversies also call for translational studies to determine how sleep disorders regulate leptin homeostasis and how the information can be used to improve sleep treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Sleep Medicine Reviews
Show more