Article

The Effectiveness of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program in Children With Autism

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Abstract

This study investigated the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) by using an innovative exercise equipment (Joba) on the motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions in 60 children with autism (age: 6 years, 5 months to 8 years, 9 months). In the first phase of 20 weeks, 30 children received the SDHRP in addition to their regular occupational therapy while another 30 children received regular occupational therapy only. The arrangement was reversed in the second phase of another 20 weeks. Children with autism in this study showed improved motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions after 20-week SDHRP (p < .01). In addition, the therapeutic effect appeared to be sustained for at least 24 weeks (6 months).

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... Of the studies identified, the majority (83%) used a very small sample sizes, (n ≤ 8), as is common with much of the research in the field of ASD. One study (Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010) used a relatively large sample (60), which is unusual for studies of children with ASD. As expected, most participants were male; of the studies that reported gender, 21% (17/80) of participants were female and 79% (63/80) were male. ...
... Four of the studies DeBolt, Clinton, & Ball, 2010;Ketcheson et al., 2016) focus on FMS in children with ASD, while the remaining studies focus on general gross motor skill development through physicalactivity practice (Duronjić & Válková, 2010), equine therapy (Hawkins, Ryan, Cory, & Donaldson, 2014), or simulated equine therapy (Wuang et al., 2010). In the latter studies (Hawkins et al., 2014;Wuang et al., 2010), the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP; Bruinicks, 1978) was utilized as the gross motor assessment. ...
... Four of the studies DeBolt, Clinton, & Ball, 2010;Ketcheson et al., 2016) focus on FMS in children with ASD, while the remaining studies focus on general gross motor skill development through physicalactivity practice (Duronjić & Válková, 2010), equine therapy (Hawkins, Ryan, Cory, & Donaldson, 2014), or simulated equine therapy (Wuang et al., 2010). In the latter studies (Hawkins et al., 2014;Wuang et al., 2010), the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP; Bruinicks, 1978) was utilized as the gross motor assessment. The BOTMP assesses the assumed underlying processes that enable FMS (Staples et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and pervasive repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Further, ASD is one of the fastest rising childhood developmental disorders, affecting 1 in 68 children (Christensen et al., 2016). In addition to the hallmark charactizations of this condition is a growing body of research (Lloyd, MacDonald, & Lord, 2013; Liu, Hamilton, Davis, ElGarhy, 2014; Staples & Reid, 2010) that suggests that individuals with ASD also demonstrate delays in the development of gross motor skills. Despite mounting evidence of delay, few interventions have targeted gross motor skills as an outcome (Staples, MacDonald, Zimmer, 2012). Three recent studies (Bremer, Crozier, & Lloyd, 2016; Bremer & Lloyd, 2014; Ketcheson, Hauck, & Ulrich, 2016), amoung others, demonstrate the increasing awareness to this issue; however, continued theory-based research is needed to builded an effective motor intervention for children with ASD. The purpose of this parallel, convergent mixed methods design study was to test the validity and effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill (FMS) intervention for children with ASD that uses dynamic systems theory (DST; Newell, 1986). The intervention was based on intentional manipulations of task constraints, hereafter referred to as task modifications, to build FMS. This study incorporated both quantitative and qualitative data to understand not only how the task modifications work to influence the motor performance of children with and without ASD, but how potential changes in motor performance, or the perception of, was understood by parents. Furthermore, this study sought to understand how the intervention effected the daily lives of the individual and their family. Results revealed that a motor intervention based on dynamic systems theory may: (a) significantly improve gross motor performance of children; (b) provide an effective means to build motor skills in children with ASD; and (c) allow for a high level of engagement and successful practice. Furthermore, parent interviews suggest that there are number of barriers to physical activity, as well as many benefits. Futher, results suggest that the home environment may play a role in the gain made during a school based intervention; acting as an environmental constraint. Lastly, when looking at changes in motor performance compared to themes discussed by parents, data suggest that motor skills may play a role as a mediating factor in a child’s physical activity level. Additionally, the results suggest that direct changes from increases in motor performance may have delayed indirect changes in other developmental skill and in the child’s life. While data suggest significant improvements, a small sample size and the heterogeneity of ASD limit the overall generalizability of the intervention. Further research is necessary to fully understand the potential of an intervention based on task modifications. Moreover, while significant findings bolster the effectiveness of this intervention, 6 weeks proved not to be long enough to create lasting improvements in the motor skills of children with ASD. Future research should increase the frequency and dosage of the overall intervention while incorporating the parents and families of children with ASD to ensure the overall success and potential impact on other aspects of a child’s life.
... Reflecting the positive findings in previous metaanalyses (Sam, Chow, & Tong, 2015;Sowa & Meulenbroek, 2012), in the current study interventions focused on the development of manipulative and locomotor skills were demonstrated to have a large positive effect (g 0.80). A variety of intervention types were examined, including the Young Athletes program (YAP) (Favazza et al., 2013), trampoline training (Lourenço, Esteves, Corredeira, & Seabra, 2015), stimulated horseriding program (Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010), and task variation/constant task methods (Weber & Thorpe, 1989, 1992. Improvements in locomotor and manipulative skills for this population are particularly important as poor motor skills have been revealed as a significant barrier to physical activity participation among youth with ASD (Must et al., 2015), and, conversely, a predictor of activity levels among TD children (Barnett, Van Beurden, Morgan, Brooks, & Beard, 2009). ...
... This category of outcomes was shown to be greatly affected for experimental groups by the implementation of physical activity interventions (g 0.80). Intervention modalities utilized included a computer-based activity program (Dickinson & Place, 2014), exergaming (Hilton et al., 2014), trampolining (Laurenco et al., 2015Giagazoglou 2013), physical training (Pan, 2016), and a Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) (Wuang et al., 2010). Note. ...
... It was significant, therefore, that within the outcome of muscular strength and endurance, experimental groups outperformed control groups to a large effect (g 5 0.818). Studies measuring these outcomes utilized a number of intervention modalities, such as Nintendo Wii exergaming (Dickinson & Place, 2014), aquatic exercise programs (Fragala-Pinkham, Haley, & O'Neil, 2008;Fragala-Pinkham, Haley, & O'Neil, 2011;Pan, 2011), and horse riding programs (Wuang et al., 2010). The research in this area highlights some challenges, and areas in need for future study; for example, Fragala- Note. ...
... Les différentes études amènent à des résultats contradictoires. Néanmoins, une étude menée par Wuang et al. (2010) (mais avec un « cheval artificiel »), montre des améliorations dans tous les aspects sensoriels, et particulièrement sur l'attention, suggérant des effets positifs prometteurs de la médiation équine sur l'amélioration des compétences sensorielles des personnes avec TSA. ...
... Là encore la revue de littérature révèle des résultats contradictoires, puisque 2 études indiquent une amélioration (Steiner & Kertesz, 2015;Wuang et al., 2010) alors que 3 autres ne révèlent pas d'effet des séances de médiation par rapport au groupe contrôle qui n'en a pas (Borgi et al., 2016;Gabriels et al., 2012Gabriels et al., , 2015. Il n'existe donc, à ce jour, qu'une faible évidence scientifique d'un impact de la médiation équine sur les compétences motrices des personnes avec TSA. ...
... Parmi les 15 recherches évaluées, seules 4 s'y sont intéressées. Deux montrent que les améliorations observées pendant la période de pratique ont diminué immédiatement après l'arrêt des interventions (Steiner & Kertesz, 2015;Ward et al., 2013) alors que les 2 autres (dont une avec un cheval artificiel) révèlent que les améliorations sont durables après l'arrêt des séances (Llambias et al., 2016;Wuang et al., 2010). Il est donc impossible de conclure à ce stade. ...
Article
La pratique de médiation équine pour les personnes avec troubles du spectre autistique (TSA) connait une expansion depuis plus d'une décennie en France. Pour autant, il apparait nécessaire de s'intéresser aux connaissances scientifiques sur cette question, qui restent rares, notamment sur l'impact de la pratique sur le cheval et sur l'humain. Cette contribution se propose, avec l'angle de l'éthologie, de faire le point sur les bénéfices réels pour l'humain, de l'impact sur le cheval et son bien-être, et de proposer des pistes de réflexion pour optimiser la pratique de médiation équine. Mots-clés : cheval, médiation équine, trouble du spectre autistique, éthologie. Equine assisted interventions for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more and more widespread in France. Nevertheless, scientific studies on this topic remain scarce, especially on practice effects on horses and on humans. Our paper proposes, using ethological point of view, to review real benefits of the practice on humans, of effects on horse welfare, and to give lines of thought. Taken together, it could help to improve equine assisted interventions.
... Six of the included articles are pilot studies (two of them were randomized controlled clinical trials and four of them were quasi-experimental studies), (Henning et al., 2016;Ikuta et al., 2016;Josman et al., 2008;Lo et al., 2009;Meister & Salls, 2015;Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012), five are quasi-experimental studies (Cosper et al., 2009;Gal et al., 2016;Gentry et al., 2010;Lee et al., 2016;Wuang et al., 2010) (Table 2). ...
... Motor skills were assessed less frequently than cognitive skills in the included studies (n = 3). Among the motor skills assessed, we found: motor control (Cosper et al., 2009;Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012;Wuang et al., 2010) assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (Cosper et al., 2009), the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) (Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) (Wuang et al., 2010); motor coordination assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (Cosper et al., 2009), and handwriting, assessed with the Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised (THS-R) and the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH) (Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012) ( Table 2). ...
... Motor skills were assessed less frequently than cognitive skills in the included studies (n = 3). Among the motor skills assessed, we found: motor control (Cosper et al., 2009;Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012;Wuang et al., 2010) assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (Cosper et al., 2009), the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) (Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) (Wuang et al., 2010); motor coordination assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (Cosper et al., 2009), and handwriting, assessed with the Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised (THS-R) and the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH) (Palsbo & Hood-Szivek, 2012) ( Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
New technologies (NT) are increasingly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) interventions in people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We conducted a scoping review to describe OT interventions investigated in scientific literature which use NT in children and adolescents with ASD. Two authors independently searched the scientific databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science, carried out a peer-review screening of articles and extracted data. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. OT interventions lasted between 1 week and 12 months, consisted of between 1 session per day and 5 sessions per week, were carried out exclusively by an occupational therapist, and the most used NT was the computer (n = 12). The duration of the interventions and assessment measures used varied greatly between studies.
... (2007); , Yilmaz, Yanarda, Birkan and Bumin (2004); Lochbaum and Crews (2003) reported the physical benefits of exercise for children with ASD to include improvements in cardiorespiratory functioning, motor skill performance, and muscular strength, as well as a reduction in body mass index. Pan (2010), Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with autism. Taylor (2009) study found that exercise can also enhance attention, in addition to fitness and skills, and might serve as a safe, inexpensive, widely accessible new tool for managing behavioural symptoms. ...
... This study corroborates findings of work done on static balance by Waleed, Moronkola, and Oladipo, (2002);Randa, (2001), Paterno and Mmyer, (2004);Young, Jordan and Waren, (2010) studies found that that strength exercises cause a significant increase in static and dynamic balance Ahmadi, Sokhanguei and Memar, (2013) study showed significance improvement in static and dynamic balance's triple tests among experimental ad control groups. Pan, 2010;Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su, (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Hypothesis two which postulated that 8-week aerobics exercises will not have significant effect on bilateral coordination of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders was rejected. ...
