Article

Bee Honey Added to the Oral Rehydration Solution in Treatment of Gastroenteritis in Infants and Children

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Abstract

Among honey's benefits are its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. Because gastroenteritis is an acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that may be caused by a variety of microbes, the aim of the present study was to verify whether the addition of honey in oral rehydration solution (ORS) could affect the duration of symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children. One hundred infants and children with acute gastroenteritis were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, each consisting of 50 patients: Group I received ORS for rehydration (control), and Group II received ORS with honey. The mean ages of patients of Groups I and II were 1.5 +/- 1.2 and 1.1 +/- 0.8 years, respectively. In the honey-treated group the frequencies of vomiting and diarrhea were significantly reduced compared to the control group (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Also, the recovery time, defined as the number of hours from initiation of treatment to when normal soft stools are passed, with the patient showing normal hydration and satisfactory weight gain, was significantly shortened after honey ingestion (P < .001). In conclusion, honey added to ORS promoted rehydration of the body and sped recovery from vomiting and diarrhea.

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... Honey has been used as food and medicine for a long time and is a byproduct of flower nectar and bee digestive function. [4][5][6] Honey has more than 600 different substances and its composition depends on the source of the plant from which it is extracted. 5-7) Some reports have pointed to the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of honey. ...
... 5-7) Some reports have pointed to the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of honey. [5][6][7] Given the high prevalence of acute diarrhea and the need for effective auxiliary treatments, this study was conducted. ...
... Based on a previous study on the effect of honey on acute diarrhea 6) and statistical calculations to provide 1-β=0.9 (Power), 80 children with acute diarrhea (40 children each in the case and control groups) were studied. ...
Article
Background: Honey has been used in medicine since ancient times. Limited reports are available to indicate its antibacterial, antiviral, and antidiarrheal properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of honey on acute diarrhea in children. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 80 children with acute diarrhea. Forty children received honey and zinc gluconate (trial group) and 40 received only zinc gluconate (control group). After treatment, vomiting/diarrhea duration, the recovery time, and the duration of hospitalization were compared between the groups. Results: Among the 40 children in the trial group, 19 were male and 21 were female. In the control group, 25 children were male and 15 female (P=0.26). After initiating treatment, the duration of diarrhea, recovery time, and the duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the trial group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that honey with zinc gluconate reduces the duration of diarrhea, accelerates the recovery time, and shortens the duration of hospitalization.
... These bacteria inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria by producing specific antimicrobial agents and volatile fatty acids that acidify the bowel (22,23). A few studies have shown that honey could also shorten the duration of developing bacterial diarrhea (16,24). ...
... In the current study there was no difference in the frequency of lactobacillus DNA before and after the trial with honey and also between the 2 groups. This may be due to the fact that although Prebiotics stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, yet because populations of bifidobacteria are more than lactobacilli in the colon, changes in bifidobac-teria are more apparent compared with lactobacilli (24). Other studies have shown that prebiotics specifically increase bifidobacterial populations in fecal samples of humans, and populations of lactobacilli are increased significantly in the fecal microbiota of rodents, such as rats and mouse (26). ...
Article
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Background In patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Enteral Nutrition (EN) is the first choice for feeding support, however, it is often complicated by gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea. There are no studies that have specifically evaluated effect of a prebiotic, which prevents diarrhea during enteral nutrition. Objective This study aimed at evaluating the effect of honey in enteral diet during occurrence of diarrhea and fecal microbiotain in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods In this double-blind, randomized controlled single-center study, 32 patients were randomly selected to receive a high protein kitchen enteral diet and the study group had honey as 10% of its carbohydrate intake. Quantitative analyses of bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species of fecal samples were assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on days 0 and 7. Results Patients in the honey group showed an insignificant increase in the frequency of bifidobacterium DNA by study day 7 in comparison with the control group. In the honey group, there was a considerable reduction in diarrhea (P = 0.09). A significant difference was found in length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (P = 0.001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (P = 0.04) in favor of the honey group. Conclusions Enteral nutrition with honey might reduce the length of stay at the ICU and development of organ failure in critically ill patients. It seems that honey helps reduce the incidence of diarrhea.
