Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Acute Respiratory Symptoms among New York City Area Adolescents

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 05/2010; 118(9):1338-43. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0901499
Source: PubMed


Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes in children. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a local driver of urban fine PM [aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM(2.5))]; however, evidence linking ambient DEP exposure to acute respiratory symptoms is relatively sparse, and susceptibilities of urban and asthmatic children are inadequately characterized.
We examined associations of daily ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations, a DEP indicator, with daily respiratory symptoms among asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents in New York City (NYC) and a nearby suburban community.
BC and PM(2.5) were monitored continuously outside three NYC high schools and one suburban high school for 4-6 weeks, and daily symptom data were obtained from 249 subjects (57 asthmatics, 192 nonasthmatics) using diaries. Associations between pollutants and symptoms were characterized using multilevel generalized linear mixed models, and modification by urban residence and asthma status were examined.
Increases in BC were associated with increased wheeze, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Multiple lags of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure were associated with symptoms. For several symptoms, associations with BC and NO(2) were significantly larger in magnitude among urban subjects and asthmatics compared with suburban subjects and nonasthmatics, respectively. PM(2.5) was not consistently associated with increases in symptoms.
Acute exposures to traffic-related pollutants such as DEPs and/or NO(2) may contribute to increased respiratory morbidity among adolescents, and urban residents and asthmatics may be at increased risk. The findings provide support for developing additional strategies to reduce diesel emissions further, especially in populations susceptible because of environment or underlying respiratory disease.

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Available from: Molini M Patel
    • "Road traffic is one of the most important anthropogenic emission sources in the urban environment and is associated with several human health problems, including asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory disturbances (Lim et al., 2005; Patel et al., 2010; Katoshevski, 2011; Liao et al., 2011). The use of fossil fuel for transportation contributes to the release of many harmful substances having pro-oxidant properties (WHO, 2005), including volatile organic compounds, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of traffic related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on blood parameters of subjects, including traffic police officers (TP), drivers (DR) and control subjects (CN) with presumably different levels of exposure. We quantified the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr), α-naphthol and β-naphthol (α- and β-naph) as biomarkers of exposure to PAHs in relation with biomarkers of effect (Hb, MCV, PCV, PLT, RBCs), biomarkers of inflammation/infection (CRP, WBCs), oxidative stress (SOD) and oxidative DNA damage i.e. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results showed that mean 1-OHPyr, α-naph and β-naph concentrations were significantly higher in TPs (0.98, 1.55, and 1.9 µmol mol-Cr−1, respectively, p<0.05) than CNs (0.7, 0.6; 0.67 µmol mol-Cr−1, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, WBC and CRP were found in higher concentrations in TPs than CNs (7.04×103 µL−1 and 0.95 mg L−1 vs. 5.1×103 µL−1 and 0.54 mg L−1, respectively). The urinary 8-OHdG level, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, was higher in TPs than both CN and DR subjects (48 ng mg-Cr−1, 24 ng mg-Cr−1 and 33 ng mg-Cr−1, respectively). Self-reported health assessment indicates that, on the basis of daily time spent in the middle of heavy traffic, TPs and DRs more frequently suffered from adverse head and respiratory symptoms. The PCA analysis evidenced the impact of traffic pollution on exposure biomarkers and DNA damage. The study suggests that traffic pollution may be associated with important health risk, in particular on the respiratory system, not only for workers exposed to traffic exhausts but also for general public. Finally, vehicular air pollution in the city of Rawalpindi should be a high-priority concern for the Pakistan Government that needs to be addressed.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
    • "hrough a spatio - temporal land - use regression model were associated with decre - ments in lung function measures in women living in East Boston ( Suglia et al . , 2008 ) . In NYC adolescents , increases in school levels of BC were associated with acute respiratory symptoms , including increased wheeze , chest tightness and shortness of breath ( Patel et al . , 2010 ) . Despite growing evidence linking BC exposure and respiratory illness , the mechanism through which BC may lead to these adverse respiratory effects has not been completely elucidated . One of the potential mechanisms is oxidative stress . 8 - isoprostane , which belongs to the family of F2 - isoprostanes and is a by - product of the"
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exposure to airborne black carbon (BC) has been associated with asthma development, respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function. However, the mechanism through which BC may lead to respiratory symptoms has not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which BC might lead to adverse health outcomes. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) allows for the non-invasive collection of airway lining fluid containing biomarkers of oxidative stress like 8-isoprostane, a stable by-product of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the association between domestic airborne BC concentrations and 8-isoprostane in EBC. Materials and methods: Seven- and eight-year-old children participated in an asthma case-control study in New York City. During home visits, air samples and EBC were collected. Seven day averages of domestic levels of particulate matter <2.5μm (PM2.5), BC and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were measured. Urea and 8-isoprostane were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in EBC. Results: In univariate models, PM2.5 and BC, but not ETS, were significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane in the EBC (β=0.006 and β=0.106 respectively, p<0.05 for both). These associations remained statistically significant for both PM2.5 and BC after adjustment for covariates. In a co-pollutant model including PM2.5, BC and ETS, only BC remained a statistically significant predictor of 8-isoprostane (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest the BC fraction of PM might contain exposure relevant to increased oxidative stress in the airways.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Research
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    • "Studies evaluating respiratory symptoms in New York City have varied in the PM constituents or sources associated with health outcomes. For example, Patel et al. (2009) reported increased probability of wheeze in young children 0– 24 months of age in NYC to be associated with nickel and vanadium, while cough was associated with EC. Patel et al. (2010) found BC to be associated with a variety of respiratory symptoms, while Lall et al. (2011) observed hospital admissions for respiratory causes in Manhattan to be associated with a steel-metal works source factor that was enriched in manganese . Finally, Spira-Cohen et al. (2011) reported significant associations between personal EC and cough and wheeze in Bronx children with asthma; no significant associations were observed with PM 2.5 mass or sulfur. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is linked with asthma exacerbation; however, the role played by specific PM sources is not well understood. Our objective was to investigate the associations between daily cough and wheeze symptoms in a panel of asthmatic children and PM source factors determined by receptor modeling using positive matrix factorization (PMF). We studied 36 children with moderate-to-severe asthma in New York City over both a warm and a cold season. Exposure to ambient air pollutants, including PM2.5 elements and elemental and organic carbon fractions, was characterized. The mean ambient PM2.5 concentration for the study periods was 12.0 ± 6.7 μg/m3. Six factors were resolved using PMF, including oil, road dust, ships, regional, salt, and traffic. When adjusted for ozone, cough and wheeze symptoms were most strongly associated with the regional and salt factors. Results using tracer elements (as determined from PMF analyses) showed some inconsistency, with two tracers for road dust (K and Si) showing associations in opposite directions to each other. Positive associations were also observed for S, which is a tracer of regional PM. Significant negative associations were observed for the oil factor and one of its tracers (Zn). Mostly nonsignificant associations were found for carbon fractions, with the exception of pyrolized carbon and two elemental carbon fractions. Our results indicate that asthma symptoms are associated with regional and salt factors. In this study, the regional factor was comprised of sulfate as well as carbon-containing PM, the latter which is likely derived from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Air Quality Atmosphere & Health
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