... Sowa and Meulenbroek, (2012) found that interventions in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders decrease stereotypical or aggressive behaviour, while improving physical, cognitive, and social development. Pan, 2010;Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su, (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Taylor, ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
5 was used to categorized the participants and those within severity levels 1 were part of the sample. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The data collected was analyzed with the use of statistical tools of mean, standard deviation for demographic data while inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the stated hypotheses. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that 8-week aerobics exercises have effects on static balance, bilateral coordination and reaction time of children with autism. It was recommended that Balance activities, aerobic dance, manipulative exercise/activities, throwing and catching of small balls and bean bags should be added to Special School children physical education programs/activities.
... Out of the 15 studies reviewed, 8 were conducted in USA, 2 in Spain (Tabares et al. 2012;Garcia-Gomez et al. 2014), 1 in Canada (Llambias et al. 2016), 1 in the UK (Anderson and Meints 2016), 1 in Taiwan (Wuang et al. 2010), 1 in Italy (Borgi et al. 2016), and 1 in Slovakia (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). All studies were published in peer-reviewed journals except one study, which was published as a peer-reviewed conference paper (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). ...
... All studies were published in peer-reviewed journals except one study, which was published as a peer-reviewed conference paper (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). All included Fig. 1 A flowchart of the study selection process studies were published between 2009 and 2016, although only one study mentioned the year of data collection in the published report (Wuang et al. 2010). Out of the 15 studies, 12 studies assessed the effects of THR whereas the remaining 3 studies assessed the effects of HIP in individuals with ASD. ...
... Out of the five studies that were classified as level II evidence, one study (Wuang et al. 2010) used a crossover design, whereas the remaining 4 studies were controlled clinical trials (Gabriels et al. 2012;Steiner and Kertesz 2015;Garcia-Gomez et al. 2014;Lanning et al. 2014). All 5 studies employed non-randomized controls; however, only 2 of these studies conducted post hoc testing to ascertain baseline similarity of the experimental and control groups on select variables including age, gender, perceptuo-motor performance, nonverbal IQ, and presence of seizures (Wuang et al. 2010;Gabriels et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Literature on effects of equine therapy in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in recent times. Equine therapy is an alternative multimodal intervention that involves utilizing a horse to remediate core impairments in ASD. Recent systematic reviews in this area have several limitations including inclusion of populations other than ASD, assessment of a variety of animal-assisted interventions other than equine therapy, and a failure to conduct quantitative analyses to provide accurate effect size estimates. We conducted a focused systematic review to address these limitations. Our review suggested that equine therapy has beneficial effects on behavioral and to some extent on social communication skills in ASD. The evidence for positive effects of equine therapy on perceptuo-motor, cognitive, and functional skills is currently limited.
... Out of the 15 studies reviewed, 8 were conducted in USA, 2 in Spain (Tabares et al. 2012;Garcia-Gomez et al. 2014), 1 in Canada (Llambias et al. 2016), 1 in the UK (Anderson and Meints 2016), 1 in Taiwan (Wuang et al. 2010), 1 in Italy (Borgi et al. 2016), and 1 in Slovakia (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). All studies were published in peer-reviewed journals except one study, which was published as a peer-reviewed conference paper (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). ...
... All studies were published in peer-reviewed journals except one study, which was published as a peer-reviewed conference paper (Steiner and Kertesz 2015). All included Fig. 1 A flowchart of the study selection process studies were published between 2009 and 2016, although only one study mentioned the year of data collection in the published report (Wuang et al. 2010). Out of the 15 studies, 12 studies assessed the effects of THR whereas the remaining 3 studies assessed the effects of HIP in individuals with ASD. ...
... Out of the five studies that were classified as level II evidence, one study (Wuang et al. 2010) used a crossover design, whereas the remaining 4 studies were controlled clinical trials (Gabriels et al. 2012;Steiner and Kertesz 2015;Garcia-Gomez et al. 2014;Lanning et al. 2014). All 5 studies employed non-randomized controls; however, only 2 of these studies conducted post hoc testing to ascertain baseline similarity of the experimental and control groups on select variables including age, gender, perceptuo-motor performance, nonverbal IQ, and presence of seizures (Wuang et al. 2010;Gabriels et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the prevalence and pattern of unusual sensory behaviors (USBs) in teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and infants (3–36 months) at risk for ASD. From two different sites (UCSD and UConn), caregivers of infants at high (n = 32) and low risk (n = 33) for ASD, and teenagers with (n = 12) and without ASD (n = 11), completed age-appropriate Sensory Profile questionnaires (Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile; Dunn 2002; Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile; Brown and Dunn 2002). The results show that high-risk infants and teenagers with ASD exhibit higher-than-typical prevalence of USBs. Results of our distribution analyses investigating the direction of sensory atypicalities (greater-than-typical vs. less-than-typical) revealed a fair degree of consistency amongst teens, however, USB patterns were more varied in high-risk infants.
... Three studies utilized an experimental design, including individual random assignment (Najafabadi et al., 2018;Sarabzadeh, Azari, & Helalizadeh, 2019) and cluster random assignment based on classrooms (Crawford, MacDonncha, & Smyth, 2013). Eight studies employed a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent group pretest-posttest design (Bremer, Balogh, & Lloyd, 2015;Cheldavi, Shakerian, Shetab Boshehri, & Zarghami, 2014;Edwards, Jeffrey, May, Rinehart, & Barnett, 2017;Ketcheson, Hauck, & Ulrich, 2017;Lourenco, Esteves, Corredeira, & Seabra, 2015;Muneer & Sultana, 2019;Weber & Thorpe, 1992;Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010). In addition, five used a pre-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design (Brand, Jossen, Holsboer-Trachsler, Pühse, & Gerber, 2015;Bremer & Lloyd, 2016;Guest, Balogh, Dogra, & Lloyd, 2017;Schleien, Heyne, & Berken, 1998;Travers et al., 2018). ...
... Sample sizes ranged from one (Colebourn et al., 2017) to 60 (Wuang et al., 2010) and included children ranging in age from three (Bremer & Lloyd, 2016) to 19 years (Satiansukpong et al., 2008). The majority of studies included mostly male participants, aside from three studies that included 50% of female participants (De Milander et al., 2016;Brand et al., 2015;Hawkins, Ryan, Cory, & Donaldson, 2014). ...
... Eight studies in this review were classified as quasi-experimental (Bremer et al., 2015;Cheldavi et al., 2014;Edwards et al., 2017;Ketcheson et al., 2017;Lourenco et al., 2015;Muneer & Sultana, 2019;Weber & Thorpe, 1992;Wuang et al., 2010) and five studies were classified as pre-experimental due to their lack of a control group (Brand et al., 2015;Bremer & Lloyd, 2016;Guest et al., 2017;Schleien et al., 1998;Travers et al., 2018). Of the eight quasi-experimental designs, six used FMS assessments validated with NT children, including the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2) (Bremer et al., 2015); the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOTMP-2) (Lourenco et al., 2015;Wuang et al., 2010); the TGMD-2 (Ketcheson et al., 2017); and the TGMD-3 (Edwards et al., 2017;Muneer & Sultana, 2019). ...
Article
Background The presence of FMS delays in children with ASD is well established. To inform the development of evidence-based FMS interventions and provide directions for future research, this systematic review described the characteristics and evaluated the methodological quality of peer-reviewed FMS intervention studies involving children with ASD (aged 0-21 years). Method Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted across seven databases. From an initial screening of 852 records, 22 studies were included for full-text review. Data were extracted from each study relating to study characteristics, intervention characteristics, and sample characteristics. Methodological quality was evaluated by two independent reviewers using quality indicators relevant to the type of study design. Results Twenty-two articles were included. The reviewed studies used experimental, quasi-experimental, pre-experimental, single-subject, and case study designs. Of the 22 studies, 19 reported significant intervention effects for at least one FMS. Conclusions The large variation among the samples, FMS interventions, and research designs limited conclusions about the causal processes for achieving FMS improvements in children with ASD from the reviewed literature. Other limiting factors were related to the measurement of FMS (e.g. a lack of descriptions of testing protocols), a lack of validation of the participant ASD diagnosis, a reliance on pre- and quasi-experimental research designs, and a lack of theoretical underpinning of the FMS interventions. Moreover, when instructional strategies were specified, the fidelity of implementation was rarely evaluated.
... ASD is a lifelong condition and therefore, the need persists to identify appropriate interventions (Sams et al., 2006;Lotan, 2007;Gabriels et al., 2012) to address the deficits in functioning that are associated with the condition. A variety of interventions have been proposed to improve specific areas of function in children with ASD ( Van den Hout & Bragonje, 2010;Wuang et al., 2010;O'Haire, 2013). These include verbal communication skills (Sams et al., 2006;Keino et al., 2009;Memishevikj & Hodzhikj, 2010), social interaction skills (Redefer & Goodman, 1989;Sams et al., 2006;Burrows et al., 2008;Solomon, 2010), as well as problem behaviour (Lotan, 2007;Van den Hout & Bragonje, 2010;Viau et al., 2010). ...
... Thus, limited comparisons could be made with previous research. Comparing the present study with the results obtained by Wuang et al. (2010), using a simulated developmental horse riding programme, which is an innovative horse riding exercise machine also known as a "Joba" on children with ASD. The researchers conducted a 20-week intervention with 30 children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of 6 years and 5 months and 8 years and 9 months, where similar gains in motor proficiency in the specific subtests measured were reported. ...
... There appeared to be other general and less specific advantages observed by the researchers that also correlate with the findings of Wuang et al. (2010). These advantages include that the children were able to follow instructions more easily whilst in the vicinity of the horse. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder display a range of challenging difficulties in all aspects of their daily living routines. Due to these challenges, parents look for various interventions that will improve the quality of life of their children. The objective of this study was to determine whether an Equine-Assisted Therapy (EAT) intervention would result in an improvement of balance, upper-limb coordination and strength. Two case studies were conducted, where one female (9 years and 4 months) and one male (8 years and 7 months) participated in a 10-week EAT intervention. Motor proficiency was evaluated by means of a pre-post-test research design using selected composites of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). Individual changes were observed in balance, upper-limb coordination and strength. EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural instability, difficulty sequencing a task, as well as poor gross motor performance. Larger studies involving more participants are suggested to ascertain if these findings can be generalised.
... (2007); , Yilmaz, Yanarda, Birkan and Bumin (2004); Lochbaum and Crews (2003) reported the physical benefits of exercise for children with ASD to include improvements in cardiorespiratory functioning, motor skill performance, and muscular strength, as well as a reduction in body mass index. Pan (2010), Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with autism. Taylor (2009) study found that exercise can also enhance attention, in addition to fitness and skills, and might serve as a safe, inexpensive, widely accessible new tool for managing behavioural symptoms. ...
... This study corroborates findings of work done on static balance by Waleed, Moronkola, and Oladipo, (2002);Randa, (2001), Paterno and Mmyer, (2004);Young, Jordan and Waren, (2010) studies found that that strength exercises cause a significant increase in static and dynamic balance Ahmadi, Sokhanguei and Memar, (2013) study showed significance improvement in static and dynamic balance's triple tests among experimental ad control groups. Pan, 2010;Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su, (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Hypothesis two which postulated that 8-week aerobics exercises will not have significant effect on bilateral coordination of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders was rejected. ...