... Samarghandian et al. in their study reported that 30 mL of honey and a bland diet when administered three times a day were observed to be an effective cure in some patients (66%) and further relief was provided to 17% of them, while in over half of anemic patients, honey proved to be effective [47]. Gastroenteritis in infants and children was reported to have been with oral rehydration solution (ORS) and honey according to an investigation by Abdulrhman et al. [48]. In this study, there was a great reduction in the frequency of both bacterial and nonbacterial diarrhea. ...
... Due to the fact that honey has high sugar content, it could be utilized for the promotion of water as well as sodium absorption from the bowel. When the intestinal mucosa is damaged, honey moreover assists in its repair, performs the function of an antiinflammatory agent, and instigates the growth of new tissues [32,48]. ...
... Samarghandian et al. in their study reported that 30 mL of honey and a bland diet when administered three times a day were observed to be an effective cure in some patients (66%) and further relief was provided to 17% of them, while in over half of anemic patients, honey proved to be effective [47]. Gastroenteritis in infants and children was reported to have been with oral rehydration solution (ORS) and honey according to an investigation by Abdulrhman et al. [48]. In this study, there was a great reduction in the frequency of both bacterial and nonbacterial diarrhea. ...
... Due to the fact that honey has high sugar content, it could be utilized for the promotion of water as well as sodium absorption from the bowel. When the intestinal mucosa is damaged, honey moreover assists in its repair, performs the function of an antiinflammatory agent, and instigates the growth of new tissues [32,48]. ...
Chapter
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Honey has been used traditionally for ages to treat infectious diseases. These amazing properties of honey are complex as a result of the involvement of various bioactive compounds. Honey is becoming sustainable as a reputable and effective therapeutic agent to practitioners of conventional medicine and to the general public. Its beneficial role has been endorsed due to its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflam-matory, and antioxidant activities as well as boosting of the immune system. Also, other medical conditions discussed here which can be treated with honey include but not limited to diarrhea, gastric ulcer, canine recurrent dermatitis, diabetics, tumor, and arthritis, and honey can also be used for skin disinfection and wound healing. Most of the known factors that give honey these properties include its acidity, high sugar, hydrogen peroxide, and other non-peroxide properties. Some factors may affect the therapeutic properties of honey such as exposure to heat and light.
... [18,19]. For instance, honey has also been used to reduce the duration of vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children suffering from acute gastroenteritis [20]. Besides its antimicrobial potency, several, mostly in vitro studies have also indicated its anticancer and antidiabetic actions [21]. ...
Article
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Several honeybee products are known for their functional properties, including important antioxidant and antimicrobial actions. The present study examines the antioxidant activity (AA), total polyphenolic content (TPC), and antibacterial action of honey and propolis samples collected from the Greek island of Samothrace, which were applied in vitro either individually or in combination in selected concentrations. To accomplish this, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays were employed to determine the AA and TPC, respectively, while the antibacterial action was investigated against each one of four important path-ogenic bacterial species causing foodborne diseases (i.e., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) using the agar well diffusion assay. Compared to honey, propolis presented significantly higher AA and TPC, while its combined application with honey (at ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3) did not increase these values. Concerning the antibacterial action, Y. enterocolitica was proven to be the most resistant of all the tested bacteria, with none of the samples being able to inhibit its growth. S. enterica was susceptible only to the honey samples, whereas L. monocytogenes only to the propolis samples. The growth of S. aureus was inhibited by both honey and propolis, with honey samples presenting significantly higher efficacy than those of propolis. Νo synergism in the antibacterial actions was observed against any of the tested pathogens. Results obtained increase our knowledge of some of the medicinal properties of honey and propolis and may contribute to their further exploitation for health promotion and/or food-related applications (e.g., as preservatives to delay the growth of pathogenic bacteria).
... Such remedies include pentad of cure of prophetic medicine (PCPM) e.g. nigella sativa [94][95][96][97][98][99], honey (oral and local administration) [100][101][102][103][104][105], costus [106,107] and Ajwat of Aliah [108]. Combination of such remedies with Al-hijamah is expected to expand therapeutic spectrum of Al-hijamah. ...