... Sowa and Meulenbroek, (2012) found that interventions in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders decrease stereotypical or aggressive behaviour, while improving physical, cognitive, and social development. Pan, 2010;Wuang, Wang, Huang and Su, (2010) found that recreational pool exercises and horseback riding have been used to facilitate gross motor coordination and balance in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Taylor, ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
5 was used to categorised the participants and those within severity levels 1 were part of the sample.. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The data collected was analysed with the use of statistical tools of mean, standard deviation for demographic data while inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the stated hypotheses. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that 8-week aerobics exercises have effects on static balance, bilateral coordination and reaction time of children with autism. It was recommended that Balance activities, aerobic dance, manipulative exercise/activities, throwing and catching of small balls and bean bag should be added to Special School children physical education programme/activities.
... Motor skill impairments are common among individuals with ASD [6,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. The substantial delayed or impaired motor skill development experienced by elementary school-age children with ASD [5] and the persistence of motor skill-related difficulties during adolescence [13,15] indicate the need to identify the determinants of motor skill competence in individuals with ASD. ...
... Motor abnormalities and impairments in motor skill competence of adolescents with ASD have been noted in our findings, and are consistent with those of previous studies where adolescents with ASD exhibited inferior motor skill performance [6,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. A specific [44]; level of significance à p < 0.05, Ãà p < 0.01. ...
Article
Purpose: This study assessed the associations of motor skill competence with physical activity and physical self-perception of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 63 male adolescents, aged 12–18 years, with ASD participated in the study. The Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition and the Chinese version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile were administered. Physical activity was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. Results: The main findings were that (a) both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and self-perceived physical condition were positively related to manual coordination (MC) and strength and agility (SA); (b) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was the only predictor of MC and accounted for 14% of the variance; and (c) perceived physical condition explained 16% of the variance in SA, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and perceived physical condition together accounted for 26% of the SA. Conclusion: Future interventions aimed at improving motor skill competence in adolescents with ASD should focus on improving the time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and developing a positive perceived physical condition. • Implications for rehabilitation • Less than half of the participants with ASD accumulated at least 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. • Of the participants with ASD, only 19% had clinical levels of total motor impairments. • Activities that promote successful moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and support positive physical self-perception (i.e., physical condition) are most likely to develop motor skill competency in adolescents with ASD.
... The significant motor delays experienced by school-age children with ASD indicate a need to create motor skill interventions to minimize motor delays and promote optimal overall development. Indeed, previous studies have shown that physical activity interventions can be effective for improving motor skills in children with ASD (aged 4-18 years) (Bass, Duchowny, & Llabre, 2009;Bremer, Balogh, & Lloyd, 2015;MacDonald et al., 2012;Pan, 2010;Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010). ...
... Some other studies with children with ASD have also found improvements in motor skills following physical activity interventions (Bass et al., 2009;Bremer et al., 2015;MacDonald et al., 2012;Pan, 2010;Pan et al., 2017;Wuang et al., 2010). Our finding of large effect size improvements in motor performances of manual and body coordination, running speed, agility, and strength may be due to a series of objective-oriented, structured, progressive activities within the Multilateral Training approach. ...
Article
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While impairments in gross and fine motor skills and executive function are evident from an early age in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), few studies have explored combined physical activity training and social games as a means of improving these proficiencies in children with ASD. We examined the effects of a 12-week Multilateral Training intervention in 24 children with ASD (M age =9.33, SD = 0.92 years). Participants were matched into pairs, based on age, gender, and autism symptom severity, and we randomly allocated each pair into either an intervention (n = 12) or waitlist control (n = 12) group. Participants in the intervention group performed two 70-minutes sessions per week consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 40 minutes of motor skills training related to EF (over four progressive levels), 20 minutes of social games, and a final 5-minute cool-down. At baseline and again after the intervention, we administered the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess all participants' gross and fine motor skills and EF, respectively. Results showed that the intervention group significantly improved motor skill proficiency (i.e., BOT-2 total motor composite and three motor-area composites) and EF (i.e., BRIEF global EF composite and three EF indices) (p < 0.05; d > 0.84). These findings support the efficacy of Multilateral Training to assist children with ASD with both physical and cognitive/behavioral symptoms.
... Todas as crianças evoluiram bastante ao longo das sessões de intervenção, no período B. Estes resultados vão ao encontro dos estudos de Freire (2000), Leitão (2004) e Wuang et al. (2010). No primeiro, após um plano de Equitação Terapêutica, as crianças evoluíram ao nível do desenvolvimento percetivo, seguindo a trajetória de um objeto e evoluíram no lançamento de objetos e na coordenação de movimentos oculomanuais. ...
... ). SegundoWuang et al. (2010), a Equitação Terapêutica aumentou o controlo visuomotor dos cavaleiros.Apenas o Simba melhorou o desempenho ao nível da dissociação, nomeadamente dos membros inferiores, atingindo a cotação 4. Esta cotação indica um planeamento motor e autocontrolo precisos. O Simba já apresentava a cotação 4, no início do estudo, na dissociação dos membros superiores. ...
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Este estudo pretendeu investigar o impacto que a intervenção psicomotora poderá ter no âmbito da Equitação Terapêutica. Participaram deste estudo quatro crianças (quatro e cinco anos de idade) com necessidades especiais. A metodologia utilizada neste estudo foi o single-subject design, através do ABA, no qual o período A consistiu nas avaliações individuais, sem haver intervenção, e o período B consistiu na intervenção, quando os participantes foram expostos ao Programa Psicomotor de Equitação Terapêutica, baseado na Bateria Psicomotora (FONSECA, 2010) e no Body Skills (WERDER; BRUININKS, 1988). A intervenção decorreu num período de 12 semanas, em sessões semanais de 1 hora, perfazendo um total de 18 semanas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que com a implementação do Programa Psicomotor de Equitação Terapêutica, observou-se um aumento ao nível do desempenho na tonicidade, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaciotemporal, praxia global e praxia fina, em todas as crianças, relativamente ao período sem a implementação do Programa Psicomotor de Equitação Terapêutica salientando-se a importância da Equitação Terapêutica como uma prática eficaz e adequada junto de crianças com estas problemáticas. Recebido em: 23 de março de 2017 Modificado em: 11 de agosto de 2016 Aceito em: 02 de outubro de 2017
... Core muscle exercises are therefore very important to improve the walking ability of people with intellectual disabilities. Horse-riding requires harmonization between the human rider and the horse (11), and can be very beneficial for improving static and dynamic balance (12)(13). Horse-riding improves the posture of the trunk and pelvis of the rider, because trunk and pelvic muscle use increases during riding (14)(15)(16). ...
... With the recent increase in horse-riding in Korea, several studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of riding as a form of physical rehabilitation (20)(21)(22)(23) Most previous studies of gait, including investigations of dynamic and static balance (12)(13) and ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if an 8-week therapeutic riding (TR) program was effective in improving the walking ability of students with intellectual disabilities. Thirteen students diagnosed with intellectual disabilities participated in the TR program. TR sessions were conducted twice a week (30 min per session), with a total of 16 rides taking place over an 8-week period. A gait measurement analyzer was used to measure progress based on a turn test (6-m walking and turning test), walk test (10-m walking), and timed up and go (TUG) test. Measurements were made three times: before horse-riding (P0), after 4 weeks (8 rides) of horse-riding (P1), and after 8 weeks (16 rides) of horse-riding (P2). Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (ver. 22.0). Descriptive statistics were generated on the general characteristics of the subjects, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normality of the data. Because of the lack of normality, the data were analyzed using a nonparametric method and the significance level was set to 0.05. Measurements of the duration of the forward gait cycle (s) in the turn test and the forward gait speed (m/s) in the walk test indicated improved walking ability after the TR program (p < 0.001); the stride length (% height) also increased significantly (p < 0.05). The walk test revealed a significant effect of the program on the duration of the forward gait cycle (p < 0.05), while there were significant improvements on the left and right of the elaborated strides (p < 0.001). No significant improvement in TUG test performance was observed after the TR program. In this study, an 8-week TR program had positive results on gait. Therefore, further research is merited, where TR programs are likely to improve the walking ability of individuals with intellectual disabilities.
... (Healy et al., 2018). Examples of locomotor interventions utilized in the meta-analysis were trampoline activities (Lourenço et al., 2015), task variation and constant task methods (Weber & Thorpe, 1989, 1992, and a horse-riding program (Wuang et al., 2010). Skill-related fitness interventions included physical training (Pan et al., 2016), trampoline (Lourenço et al., 2015), and computer activity program (Dickinson & Place, 2014) interventions. ...
... The muscular strength/endurance interventions in this meta-analysis included aquatic exercise paradigms (Pan, 2011), Nintendo Wii exercise gaming (Dickinson & Place, 2014), and horseriding (Wuang et al., 2010) programs. ...
Article
Emerging evidence indicates that around 80-100% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have motor impairments in gross motor skills, strength, and endurance. In the current study, which is a multisite collaboration with the physical therapy programs at the University of Connecticut and the University of Delaware, we are assessing the effects of two types of movement-based interventions compared to a standard-of-care seated play control intervention on motor performance in children with ASD. This thesis will analyze data from one of the movement training groups, i.e., the play group, that involved children engaging in activities based on music, dance, and yoga. Training was provided two times per week for eight weeks, with each session lasting 1-1.5 hours. Outcome measures included the locomotor subtest of a standardized test of motor performance (the Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) that assessed performance of seven fundamental motor skills, as well as a custom-developed strength test that assessed the strength of major muscles in the arms, legs, and trunk. Both the TGMD-2 and strength test were conducted at pretest and posttest. Preliminary data from nine children in the group indicated improvements in terms of standard and percentile scores on the TGMD-2 with improvements noticed in all seven skills assessed. There were no improvements in the strength test from pretest to posttest. We provide preliminary evidence for the utility of play-based interventions in improving motor performance in children with ASD. Future research should replicate our results with larger sample sizes.
... Our systematic search produced 15 studies that fulfilled the above-mentioned criteria (Akyol & Pektas, 2018;Ansari et al., 2020;Arzoglou et al., 2013;Cai et al., 2020;El Shemy & El-Sayed, 2018;Huseyin, 2019;Kim et al., 2016;Lourenço et al., 2015aLourenço et al., , 2015bNajafabadi et al., 2018;Pan et al., 2016;Rafie et al., 2017;Sarabzadeh et al., 2019;Wuang et al., 2010;Zamani et al., 2017); and the first and second authors of this paper agreed on the selection of 12 of these 15 studies (80%) with disagreements for three studies. In one of these, the authors reported post-intervention mean scores (and SDs) and compared the intervention group with a control group that did not receive the treatment . ...
... For outcome measures, eight of the analyzed studies used Balance/Body Coordination scores from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP; (Bruininks, 1978;Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005)). More specifically, three studies (Najafabadi et al., 2018;Rafie et al., 2017;Wuang et al., 2010), used the original BOTMP (Bruininks, 1978), while five studies (El Shemy & El-Sayed, 2018;Lourenço et al., 2015aLourenço et al., , 2015bPan et al., 2016;Zamani et al., 2017) used the revised edition of the test (BOTMP-2; (Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005)). The BOTMP and BOTMP-2 are standardized, norm-referenced measures of fine and gross motor skills of children and youth. ...
Article
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have deficits in motor skills, especially balance. This article presents a meta-analytic review of 15 intervention studies that aimed to improve balance in children and adolescents with ASD. Across these studies, there were 195 participants with ASD for whom pre-intervention and post-intervention balance scores were available. We measured the standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) between their pre-intervention and post-intervention balance scores and found a large, positive effect from these balance interventions (standardized mean difference—1.82 (95% CI [1.34, 2.29]). Various balance intervention procedures were shown to be very efficacious for children and adolescents with ASD. Clearly, balance is a motor skill that is very susceptible to intervention efforts. We also provided recommendations to researchers regarding what information to include when conducting intervention studies.
... In addition, it has been reported that on the one hand, the social functioning of autistic children, who participated for a period of 12 weeks in a programme of therapeutic riding, improved significantly while on the other hand, an improvement in sensory behaviours, higher levels of social motivation and an improved ability to concentrate were recorded for the children who participated in the programme.49 In addition, human-animal interactions were investigated by examining only the biomechanical functions of horse riding, and the improvements in movement, executive skills, and sensory functions were reported following the participation of children in the autism spectrum in a 20week intervention programme.50 Sams and his colleagues51 compare the efficacy of Occupational Therapy with the use of standard techniques in relation to Animal Assisted Occupational Therapy, in particular with lamas and farm animals, on autistic children. ...
Article
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The therapeutic relationship between the therapist and the client is considered as a primarily goal for treatment and a significant factor for the programme success. In recent years, the scientific community has brought to light more and more findings concerning the human-animal bond. Many therapists are already incorporating Animal Assisted Therapy into their program as a complementary method. The Occupational Therapist, by introducing an animal to his sessions and using it as a therapeutic tool to achieve communicative, motor, mental, emotional and sensory goals can greatly benefit the patient. Scientific studies should be carried out in Greece in order to draw conclusions that will help all members of the interdisciplinary team to integrate an animal into the pre-treatment process taking into account factors that affect both one's health and ethical use of the animal.
... Ob pregledu znanstvene literature s področja vplivov TPK pri otrocih z MAS, lahko ugotovimo pozitivno tendenco izboljšav na različnih področjih delovanja, predvsem pa na področju motoričnih spretnosti (Borgi et al., 2016;Gabriels et al., 2012;Wuang et al., 2010) ter koordinacije in usmerjene pozornosti (Lanning et al., 2014;Ward et al., 2013;Bass et al., 2009). Določene raziskave pa kažejo tudi na izboljšanje ravnotežja in senzorne predelave (Kern et al., 2011), povečane družbene odzivnost in motivacije, izboljšave na področju komunikacije ter zmanjšanje vedenjskih težav in stresa (Lanning et al., 2014;Ward et al., 2013;Gabriels et al., 2012;Kern et al., 2011;Bass et al., 2009.;Keino ...
Conference Paper
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IZVLEČEK Izhodišča: V prispevku predstavljamo ključne ugotovitve s področja motoričnih in procesnih spretnosti pri otrocih z motnjo avtističnega spektra, ki so bili vključeni v intenzivno delovnoterapevtsko obravnavo s pomočjo konja. Udeleženci: Pri raziskavi je sodelovalo 20 dečkov z motnjo avtističnega spektra, starih med štiri in devet let, od tega 13 verbalnih in 7 neverbalnih. Metode dela: Izvedli smo deset strukturiranih individualnih obravnav ob konju in na konju v povprečno 7,7 zaporednih tednih. S pomočjo analize aktivnosti po spretnostih smo ocenjevali aktivnost krtačenja konja med izvedbo posameznih obravnav. Rezultati: Pri vseh udeležencih smo zaznali pozitiven vpliv na motorične in procesne spretnosti. V prispevku podajamo ključne ugotovitve po posameznih področjih. Razprava in sklep: Med prvo in deseto obravnavo je pri motoričnih in procesnih spretnostih zaznati izrazit trend izboljšanja. Izboljšanja na obeh področjih so primerljiva z rezultati tujih raziskav s področja terapij s pomočjo konj pri otrocih z motnjo avtističnega spektra. ABSTRACT Introduction: The article presents the key findings in the field of motor and process skills in children with autism spectrum disorders involved in intensive occupational therapy using a horse. Participants: The study involved 20 boys with autism spectrum disorders, aged between four and nine, of which 13 were verbal and 7 non-verbal. Methods: Ten structured individual treatments were conducted with the horse and on the horse during the average period of 7.7 consecutive weeks. Using the analysis of activity by skills, the activity of brushing the horse during the performance of individual treatments was assessed. Results: In all participants, a positive influence on motor and process skills was observed. The article presents the key findings by individual areas. Discussion and conclusion: During the first and the tenth therapy, a marked improvement trend was confirmed in motor and process skills. The improvements in both areas are comparable with the results of foreign research studies exploring equine assisted therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders.
... Scientific research published in recent years confirms the positive effects of the participation of children with ASD in various types of therapeutic intervention programs based on specially selected physical exercises [Szot 2003;Ferreira et al. 2018;Najafabadi et al. 2018]. Intervention programs used in therapies of children and adolescents with ASD consisted of such forms of exercise as swimming [Yilmaz et al. 2004 [Casey et al. 2015], or horseback riding [Wuang et al. 2010]. More and more often, the subject of scientific research is the analysis of a wide range of benefits that can be achieved in work with children and teenagers with ASD using martial arts and combat sports [Bell et al. 2016 The aim of this study was to present a case of a boy with ASD and to evaluate changes in the severity of autism symptoms that were observed during the five 10-day aikido camps organized between 2013-2017. ...
Article
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Background. Numerous scientific studies conducted in recent years have confirmed the positive effects of the participation of children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in therapeutic intervention programs based on traditional Chinese martial arts, karate and taekwondo. Aim. The aim of this study was to present the case of a boy with ASD and to evaluate changes in the severity of autism symptoms that were observed during the five 10-day aikido camps organized between 2013-2017. Methods. The case study method was used to present the results of observation of the boy with ASD during each aikido camp and immediately after it. The author's own observation sheet was used to evaluate the changes in the boy's behavior. Results. The subject took part in an aikido camp for the first time at the age of 12. He was then a child with developmental deficits in social relations, communication, and physical abilities. The exercise program based on the aikido curriculum was implemented during five camp in the form of 90-minute group classes. The gradual reduction in the severity of autism symptoms was evident both in social interactions and communication with peers. A growing involvement in physical exercise was also observed, as was better coordination and ability to perform the sequence of movements, as well as a reduction in fear of performing new motor tasks. Conclusions. The aikido-based program, which was used as an additional therapeutic intervention for one boy with ASD, helped to reduce the severity of his ASD symptoms in the areas of social relations, physical abilities and communication behaviors.
... Specifically, moderate to large positive effects were revealed for participants exposed to interventions targeting the development of manipulative skills, locomotor skills, skill-related fitness, social functioning, and muscular strength and endurance. Interventions were most often implemented in schools or clinical settings, and included a range of exercise modalities, including exergaming (Dickinson & Place, 2014), aquatic programmes (Fragala-Pinkham, Haley, & O'Neil, 2011, 2008Pan, 2011), horse-riding programmes (Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010), treadmill walking (Pitett, Rendoff, Grover, & Beets, 2007), and general physical activity and motivational workshops (Hinckson, Dickinson, Water, Sands, & Penman, 2013). However, a number of common intervention characteristics emerged which limit the sustainability and scalability of the interventions researched thus far. ...
Article
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To effectively combat high levels of inactivity among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), scalable and sustainable methods of intervention are required. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a web-based, parent-mediated physical activity intervention for thirteen children with ASD. The intervention, Project CHASE, involved parents joining a private Facebook group where they were exposed to five intervention components, based on the social cognitive theory. The primary outcome of interest was the feasibility and perceived effectiveness of, and engagement with, the intervention, as measured by a parent-completed questionnaire and activity within the Facebook group. The analysis focused on descriptive statistics, rather than inferential statistics. Participants reported Project CHASE to be a feasible means of supporting their child’s physical activity, with all participants reporting being satisfied or very satisfied with their ‘overall experience’, and finding the content interesting and useful. Over 75% of the sample reported the weekly goals, physical activity reporting, information on physical activity opportunities and ideas, and posting/viewing pictures of children being active to be effective or very effective components. Suggestions are provided for the refinement of Project CHASE, and how the results can inform future web-based physical activity interventions for youth with ASD. Abbreviations: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); Typical development (TD); Social Cognitive Theory (SCT); Self-efficacy (SE)
... The research base on physical activity interventions for youth with ASD demonstrates an array of exercise modalities to be beneficial for children with ASD. Some examples include exergaming (Dickinson & Place, 2014), aquatic programs (Fragala-Pinkham, Haley, & O'Neil, 2008;Fragala-Pinkham, Haley, & O'Neil, 2011;Pan, 2011), horse-riding programs (Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010), and treadmill walking (Pitetti, Rendoff, Grover, & Beets, 2007). One important challenge remaining is how to translate these findings to effectively implement these interventions on a larger scale, and achieve sustained effects on behavior. ...
Article
Background and aims: Web-based, parent-mediated interventions have shown to be beneficial for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a variety of domains. We aimed to examine how parents of children with ASD perceive mediating a physical activity intervention delivered via a private Facebook group. Methods: Thirteen families participated in a four-week trial of Project CHASE. Inductive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews and interactions within the Facebook group were conducted to elicit the perspective of the parents. Outcomes and results: Thematic analysis resulted in three themes emerging: (1) ‘Remembering to Act’ encompassed the participants’ perspectives of Project CHASE as being an intervention that reminded them of the importance of physical activity, and served as a prompt for them to take action; (2) ‘A sharing community’ included the sub themes of ‘sharing success and struggles’ and ‘sharing ideas’; and, (3) ‘Taking control: possibilities and problems’ encapsulates the dichotomy between participants who spoke of embracing and rising to the challenge of taking control, with the parents who spoke of the need for more support, direction, and guidance. Conclusion and implication: The current study suggests parent-mediated, web-based interventions may have the potential for improving the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for children with ASD.
... Recent studies examined the effects of balance training programs on postural control of individuals with ASD. Wuang et al. (2010) showed the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) on balance of children with ASD. Similar positive results were observed in balance of six children with ASD 5-12 years old after their participation in 12 weekly 45-min hippotherapy sessions (Ajzenman et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a traditional dance program on the balance of primary school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nineteen primary school students with ASD were randomly assigned into one treatment and the control group. The treatment group consisted of 10 students(11.30±2.26 years old) who took part in a 4-week traditional dance training program (12 sessions), 3 times per week for 45 minutes per lesson, while the control group (9 students, 12±1.41 years old) attended their regular physical education lessons. Prior to and after the intervention, the participants were assessed for dynamic balance (walking forwards on balance beams of the Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder, KTK test), functional balance (Timed Up and Go test), and static balance (single-leg-stance test). The findings indicated that the treatment group performed significantly better on dynamic balance and Timed Up and Go test. However, there were no significant differences regarding static balance (total excursion of the center of pressure). The results suggest that Greek traditional dances constitute an effective and enjoyable activity for the development of balance in primary school students with ASD.