Article
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Wet cupping therapy (WCT) is increasingly practiced worldwide, especially in hospitals of China and Germany. Al-hijamah is WCT of prophetic medicine. Al-hijamah was recently reported to do better than Chinese WCT. Alhijamah filters and clears blood and interstitial fluids from causative pathological substances (CPS) including disease-causing substances (DCS) and disease-related substances (DRS) according to the evidence-based Taibah theory. This occurs via a percutaneous pressure-dependent and size-dependent filtration of capillary blood of skin circulation. This explains why Al-hijamah treats diseases with different pathogeneses e.g. headache and rheumatoid arthritis. Hijamatology is a novel term describing the science of education, qualification, practice and research related to Al-hijamah. Al-hijamah was described by Prophet Mohammad (Muhammad) peace be upon him as one of the best remedies: “The best among what you use in therapy is Al-hijamah”. No published report is there to guide researchers, physicians and practitioners to the best anatomical sites for practicing Al-hijamah for treating different diseases as this science is still in its beginning and may benefit from future research. Based on our background in prophetic medicine, anatomy, medicine and our practice, we review here prophetic medicine remedies, indications and anatomical sites that may be suitable for practicing Al-hijamah. Suitable anatomical sites for practicing Alhijamah differ from disease to disease. In prophetic medicine, Al-hijamah was practiced at skin overlying and near sites of pathology e.g. skin overlying skull vertex, dorsal surface of the foot, thigh region and at general sites e.g. kahel region (mainly skin overlying 7th cervical vertebra) and akhdayin (both sides of the neck posterior to ears). We report here a novel technique (Salah’s technique) for practicing Al-hijamah safely at some special anatomical sites. In conclusion, Al-hijamah is better to be practiced at sites of pathology (for local clearance), at back region and back of neck (for general blood clearance).
... It is composed of 17% water and 82% carbohydrates. Honey has a low content of fat, dietary fiber, and protein [9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
... I tempi di reidratazione e la percentuale di aumento di peso non sembrano essere influenzati dall'aggiunta di aromi che garantiscono una più gradevole palatabilità ai liquidi assunti (6). Se ai liquidi di reintegro viene aggiunto del miele ciò può contribuire alla diminuzione di frequenza, durata di vomito, diarrea e dei tempi di reintegro (7). ...
Article
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La gastroenterite è una delle principali cause di morbilità e mortalità infantile. I bambini richiedono maggiori volumi di acqua rispetto agli adulti per mantenere l’equilibrio dei fluidi e sono più sensibili agli stati di disidratazione. Obiettivo. Illustrare le più recenti e autorevoli raccomandazioni di buona pratica clinica per la gestione della terapia reidratante nei bambini affetti da gastroenterite. Materiali e metodi. Revisione della letteratura con interrogazione di database biomedici; reperimento, analisi con valutazione critica e sintesi della documentazione di riferimento. Risultati. I bambini generalmente vengono reidratati per via orale o endovenosa: la prima è indicata per disidratazioni da lievi a moderate ma da considerare anche per disidratazioni severe; la seconda è un’opzione valida in caso di fallimento o controindicazioni alla precedente. In presenza di vomito persistente è consigliato prima della reidratazione per via orale l’uso di un antiemetico. Discussione e conclusioni. I bambini colpiti da gastroenterite necessitano in funzione del grado di disidratazione di un appropriato reintegro di fluidi. La valutazione in Pronto Soccorso pediatrico è essenziale per applicare il trattamento più idoneo. La via di somministrazione di elezione è quella orale, in casi selezionati è necessario utilizzare la via endovenosa. E’ importante, attraverso semplici accorgimenti, prevenire la diffusione dell’infezione.
... Indeed, it has been revealed that bee products can regulate digestive disorders (diarrhea, colitis, peptic ulcer) induced by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori [51]. Honey can be a complementary treatment for bacterial gastroenteritis in children [52]. This same PCA testified the use of Macrotermes sp. ...