... Lényeges lenne a lovak által asszisztált szorongásoldó foglalkozások hatásait kellő elemszámú mintán is megfigyelni, ami elegendő lenne egy nagyobb hatásvizsgálat létrehozásához. Wuang és munkatársai 2010-es tanulmányához hasonlóan [10], szükséges lenne a lovak szorongásoldó hatására irányuló vizsgálatok során kontrollcsoport felállítása, ami mindjobban alátámasztaná annak terápiás értékét. ...
Article
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sszefoglalás: A szakirodalmak alátámasztják, hogy az állatasszisztált intervenció hatékonyan alkal-mazható számos pszichológiai kórkép esetében, így a szorongásoldás terápiájában is. Sokszínűségét mutatja, hogy az állat olyan terápiás eszközként jelenik meg, ami hozzájárult a rapport kialakításához, alkalmazását tekintve nem korspecifikus, mindemellett pedig már puszta jelenléte is kellemes érzést váltott ki anélkül, hogy a tényleges rehabilitációs folyamat elkezdődött volna. Foglalkozásaink kiérté-kelt eredményei alapján a lovak integrálása a szorongó gyermekek feszültségcsökkentése területén biz-tatónak mutatkozott, szignifikáns különbséget találtunk a rövid és hosszú távú hatások dimenziójában is. Békés, nyugodt környezet megteremtésével, a folyamatos megerősítéssel, biztatással megkezdődött a fejlesztés a komplex ráhatás keretei között. A foglalkozások során bizonyosságot nyertünk arról, hogy a lovak nagymértékben hozzájárultak a kontakt kialakításához fejlesztőpedagógus és páciens között. Lehetővé téve, hogy olyan kliensekkel dolgozzunk együtt, akik introvertáltak, bizalmatlanok, számukra nem jelent sokat a társalgás, ezért nem is nyitnak mások felé. A lovaglás alapvetően egy élményekben gazdag tevékenységet takar, egy jobb globális életminőséget kezdeményez. A terápiás lovak hatására javul a gyermekek érzelmi állapota, továbbá nő az önbecsülésük és az optimizmus, elemzéseink során bizonyosságot nyert. Az intervenció rövidtávú hatásának eredményeként átlagosan 8 ponttal csökkent a vizsgált egyének szorongás szintje. A kutatás és a statisztikai számítások eredményeiből tehát meg-állapíthatjuk, hogy összességében hipotéziseink igazolódtak. Kulcsszavak: rehabilitáció, szorongás, állatasszisztált terápia BEVEZETÉS A modern orvoslás az emberi lényt úgynevezett bio-, pszicho-, szociális és spirituális egység-nek tekinti, amely szemlélet egyre gyakrabban tekint vissza a rehabilitáció területén is. Az em-ber hiperszociális lényként is jellemezhető: az evolúciós szemléletű viselkedéskutatás rávilágí-tott arra, hogy kizárólagosan az emberi faj képes más fajok egyedeit is bevonni szociális kap-csolatainak rendszerébe, így az állatokat is [1]. A tudományos kutatások egyre nagyobb figyel-met fordítanak a lovak terápiás folyamatokba történő integrálására, mint innovatív eszközökre, a rehabilitáció területén. Habár számos bizonyíték áll rendelkezésünkre, az eredményeket meg-annyi kérdés övezi, a hatások messze nem konzisztensek. Az állatasszisztált intervenciók szak-szerű használata, a terápiás folyamatok és módszerek alkalmazása viszonylag friss területe a rehabilitációnak, így gyermekek esetében a lóval segített terápiás foglalkozások mentális egész-ségre gyakorolt hatásának kérdése relatíve új feladatnak bizonyult. Vizsgálatunkban kísérletet tettünk arra, hogy a lovak terápiás folyamatba történő bevo-násával olyan környezetet alakítsunk ki, amely természetesebb, illetve a lóval való kapcsolat során kevésbé feszélyeztető. Munkánk fő célkitűzése volt, hogy az állatasszisztált interven-1 Miskolci Egyetem, Egészségügyi Kar
... The use of a simulator has numerous advantages to EAAT, including freedom from space limitations, affordability, easiness of handling, not being affected by weather conditions (Borges, Werneck, Silva, Gandolfi, & Pratesi, 2011), and reducing the risk of falls that are associated with horseback riding (Carrillo, Varnagy, Bragg, Levy, & Riordan, 2007). SHBR is also an available option for those with allergies to horses or those who are fearful of horses (Wuang, Wang, Huang, & Su, 2010). Posture, balance, and gait may improve after SHBR training in healthy seniors (Mitani et al., 2008). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in balance, postural sway, and quality of life after 6 wk of simulated horseback riding in adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Eight older adults completed two 60-min riding sessions weekly for 6 wk. Variables of balance, postural sway, and quality of life were measured 6 wks before and within 1 wk before and after the intervention. Berg Balance Scale scores decreased from baseline to preintervention (48.36 ± 5.97 vs. 45.86 ± 6.42, p = .050) and increased from preintervention to postintervention (45.86 ± 6.42 vs. 50.00 ± 4.38, p = .002). Cognitive impairment, a dimension of quality of life, improved from baseline to postintervention (37.5 ± 20.5 vs. 21.5 ± 14.4, p = .007). Six weeks of simulated horseback riding may improve balance and cognitive impairment in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
... Additionally, reductions in stereotypical behavior, hyperactivity, and self-injurious behaviors have been found following swimming, jogging, and roller-skating programs ( Yilmaz et al. 2004). It has been reported that, aquatic and equine therapies have similarly resulted in improved peer relationships and reduced aggressive and antisocial behaviors (Pan 2010;Wuang et al. 2010), while also stimulating gross-motor functioning ( Oriel et al. 2011). Most recently, Pan et al. (2017) found that table-tennis training may be a viable option for improving motor skills and executive functioning in children with ASD. ...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in communication, social interactions, as well as motor functioning. Additionally, individuals with ASD are at a greater risk for health concerns due in part to a more sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, it may be advantageous to introduce more physical activity or sport-based training into autism therapeutic programs. Here, we introduce and evaluate a 6-week, 12 session golf-training program that integrates the teaching of autism-relevant social and communicative skills into each lesson. The results showed that all 46 participants (M = 11.46, SD = 6.21) improved on at least one outcome measure, and statistically significant increases in all measures (communication skills, social skills, motor skills, and regulatory skills) were detected from pre to post. These preliminary findings highlight the utility of an autism-targeted golf training program for all ages; future studies should seek to replicate this strategy in other settings and using other sports or recreational activities.
... Assim, a equoterapia vai auxiliar na integração em grupo, no comportamento e na efetividade, no que se refere ao tratamento de crianças autistas, promovendo inúmeros efeitos benéficos [5], através do trabalho em torno do estímulo corporal, uma vez que, embora o paciente não execute movimentos, estará recebendo os estímulos corporais por meio do movimento tridimensional proporcionado pelo passo do cavalo [6]. ...
Article
Introdução: A equoterapia é uma das alternativas para melhor atender as especificidades das crianças com transtorno espectro autistas, no intuito de contribuir em seu desenvolvimento global. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos de intervenções terapêuticas baseadas na equoterapia para o desenvolvimento de crianças com autismo. Métodos: A metodologia deste estudo foi pautada na revisão bibliográfica, de caráter descritivo, a fim de compreender os efeitos da equoterapia no desenvolvimento da criança autista. Foi realizado levantamento de artigos científicos publicados entre 2016 e 2018, com busca nas bases de dados Scielo, Pubmed, PEDro e Lilacs. Resultados: Os resultados desta pesquisa apontam que a equoterapia propicia inúmeros efeitos benéficos para crianças autistas no que se refere à motricidade e aos aspectos cognitivos e psicológicos, visto que as atividades propostas pela terapia com cavalos geram benefícios ao equilíbrio, concentração e postura. Conclusão: Considerando os efeitos benéficos que a equoterapia gera no desenvolvimento global da criança autista, é imprescindível que profissionais como os fisioterapeutas busquem mais informações sobre a referida terapia, atuando com práticas interventivas eficazes dentro do contexto da fisioterapia em neuropediatria e mediadores no processo de construção para melhor qualidade de vida em indivíduos autistas por meio das terapias complementares com cavalos.Palavras-chave: terapia assistida por cavalos, transtorno espectro autista, fisioterapia.
... Results indicate that children with ASD who participated in the 12-week THR program demonstrated significantly better motor skills throughout the intervention period, while participants in the control group only reported significant improvement from interim-THR test to post-THR test. Such findings are consistent with some previous studies with either small sample size or no control group indicating that THR program effectively improved motor skills of children with ASD [18,[29][30][31][32]. With respect to subskills, significant changes in the experimental group were observed in the items of run, gallop and twohand catch as measured by the TGMD-3 when compared to the control group. ...
... Financiamento próprio. [1] AJZENMAN, H.F., STANDEVEN, J.W., SHURTLEFF, T.L. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study. ...
Article
Introdução: O transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) é um transtorno do desenvolvimento, marcado por atrasos na interação social, na comunicação, padrões de atividades restritas e repetidas, insistência em padrões de comportamento verbal ou não verbal. a equoterapia pode auxiliar como um método de tratamento que proporciona melhoras no equilíbrio, nos ajustes posturais e na qualidade de vida desses indivíduos. Objetivo: Descrever o efeito da equoterapia no desenvolvimento motor de crianças com (TEA). Metodologia: Revisão integrativa da literatura através de uma busca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS), Sistema latino-americano e do caribe de informações em ciências da saúde (LILACS), e publisher Medline (PUBMED). Resultados: A amostra final desta revisão foi constituída por 8 artigos científicos sendo 1 transversal, 2 explorativos, 4 estudos de casos e 1 estudo piloto. Considerações finais: A equoterapia apresentou melhora nos desfechos ganho de habilidades motoras, comportamentais, autocuidado, comunicação social, auto percepção, postura corporal, melhora da atenção, concentração, motricidade, equilíbrio corporal, cognição e organização espacial de crianças com TEA. ABSTRACT Background: Autism spectrum disorder (asd) is a developmental disorder, marked by delays in social interaction, communication, patterns of restricted and repeated activities, insistence on patterns of verbal or non-verbal behavior. equine-assisted therapy can assist as a treatment method that provides improvements in balance, postural adjustments and quality of life for these individuals. Aim: To describe the effect of equine-assisted therapy on the motor development of children with asd. Methodology: integrative literature review through a search in electronic databases: scientific electronic library online (SciELO), virtual
... ZusammenfassungMensch und Tier zu stärken (Breitenbach, Gomolla, Machul & Rathgeber, 2015, Hof, Lehmann, Pietschack & Spycher, 2011Motorik von Betroffenen bestätigen (Copeland-Fitzpatrick & Tebay, 1998;Vidrine et al., 2002;Frewin & Gardener, 2005Nachfolgend wird der Forschungsstand der RT speziell bei ASS näher beleuchtet.Beendigung der Intervention nachgewiesen (Wuang, Wang, Huang & Su, 2010). Ward und Kollegen (2013) stellten fest, dass die gewonnenen Vorteile zwar nicht über die Dauer von zwei sechswöchigen ...
... There are a rapidly growing number of horse-riding centres which devote part of their activity to therapies with different groups, including persons with autism. Although, as noted above, the scientific evidence is still far from definitive, the literature seems to indicate that therapeutic horse-riding and horse handling have a positive impact on the development of communication and social interaction of persons with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders (Francis, 2003;Leitão, 2004;Lercari & Rivero, 2006;Bass, Duchowny & Llabre, 2009;Ward et al., 2013), increase adaptive behaviour and motivation (Taylor et al., 2009), favourably affect motor skills (Freire, 2000;Wuang et al., 2010), help improve quality-of-life (Kern et al., 2011;Walter & Hesse, 2006), reduce maladaptive behaviours while providing significant improvements in adaptive skills (Cincinnati Therapeutic Horse-Riding and H., 2006;Gabriels et al., 2009Gabriels et al., , 2012, lower the levels of cortisol and increase those of oxytocin (Tabares et al., 2012), and even improve some of the symptoms of the disorder itself (Van den Hout, 2010;Kern et al., 2011;Ward et al., 2013). Those studies, however, investigated just partial aspects of the personal development of persons with ASD (see Table 1). ...
... There are a rapidly growing number of horse-riding centres which devote part of their activity to therapies with different groups, including persons with autism. Although, as noted above, the scientific evidence is still far from definitive, the literature seems to indicate that therapeutic horse-riding and horse handling have a positive impact on the development of communication and social interaction of persons with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders (Francis, 2003;Leitão, 2004;Lercari & Rivero, 2006;Bass, Duchowny & Llabre, 2009;Ward et al., 2013), increase adaptive behaviour and motivation (Taylor et al., 2009), favourably affect motor skills (Freire, 2000;Wuang et al., 2010), help improve quality-of-life (Kern et al., 2011;Walter & Hesse, 2006), reduce maladaptive behaviours while providing significant improvements in adaptive skills (Cincinnati Therapeutic Horse-Riding and H., 2006;Gabriels et al., 2009Gabriels et al., , 2012, lower the levels of cortisol and increase those of oxytocin (Tabares et al., 2012), and even improve some of the symptoms of the disorder itself (Van den Hout, 2010;Kern et al., 2011;Ward et al., 2013). Those studies, however, investigated just partial aspects of the personal development of persons with ASD (see Table 1). ...
... Financiamento próprio. [1] AJZENMAN, H.F., STANDEVEN, J.W., SHURTLEFF, T.L. Effect of hippotherapy on motor control, adaptive behaviors, and participation in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study. ...
Article
Introdução: O transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) é um transtorno do desenvolvimento, marcado por atrasos na interação social, na comunicação, padrões de atividades restritas e repetidas, insistência em padrões de comportamento verbal ou não verbal. a equoterapia pode auxiliar como um método de tratamento que proporciona melhoras no equilíbrio, nos ajustes posturais e na qualidade de vida desses indivíduos. Objetivo: Descrever o efeito da equoterapia no desenvolvimento motor de crianças com (TEA). Metodologia: Revisão integrativa da literatura através de uma busca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), biblioteca virtual em saúde (BVS), Sistema latino-americano e do caribe de informações em ciências da saúde (LILACS), e publisher Medline (PUBMED). Resultados: A amostra final desta revisão foi constituída por 8 artigos científicos sendo 1 transversal, 2 explorativos, 4 estudos de casos e 1 estudo piloto. Considerações finais: A equoterapia apresentou melhora nos desfechos ganho de habilidades motoras, comportamentais, autocuidado, comunicação social, auto percepção, postura corporal, melhora da atenção, concentração, motricidade, equilíbrio corporal, cognição e organização espacial de crianças com TEA.
... While aquatics have been suggested as a positive environment for the development of skills for children on the autism spectrum (Lee and Porretta 2013;Pan 2010) and are often very stimulating or soothing for sensory needs, FMS are not typically the focus of aquatics teaching. Additionally, equine or hippotherapy has been shown to have great benefits (Hawkins et al. 2014;Wuang et al. 2010) for individuals on the autism spectrum; however, the motor skills that are targeted are more related to the underlying concepts of movement, such as balance and coordination, and not gross motor Alstot et al. (2013) Non-specific Use of behavioral principles (applied behavior analysis) has a large, positive effect on the acquisition of sport-specific motor skills. Analysis included participants from elementary to collegiate age. ...
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In addition to the core characteristics of ASD, recent research has demonstrated that children on the autism spectrum develop motor skills differently, often delayed, compared with peers. Motor skill interventions can help improve motor skills, which in turn can increase the likelihood of participating in physical activity (PA) and potential to build social skills. However, research in this area is limited. A search of several prominent databases revealed a total of five empirical studies focused on building gross motor skills for children on the autism spectrum. Although the reviewed studies varied in the delivery and focus of intervention, overall, the reviewed studies suggest a positive effect from any intervention for children on the autism spectrum. Further research in this area is necessary to better understand the most effective means of delivering a motor skill intervention.
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This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies, with reported improvements in behavior, social interaction, and communication. Four types of equine-assisted therapies were identified across 8 studies, with reported improvements in motor control and self-care. Different approaches to therapeutic riding and hippotherapy, the most studied interventions, were evident. While this literature reflected early scientific development, it offered broad proof of concept that equine-assisted interventions can benefit children and adolescents with autism. Promising outcomes support continued investigation focused on standardization, appropriateness, and efficacy.
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Background The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate empirical support for the use of exercise as an evidence-based practice (EBP) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 1–21 years, using the Adapted Physical Activity Taxonomy (APAT) (1). Method A systematic review of research, published within the past 10 years and accessible in SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing, Science Direct, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases, was conducted following seven inclusion criteria. An initial 169 articles were identified of which 23 articles were found that met the inclusion criteria including implementation of an exercise intervention for participants diagnosed with ASD and utilization of an experimental/quasi experimental, correlational, single–subject, or qualitative research design. These 23 articles were evaluated using the APAT to determine the quality of the research and the strength of the recommendation in establishing exercise as an EBP. Results Of the 23 articles evaluated, 17 employed an experimental/quasi experimental design, 1 article employed a correlational design, and 5 articles employed a single-subject design. Only one article (2) was found to meet the minimum overall quality indicator of moderate (i.e., Level 2) when evaluated on the APAT. In total, 13 of the 23 articles (57%) had method sections evaluated as weak, and 17 of the 23 articles (74%) had results sections evaluated as weak. Conclusion From the findings of this systematic review, and in accordance with the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (3) definition of an EBP, it appears that exercise can be considered an EBP for school-aged children with ASD. However, this recommendation is based solely on moderate evidence from one well-designed and well-implemented experimental study; therefore, generalization is still pending further similar findings. Recommendations for future research are offered.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the use of selected alternative and complementary medicine therapies that may be relevant for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The field of complementary and alternative medicine encompasses a wide variety of approaches, many of which have not specifically been studied, or have not been studied thoroughly, in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but are nonetheless used by clinicians and parents. Most often, these approaches have been studied in individuals with diagnoses that may occur in association with intellectual disability such as autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and learning disorders, or in elderly individuals with cognitive decline. The chapter begins with a definition of complementary and alternative therapies and characteristics of their use. Specific approaches are divided into two broad categories: those that involve dietary/nutritional modifications and those that involve physical agents or training. Given the number of therapies that could be considered for inclusion, choices were limited to those that were most common, and were neither so well-documented as to be considered “standard” by some nor so convincingly disproven as to not warrant consideration. Since the therapies selected for inclusion are currently under active investigation, the authors provide a framework to assist the reader with evaluating future research results as well as providing current practice recommendations. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with sufficient background knowledge to assist clients in evaluating the effects of the complementary and alternative therapies they may choose to use.
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Background: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a tennis-training program for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: The program consisted of 12 lessons delivered over a 6-week time frame that incorporated tennis-specific abilities (i.e. forehand, backhand, rallying) with targeted autism skills (social skills, reception skills). Results: In this study, (N-=15) participants showed significant improvements in a variety of tennis-related skills including ready position, side-shuffle, forehand, backhand, volleys, and rallying. Additional advancements were observed on hand-eye coordination (catching balls with one-hand) and leg strength (long-jump) using a structured fitness assessment. Lastly, participants demonstrated improvements in social skills, receptive communication skills, and reception skills from pre-training to -post. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the potential of tennis training as a valuable element of autism therapeutic programs, enabling participants to train motor and social skills in a fun, recreational setting.
Thesis
This thesis explores engagement between autistic children and donkeys during Equid Assisted Activity (EAA) sessions. I present the blurred position of EAA in Human-Animal Research that results in unreliable methodology and understanding about the equids’ perceived abilities. I argue that ‘benefits of EAA’ explored in other research is a problematic concept, because of the heterogeneous nature of autism and the individual character differences between donkeys. Using narrative analysis and narrative ethology showed that autistic children and their donkey partners demonstrate diverse and complex engagement behaviours that cannot be reduced to an entity of benefits that applies to all individuals. Qualitative stories about autistic children and donkey interactions offered a broader understanding of who each participant was, resulting in their caretakers forming new accountabilities and making informed decisions about their participants’ wellbeing. I questioned the quality of engagement in 15 reported studies on EAA and the methodological preference of only measuring and reporting human responses. In order to measure the quality of engagement between autistic children and donkeys I designed and tested a Quality of Engagement Tool (QET) that was reliable enough to be used in a number of research designs. The QET identified that engagement behaviour of one partner was correlated with that of the other partner in the same session. Individuals (children or donkeys) engaged differently when interacting with a conspecific as opposed to a heterospecific. The stories presented through narrative analysis and narrative ethology, coupled with the findings from the QET are important for future research. Measuring outcomes for children would be highly dependent on their relationship with their equid partner or indeed if they had the same partner for the duration of the research therefore; equids and humans should be considered as equal participants. The thesis concludes with a summary of findings from this project and signposts future research directions.
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Background. Heeding the experience of existing research will allow designing future scientific research. This will increase physical activitу (PA), improve physical fitness, maintenance and improvement of health of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); assist implementation of inclusion in the educational institutions of the country. Purpose - to analyze the content of physical education programs used in attracting children with autism spectrum disorder to physical activity and to find out domains of indicators that should be investigated. Participants and setting. The analysis of scientific articles for 2000-2019 years was done, 48 publications were selected. Research design. A systematic search for scientific data was conducted, articles that were not related to physical activity were not taken into consideration. The search depth was 3 generations. Data collection. The search of documents was carried out in different databases using keywords «autism», «ASD», «physical activity», «fitness». Articles that studied the effect of different means (lesson programs) on the performance of children with ASD were chosen. More than 100 English-language papers for the last 20 years were analyzed. Data analysis. A content analysis of received data was conducted. The reliability of the differences between the frequency of study of aggregates of indicators was clarified using χ-test. Findings. Scientists, studying the impact of programs of PA on children with ASD, often focus on disruptive behavioral models (31%) of these children and on their indicators of physical fitness and motor skills (35%). Most studies analize the effects of a program using one type of PA. Conclusions. Among the existing research, there is a lack of multidimensional and multimodal programs that would combine effective means of PA. The frequency of communication and cognitive performance research (12% and 10% respectively) significantly (p<0.05) lags behind the research of frequency of physical and behavioral indicators in children with ASD (35% and 31% respectively). there is a lack of research that would study different groups of indicators (physical, cognitive and indicators of problem areas of children with ASD, behavioral and communicative) together.