Article
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Background Some insects are harmful to humans, plants and animals, but some of them can also be a source of proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals and be of therapeutic value. The therapeutic potential requires that medicinal insects and their derived products need to be scrutinized. This study highlights the indigenous knowledge related to their use of medicinal insects in peri-urban and urban areas of Burkina Faso. Methods The survey was carried out among 60 traditional healers spread across two phytogeographical zones of Burkina Faso. The questionnaire focused on medicinal insects used by experienced traditional healers. Chi-square tests and principal component analysis were performed to test for significant differences regarding knowledge of how insects in phytogeographically different areas were used therapeutically in connection with different disease categories. Results A total of 19 species of medicinal insects belonging to 6 orders were cited in connection with treatments of at least 78 pathologies and symptoms. Most frequently mentioned was gastroenteritis. Our study showed that 48.78% of the insects and their products were associated with 46 plant species for the treatment of pathologies. In addition, honey, beeswax and nests were the most widely insect products used. Conclusion The current study allows us to identify medicinal insects as well as their products used in the treatment of pathologies and symptoms, suggesting the presence of a considerable diversity of therapeutically important insect species. These insects are used alone and/or with their products but often in association with medicinal plants. The results constitute a useful database for future studies of medicinal insects in central and western parts of Burkina Faso.
... The use of honey in treating a wound and mild bacterial infection has long been known and practiced. Honey added to oral rehydration solution has been found to speed up recovery from vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children suffered from gastroenteritis (Abdulrhman et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Considering the potentiality of honey in combating diseases, the present study was carried out aiming to assess the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of several honeys (Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, and Cucurbita maxima) against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia by employing the sub-culture method. All the tested honeys inhibited the growth of trophozoites, and the level of inhibition varied according to the assayed concentrations and incubation times. Acacia seyal honey had completely stopped motility of E. hitolytica trophozoites at a concentration ≤ 50 μg/ml after incubation for 72 h. Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia seyal, and Acacia nilotica honeys had completely inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites at concentration ≤ 200μg/ml after 72 h. These inhibitory activities were similar to that of Metronidazole™ which showed IC50 = 0.27. The mammalian cytotoxicity of these honeys against normal Vero cell line which determined by applying MTT method verified the nontoxicity of the examined honeys. Also the proximate composition of the samples indicated compliance with the natural honey standards. The findings of the study indicate the need for in vivo studies and further investigations to identify active principles with antiprotozoal activities from natural honeys.
... A clinical study by Abdulrahman, 2010, has reported the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis using honey. The study found that replacing the glucose in standard electrolyte oral rehydration solution (ORS) with honey reduced the recovery time of patients with gastroenteritis because the high sugar content in honey boosts electrolyte and water reabsorption in the gut [70]. ...
Article
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Background There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.
... Most recently, Abdulrhman et al. (2010), in their study, added honey to the oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended by the World Health Organization/UNICEF (2002) to treat gastroenteritis in infants and children. They reported that the frequency of both bacterial and non bacterial diarrhea was reduced. ...
Article
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Honey, a natural product of very high nutritive value is made when the nectar (floral) and sweet deposits from plants (non floral) are gathered, modified and stored in the honeycombs by honeybees of the genera Apis and Meliponini. Its composition and quality vary greatly with the botanical source of nectar as well as environmental and climatic conditions. Depending on its quality, honey can contribute to the health and nutritional status of humans. These beneficial actions have been ascribed to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential. Interestingly, honey is gradually receiving attention as a complementary and or an alternative source of treatment in modern medicines. It is active against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of micro-organisms and has the potential not to select for further resistant strains.
... 12 We have used the lactulose/rhamnose (L/R) ratio dual sugar permeability test and 13 C-sucrose breath test (SBT) as primary outcome measures of short-term recovery from intestinal mucosal injury. [12][13][14] The efficacy of low-osmolarity ORS, 15 rice-based ORS formulations, 16,17 and ORS containing novel compounds 18,19 have some beneficial effects on children with diarrhea. Thus, in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we aim to determine the efficacy of rice-based ORS fortified with Zn for the treatment of diarrhea in children by measuring intestinal permeability and gut function. ...