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Despite the rising interest in intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, the extent to which interventions are effective on gross motor outcomes is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different intervention approaches on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder using meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Pre- and posttest means and SD s were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Potential moderator variables were chosen based on important intervention characteristics. The results suggest that interventions have a large effect on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder (δ = 0.99, SE = 0.19, p < .001, 95% confidence interval [0.62, 1.36]). The interventions that were 16 total hours or longer had a significantly larger effect than those less than 16 hr. In addition, the interventions in experimental settings had significantly larger effects than the interventions in practical settings. Future interventions should consider intensity, including not only the duration of the intervention but also the intensity in which specific intervention goals are targeted.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a selected training course on visual perception and behavioral disorders in children with high performance and patients with autism spectrum disorder. The present study was carried out using a semi-experimental method. The statistical population of this study was autism clients in Shiraz Clinical Rehabilitation Center with age range of 9 to 12 years who had no physical and visual problems and were not severely treated and had the opportunity to attend sporting sessions. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (12 subjects for the selected exercises and 12 subjects for the control group) and after the last training session (1 week), the mentioned tests were retested. In order to analyze the dataT test analysis of mean was used using SPSS software version 16 at a significant level of 0.05. The results of this study showed that a selected training period affects children's behavioral disorders (strain behavior, social interaction, and communication of children) with autism spectrum disorder.
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This paper reports on the qualitative phase of a mixed methods study of occupational therapy in an equine environment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study’s quantitative phase found that this intervention improved the occupational performance, social motivation, social communication, and self-regulation of some children with ASD. The study’s qualitative phase, reported herein, subsequently aimed to describe parental perspectives on children’s experiences of the intervention and its influences on everyday life. Using a qualitative descriptive research approach, five parents participated in two rounds of semi-structured interviews. Interview data were analyzed using theoretical thematic analysis. Although parents expressed some concerns about the intervention, overall they found the intervention to be appropriate and acceptable. Next research steps include creation of a manual for the intervention and assessment of feasibility across a broader range of practice sites, occupational therapists, children with ASD, and their parents.
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The aim of this study was to investigate perceived benefits for mental and physical health and barriers to horseback riding participation among professional and amateur athletes by gender. The empirical study of 2651 professional and amateur horseback riders was conducted during the last edition of Cavaliada competitions (held in Poznan in December 2019)—one of the biggest and most important horseback riding events in Europe. A diagnostic survey method was used in the study. In the questionnaire a division of benefits and barriers according to the EBBS (Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale) was used. The results are presented by means of frequency distributions for individual items. The verification of hypotheses about the differences between the analyzed groups was conducted using the U-Mann Whitney test with a correction of tied ranks. For the compared groups the mean rank values were calculated. Research results showed that respondents rated the positive impact of equestrianism on mental health higher than on physical health. Among the barriers, the most frequently mentioned aspects were not related to the internal motivation of the respondents, but to external factors—money, time and distance of sports facilities. Men rated the social and psychological benefits higher, while women rated the positive impact of equestrianism on physicality. Professionals rated more highly a number of aspects related to positive effects on the body, while amateurs claimed that were more often not supported by loved ones. This is important research from the point of view of horseback riding promotion. Understanding the horseback riding benefits and barriers are needed, as such knowledge can be used to encourage horseback riding. Perceived benefits and barriers to horseback riding have so far been rarely studied by researchers.
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El tratamiento del trastorno del espectro autista TEA debe ser multidisciplinar, personalizado y permanente a lo largo del ciclo vital, por lo que la intervención fisioterapéutica se convierte en una posibilidad de favorecer el pleno desarrollo motor y sensorial que contribuye al comportamiento e integración social del individuo. El proposito de esta revisión documental fue sintetizar evidencia de los estudios de intervenciones fisioterapeúticas en el TEA a lo largo del ciclo vital. El apoyo desde la fisioterapia aún es pobre y la evidencia sigue siendo limitada. Los mecanismos de intervención identificados incluyeron la práctica de actividad física y el componente psicomotor como parte fundamental del tratamiento para potenciar la interacción entre lo somatico y lo afectivo, permitiendo la integración de las habilidades motoras y mentales. Dentro de las acciones de abordaje es importante generar estrategias de detección precoz con el objetivo de promover la calidad de vida y el desempeño social.
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Background: There is a high prevalence of motor skill difficulties amongst pre-school children living in low socio-economic areas. Motor skill impairment can affect these children's school readiness and academic progress, social skills, play and general independence. Objectives: This scoping review investigates the key elements of existing motor skill interventions for pre-school children. Method: We gathered information through structured database searches from Cinahl, Eric, PubMed, Cochrane, ProQuest, Psych Net, PEDro and Scopus, using a keyword string. The PRISMA-SCR design was used to identify 45 eligible studies. All included studies investigated a motor skill intervention with well-defined outcome measures for children aged 4-7 years with motor skill difficulties. Studies that exclusively focused on children with neurological conditions such as cerebral palsy, physical disabilities or medical/physical deteriorating conditions were excluded. Information was charted on MS Excel spreadsheets. Fundamental concepts were categorised into common key themes and were converted into a proposed framework. Results: Fifteen intervention approaches were identified. Treatment is mostly managed by occupational therapists and physiotherapists. Evidence supports individual and group treatment with a child-centred, playful approach in a school or therapeutic setting. Whilst session information varied, there is moderate evidence to suggest that a 15-week programme, with two weekly sessions, may be feasible. Conclusion: Children with motor skill difficulties need therapeutic intervention. This study identified the key elements of existing therapy intervention methods and converted it into a proposed framework for intervention planning. It is a first step towards addressing motor skill difficulties amongst pre-school children in low socio-economic areas.
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Introduction. Studies of the effect of physical activity on indicators of physical and social health, as well as communication skills remain relevant owing to the lack of clear recommendations regarding the types, organization, and substantive content of sports and exercise interventional programs, as well as means of physical education (PE) effective for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treatment and correction and improving the participants’ quality of life. Methods. The electronic databases of PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched. Co-authors analysed the articles in accordance with a checklist, developed their summary, and verified their accuracy. All the search results are relevant as of June 2019. Results. In the scientific studies of 2000–2019 concerning the effect of applying PE programs for children with ASD, the participants were usually heterogeneous in age, level of functional capabilities, and intelligence quotient. The duration of the experiment was short (8–14 weeks); the frequency of interventions was different, the training sessions lasted 45–60 minutes. PE activities with proven effectiveness were swimming and water games, running, walking, imitation of riding, elements of yoga and oriental martial arts. Conclusions. It is worth conducting a randomized study with a representative sample, within a group of the same age, intelligence quotient, daily physical activity, functional capabilities that would investigate indicators of all groups (physical, cognitive, behavioural, communicative) in an integrated manner, with a particular focus on those that are of interest to practice.
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This study examined the recent study trends through a systematic review of the effect of sensory integration intervention and the objective reason to show the areas where sensory integration intervention is effective. The databases, Medline and EMBASE, were searched for "Occupational therapy", "Sensory integration therapy", "Sensory processing", "Weighted vest", and "Wilbarger protocol". For the analysis studies, 14 studies on the effects of sensory integration intervention from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed and organized according to the principle of PICO. According to the result, there were 4 studies each of evidence levels I and e V, which was the largest number of studies (28.6%). The result from frequency analysis of the measurement used for measuring the effects of intervention showed that GAS and VABS-II were used in the 4 studies (11.8%). 71.4% of children with autism spectrum were the major subject group in the analysis studies and sensory integration intervention had an effect on the motor performance, sensory processing, behavior, learning-related education, and occupation performance area. This study result will be useful for establishing sensory integration as an interventional program in occupational therapy practice. In further studies, it will be important to verify the intervention effect of sensory integration in another rehabilitation area.
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Publisher Summary This chapter elaborates the sensory control of dexterous manipulation in humans. Successful manipulation requires the subject to select the appropriate pattern of motor commands based on the manipulative intent, on various constraints imposed by the task, and on the relevant physical properties of the manipulated object. The sensorimotor mechanisms employed in precision grip lifting to adapt force output to frictional condition and to object weight operate according to a predictive feed-forward sensory control policy running on at least two time scales. Contextual, cognitive, and movement phase-de pendent interpretations of multisensory input seem to be vital features of the underlying sensorimotor transformations. On an extended time scale, previous experience with the object at hand is used to adjust the motor commands parametrically in advance of the movement. This ability to parameterize default motor commands has been called anticipatory parameter control. It is found that while the task evolves, somatosensory as well as other sources of information may then modify the ongoing behavior. Force coordination across digits is partly an emergent property of these local control mechanisms.
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This study investigated the effectiveness of a 16-week therapeutic horseback riding (THR) program on the gross motor function measures (GMFM) and the muscle tone of hip adductors in 14 children with spastic cerebral palsy (age: 3 years, one month to 11 years, 5 months). In the first phase of 16 weeks, nine of the children received the THR in addition to their regular treatment, while the rest received their regular treatment only. In the second phase (also 16 weeks), the arrangements were reversed. After THR, some of the children improved significantly in the GMFM E (walk/run/jump) score and the total score. The effect appears to be sustained for at least 16 weeks. No effect of THR on muscle tone was noted. We conclude that THR may be beneficial for some children with spastic cerebral palsy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research has shown that grip and load forces are modulated simultaneously during manipulation of a hand-held object. This close temporal coupling suggested that both forces are controlled by an internal model within the CNS that predicts the changes in tangential force on the fingers. The objective of the present study was to examine how the internal model would compensate for the loss of cutaneous sensation through local anesthesia of the index and thumb. Ten healthy adult subjects (5 men and 5 women aged 20-57 yr) were asked to grasp, lift, and hold stationary, a 250 g object for 20 s. Next, the subjects were asked to perform vertical oscillatory movements over a distance of 20 cm at a rate of 1.0 Hz for 30 s. Eleven trials were performed with intact sensation, and 11 trials after a local ring-block anesthesia of the index and thumb with bupivacain (5 mg/ml). During static holding, loss of cutaneous sensation produced a significant increase in the safety margin. However, the grip force declined significantly over the 20-s static hold period. During oscillatory arm movements, grip and load forces were continuously modulated together in a predictive manner as suggested by Flanagan and Wing. Again, the grip force declined over the 30-s movement, and 7/10 subjects dropped the object at least once. With intact sensation, the object was never dropped; but with the fingers anesthetized, it was dropped on 36% of the trials, and a significant slip occurred on a further 12%. The mean correlation between the grip and load forces for all subjects deteriorated from 0.71 with intact sensation to 0.48 after digital anesthesia. However, a cross-correlation calculated between the grip and load forces indicated that the phase lag was approximately zero both with and without digital anesthesia. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest that cutaneous afferents are required for setting and maintaining the background level of the grip force in addition to their phasic slip-detection function and their role in adapting the grip force/load force ratio to the friction on initial contact with an object. Finally, at a more theoretical level, they correct and maintain an internal model of the physical properties of hand-held objects.
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, lifelong, neurodevelopmental conditions of largely unknown cause. They are much more common than previously believed, second in frequency only to mental retardation among the serious developmental disorders. Although a heritable component has been demonstrated in ASD etiology, putative risk genes have yet to be identified. Environmental risk factors may also play a role, perhaps via complex gene-environment interactions, but no specific exposures with significant population effects are known. A number of endogenous biomarkers associated with autism risk have been investigated, and these may help identify significant biologic pathways that, in turn, will aid in the discovery of specific genes and exposures. Future epidemiologic research should focus on expanding population-based descriptive data on ASDs, exploring candidate risk factors in large well-designed studies incorporating both genetic and environmental exposure data and addressing possible etiologic heterogeneity in studies that can stratify case groups and consider alternate endophenotypes.
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This study sought to determine the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on the balance of eight individuals with mental retardation. The subjects were initially tested on four standing balance items and six quadruped balance items. Next, 6 months passed with no intervention. The intention of this time lapse was to use the subjects as their own control. After this delay, the subects were tested again using the same procedure as in the initial testing. They were then involved in a 6-month therapeutic riding program designed to provide vestibular stimulation in a variety of ways, with the horse's movement as a base. A third identical testing session occurred at the end of the therapeutic riding program. The results of the study showed that significant improvement was seen on standing and quadruped balance after the therapeutic riding program. It is concluded that if programming goals for individuals with mental retardation include improved balance, then therapeutic riding may be beneficial to those goals.
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Objective. This study evaluated a five factor model of sensory integration dysfunction on the basis of scores of children on the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT).The purpose of the study was to determine a plausible model for understanding sensory integration dysfunction. Method. The hypothesized model of sensory integration dysfunction tested was derived from previous multivariate analyses and consisted of five patterns of dysfunction, including: bilateral integration and sequencing, somatosensory, somatopraxis, visuopraxis, and postural ocular motor. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the SIPT scores of 10,475 children and the scores of a subgroup of 995 children with learning disabilities were used to evaluate the model. Results. The CFA of the hypothesized model indicated numerous weaknesses with it and, therefore, was rejected. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was then performed with the same data set to identify a better-fitting, more parsimonious model o/sensory integration dysfunction. A second-order, four-factor model using generalized practic dysfunction as the second-order factor and four first-order factors (dyspraxia, bilateral integration and sequencing deficit, visuoperceptual deficit, somatosensory deficit) were pro-posed. The CFA supported this model as the better-fitting model. The proposed model held true when tested with the subgroup of children with learning disabilities. Conclusions. The modified model of sensory integration dysfunction proposed indicated that it was a good fit for the data and improved on the initial model. Clinical implications of the findings relate to the interpretation of SIPT scores and provide suggestions for test development measuring sensory integration functions. The proposed model has applications for occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration as the primary frame of reference.
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Four indoor model ecosystems with natural plankton communities have been run. Two of the systems are exposed to artificial photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 20 W m−2 for 16 h per day) and UV-B radiation (≈ 0.64 W m−2 for 6 h per day), while the other two are exposed to PAR only. Photosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, nutrient concentrations and contents of chlorophyll, particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are followed for six days, Photosynthesis and drlorophyli content are significantly reduced by the UV-B radition whilst uptakes of nitrate and ammonia are less affected. The contents of particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are always as high. or higher. in the UV-B-exposed communities as in the controls, while the content of chlorophyll a is reduced. Together with an increased cell number of bacterial predators, this indicates that the biomass of heterotrophs is enhanced in the UV-B-exposed communities.
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Therapists use hippotherapy to improve postural control in children with neuromotor dysfunction. Understanding the influence of the horse's movement on the child may clarify mechanisms, which influence posture during hippotherapy. This study was conducted in two phases. First measures of the kinematic relationship between the rider and the horse were developed. A kinematic analysis of the rider's trunk and the horse's back was used to describe postural orientation, postural stability, and temporal phase relations of a novice and an experienced rider. Both riders exhibited a biphasic movement pattern in response to the horse's movement. The experienced rider had a more vertical orientation of the trunk and delayed postural response to the movement of the horse. Next we examined the influence of 12 weekly hippotherapy sessions on the postural control, coordination, and function of two children with cerebral palsy. Both children with cerebral palsy approximated the biphasic movement patterns exhibited by the two children developing typically. Both also demonstrated improved coordination between the upper and lower trunk, and between the lower trunk and the back of the horse. One child's functional mobility improved. Additional research should investigate the kinematic relationship between the client and horse and the efficacy of hippotherapy. (C) 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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This article describes major findings from a study of the therapeutic benefits of horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy. Nineteen children (aged 4-12 years) with mild or moderate degrees of cerebral palsy were recruited from a children's treatment centre. Prior to randomization, the children were stratified according to their degree of disability. Ten children were allocated to a riding (experimental) group, and participated in one-hour weekly riding classes for six months. The remaining nine children were put on a waiting list for riding. The results of the study were inconclusive as so often in the case with children with cerebral palsy. Qualitative results gleaned from the weekly progress recordings of the riding instructor, reports of the on-site physical therapist, and reports from parents showed clear progressions in physical and psychosocial functioning. Results of standardized quantitative assessments showed few statistically significant changes in the children. The study clearly indicates a need for further research and for finding or developing instruments that are able to capture and reveal meaningful changes in physical and psychosocial status.
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The purpose of this study was to compare in-hand manipulation efficiency in children with and without tactile defensiveness and low tactile discrimination. Fifty children, aged 4 to 6 years, were tested with the use of three subtests of the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT) (Ayres, 1980), which measured tactile function, and three in-hand manipulation tasks. Tactile defensiveness was rated during performance of the selected SCSIT subtests. Nine of the children had mild developmental delays and 41 were without delays. Low correlations between scores on tactile defensiveness and tactile discrimination suggested that these two aspects of tactile function are separate but related phenomena. Children with both defensiveness and discrimination problems demonstrated the least efficiency on all of the in-hand manipulation tasks and had significantly higher time scores on the turn and translation in-hand manipulation tasks. Poor discrimination or tactile defensiveness alone did not relate to poor in-hand manipulation. The results suggest that a child's tactile function should be considered in therapy to improve manipulation skill. Strategies to decrease tactile defensiveness and improve tactile discrimination may facilitate achievement of higher levels of in-hand manipulation.
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The pattern of finger grip formation during natural prehension movements was described in normal subjects with the help of a quantified film technique. Movements were studied in one condition with visual feedback from the moving hand available, and one condition without visual feedback. The studied parameters, including the maximum size of the anticipatory grip and the final size of the grip before contact with the object, were not affected by shifting from one condition of visual feedback to the other. The same technique was applied to a group of patients with cerebral lesions. In two patients with unilateral lesions involving the motor cortex, grip formation with the hand contralateral to the lesion, was found to be severely affected, in that fingers and particularly the index finger, remained stretched until contact with the object was made. In two patients with unilateral lesions in the posterior parietal cortex, grip formation of the contralateral hand was absent specifically in the no-visual feedback condition. The same result was obtained in two other patients with a lesion (subcortical in one case, cortical in the other) of somatosensory pathways corresponding to one hand. These results are interpreted as evidence for the role of cerebral cortex in the control of finger grip formation during prehension of visual objects. Integration at cortical level of visual and somatosensory cues from the involved hand is a necessary condition for grip formation to be adapted to the grasp.
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All of the 17 autistic children studied in the present paper showed disturbances of movement that with our methods could be detected clearly at the age of 4-6 months, and sometimes even at birth. We used the Eshkol-Wachman Movement Analysis System in combination with still-frame videodisc analysis to study videos obtained from parents of children who had been diagnosed as autistic by conventional methods, usually around 3 years old. The videos showed their behaviors when they were infants, long before they had been diagnosed as autistic. The movement disorders varied from child to child. Disturbances were revealed in the shape of the mouth and in some or all of the milestones of development, including, lying, righting, sitting, crawling, and walking. Our findings support the view that movement disturbances play an intrinsic part in the phenomenon of autism, that they are present at birth, and that they can be used to diagnose the presence of autism in the first few months of life. They indicate the need for the development of methods of therapy to be applied from the first few months of life in autism.
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To determine if timed balance scores on the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) were affected by shoe wear in patients with balance and vestibular disorders and to determine if there is a difference in correlation with the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) or in the sensitivity or specificity based on footwear. Prospective correlational trial. Outpatient clinic. Thirty persons (mean age, 63+/-17 y) currently undergoing vestibular physical therapy (PT). All subjects completed the modified CTSIB with their shoes on and off at the end of a PT session; 16 of them (53%) also completed the SOT on the same day. Scores on the modified CTSIB and SOT. No difference existed between scores on the modified CTSIB with shoes on versus off. Similar correlation was found between the modified CTSIB performed with the shoes on and off and SOT scores. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified CTSIB was similar with shoes on and off. The modified CTSIB can be performed with or without shoes, with no difference expected in patient score or test sensitivity or specificity.
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Clumsiness in preschool children may be a precursor to impaired academic performance and psychological and developmental problems. It is assumed that in this age group especially the qualitative aspects (=pattern) of a movement reflect variations in motor development. Currently available motor tests for this age group, however, mostly objectify quantitative aspects of a movement alone and do not objectify qualitative aspects. The aim of this study was to develop a new, valid, and reliable tool (Maastricht's Motor Test (MMT)) to objectify qualitative and quantitative aspects of movement in 5- to 6-year-old children. The test covers Static Balance (14 items), Dynamic Balance (20 items), Ball Skills (eight items), and Diadochokinesis and Manual Dexterity (28 items). About 50% of the items measure qualitative aspects and 50% quantitative aspects of movements. In total 487 subjects were recruited from the first year of primary school. To validate the test, one school doctor's global judgment was used as a form of expert validity. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for different cut-off points. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of inter-rater (N = 42), intra-rater (N = 24), and test-retest (N = 43) agreement were determined. ICCs of the qualitative total score ranged from 0.61 to 0.95 and were comparable with those of the total quantitative score. The MMT can be used to objectify both qualitative and quantitative aspects of movements. The additional value of the qualitative observations has to be determined in children with various developmental problems.
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The present study was undertaken to analyze the acute and chronic effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity in elder diabetic patients using a horseback riding therapeutic equipment (Joba). The acute effects of exercise were examined by means of a single session of Joba riding that lasted for 30 min. The average glucose infusion rates (GIR) before and during exercise were regarded as an index of the insulin action in peripheral tissues by the euglycemic clamp. The chronic effects of exercise were studied by training the elder diabetic patients for 12 weeks using the Joba apparatus. The insulin sensitivity was determined pre- and post-training by a 90 min euglycemic clamp. In the acute study, average GIR during exercise was significantly higher than pre-exercise (7.8+/-0.4 versus 5.2+/-0.3 mg kg(-1)min(-1), P<0.01) and average GIR during recovery decreased to almost the same levels of pre-exercise (5.0+/-0.4 mg kg(-1)min(-1); P<0.01). The 12-week training resulted in a significant increase in the steady-state GIR (from 5.2+/-0.3 to 7.4+/-0.8 mg kg(-1)min(-1); P<0.05). The steady-state GIR after 12 weeks of detraining returned to pre-training levels (5.3+/-0.5 mg kg(-1)min(-1); P<0.05). In elder diabetic patients, mechanical horseback riding enhances the insulin-induced glucose uptake.