Article
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A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in children admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis (≥3 loose stools per day). All were treated for 5 days following admission with either zinc (Zn, 3 mg) or without Zn-fortified rice-based oral rehydration solution (ORS). (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) and intestinal permeability (lactulose/rhamnose or L/R ratio) were performed concurrently prior to commencement of ORS with or without Zn and at day 5 post-admission. There was a significant improvement in the SBT results in both the Zn-fortified group, median (5th-95th percentile) 2.1% (0.4% to 8.3%) versus 4.4% (0.4% to 10.4%), P < .05, and control group, 1.4% (0.1% to 5.4%) versus 4.3% (0.4% to 11.4%), P < .05, between the day of admission and day 5 post-admission. In the Zn-fortified group, there was also a significant improvement in L/R ratio between the day of admission and day 5 post-admission, 53.0 (19.5-90.6) versus 17.7 (13.4-83.2), P < .05. Low levels of Zn improved intestinal permeability but did not enhance short-term recovery following diarrheal illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
... Even isolates that exhibited a resistance to other antimicrobial agents were susceptible [61]. A clinical study of honey treatment in infantile gastroenteritis was reported by Haffejee & Moosa [62] and Abdelrahman et al. [63], they found that honey shorten the duration of diarrhoea in patients with bacterial gastroenteritis caused by organisms such as Salmonella, Shigella and E. coli. They recommended that honey was a safe substitute for glucose as long as it provided 111 mmol/l each of glucose and fructose. ...
Article
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From ancient times, honey was not only used as a natural sweetener but also as a healing agent. Many health-promoting and curative properties attributed to it are the basis for some traditional folk medicine treatments throughout the world today. Its beneficial effects in different disorders, rediscovered in recent decades , varying from its antibacterial effects and benefits in wound healing to its safe role in peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, oncology, ophthalmology, dermatology and dental hygiene. This will be discussed in this review on the basis of a series of scientific studies conducted to investigate the therapeutic properties of this natural product.
... It is very important in children's and athletes' diets due to the absence of potentially harmful artificial sugars. There are also beneficial properties, especially for the respiratory tract (decongestant and calming of coughs) and gastroenteric apparatus [2] as well as antioxidant properties due to the presence of enzymatic antioxidants [3]. ...
Article
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Over the years, anthropogenic sources have increasingly affected food quality. One of the most sensitive and nutritional matrices affected by chemical contamination is honey, due to the use of acaricides. Recently, the attention has moved to the presence of phthalates (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BP-A), molecules present in plastic materials used both in the production phase and in the conservation of honey. In this study, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of PAEs (dimethyl phthalate DMP, diethyl phthalate DEP, diisobutyl phthalate DiBP, dibutyl phthalate DBP, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate DEHP, and di-n-octyl-phthalate DnOP) and BP-A was developed. The extraction technique is the ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (UVA-DLLME), using 150 µL of toluene as an extraction solvent, followed by the gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry analysis (GC–IT/MS). The developed method is sensitive, reliable, and reproducible: it shows high correlation coefficients (R > 0.999); limits of detection (LODs) less than 11 ng·g−1; limits of quantification (LOQs) less than 16 ng·g−1; repeatability below 3.6%, except BP-A (11.6%); and accuracy below 4.8%, except BP-A (17.6%). The method was applied to 47 nectar honey samples for evidencing similarities among them. The chemometric approach based on Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis evidenced some similitudes about sample origin as well as marked differences between PAE and BP-A sources.
... E. coli is a common human pathogen responsible for outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis that causes bloody diarrhea, which can lead to life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome [26] . Honey has long been used to treat wounds against bacterial infection due to its inherent bactericidal activity [27]. It has also been used as a home remedy for bacterial infection [28]. ...
Article
Honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. All the tests were carried out for detection of the phytochemical components present in honey samples collected from East zone. Results of the experiments showed the presence of carbohydrates, non-reducing sugar, hexose sugar, fats and oils, anthroquinone, saponin, flavonoids and alkonoids as the major constituents. The work which we carried out, we were able to successfully isolate and identify six different bacterial species. The bacteria which were identified were Proteusvulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli ,Enterobacteraerogenes and Streptococcus epidermidis. They were tested for bactericidal activity against honey collected from East regions of Karnataka. The antimicrobial activity of the natural honeys, determined by an agarose well diffusion assay. The bacteria were tested against honey sample, and the standard antibiotic disc dipped in honey. A comparative study was then carried out to see which sample had more effect. It was seen that antibiotic disc dipped in honey showed more effect than antibiotic used alone. Further the honey samples were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration against the bacteria. It was seen that 10^4 concentration of the dilution showed the minimum concentration at which the growth of the bacteria's were the least.
... time from the initiation of the intervention to the passage of the first normal stool, with normal hydration and satisfactory weight gain) was significantly shorter in the honey-treated group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). 15 Based on this single report, adding honey to ORS may be of benefit. ...
Article
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In 2008, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Disease (ESPID) developed evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children in Europe. To summarise data published subsequently to the ESPGHAN/ESPID guidelines. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library were searched in August 2012 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or their meta-analyses published after 2008. Efforts to improve the taste and/or efficacy of oral rehydration solution (ORS) continue, and some interventions are promising. While standard (over 24 h) nasogastric rehydration is still being used, new evidence confirms that rapid (over 4 h) rehydration is also effective. For intravenous rehydration, new evidence is available regarding rapid or ultrarapid and large-volume vs. standard-volume rehydration; as the new evidence is not consistent, until more data are available, the administration of 20 mL/kg seems appropriate. Convincing evidence has accumulated showing that ondansetron reduces the risk for vomiting; however, a clearance on safety in children is needed. New evidence has reconfirmed that in Europe, where zinc deficiency is rare, there is no benefit from the use of zinc. New data, although mainly from outside of Europe, have reconfirmed that either smectite or racecadotril is an effective adjunctive therapy to oral rehydration. There is a clear effect of using certain probiotics, such as Lactobacillus GG or S. boulardii. The update of current ESPGHAN/ESPID recommendations is warranted.
... In fact, the extraction of moisture from the surrounding environment causes bacterial dehydration by osmotic pressure. In a previous study of infants with gastroenteritis where glucose given in oral rehydration solution was substituted by honey, the recovery time of patients was significantly reduced [35]. This is likely due to the fact that the high sugar content in honey improves electrolyte and water reabsorption in the intestine. ...
Article
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Honeybees are one of the most marvelous and economically beneficial insects. As pollina-tors, they play a vital role in every aspect of the ecosystem. Beehive products have been used for thousands of years in many cultures for the treatment of various diseases. Their healing properties have been documented in many religious texts like the Noble Quran and the Holy Bible. Honey, bee venom, propolis, pollen and royal jelly all demonstrated a richness in their bioactive compounds which make them effective against a variety of bacterial strains. Furthermore, many studies showed that honey and bee venom work as powerful antibacterial agents against a wide range of bacteria including life-threatening bacteria. Several reports documented the biological activities of honeybee products but none of them emphasized on the antibacterial activity of all beehive products. Therefore , this review aims to highlight the antibacterial activity of honey, bee venom, propolis, pollen and royal jelly, that are produced by honeybees.
... Indeed, it has been revealed that bee products can regulate digestive disorders (diarrhea, colitis, peptic ulcer) induced by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori [51]. Honey can be a complementary treatment for bacterial gastroenteritis in children [52]. This same PCA testified the use of Macrotermes sp. ...
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing clinical problem precipitated by the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the later parts of the 20th Century. This problem, coupled with the lack of novel therapeutics in the development pipeline, means AMR is reaching crisis point, with an expected annual death rate of ten million people worldwide by 2050. To reduce, and to potentially remedy this problem, many researchers are looking into natural compounds with antimicrobial and/or antivirulence activity. Manuka honey is an ancient antimicrobial remedy with a good track record against a wide range of nosocomial pathogens that have increased AMR. Its inhibitory effects are the result of its constituent components, which add varying degrees of antimicrobial efficacy to the overall activity of manuka honey. The antimicrobial efficacy of manuka honey and some of its constituent components (such as methylglyoxal and leptosperin) are known to bestow some degree of antimicrobial efficacy to manuka honey. Despite growing in vitro evidence of its antimicrobial efficacy, the in vivo use of manuka honey (especially in a clinical environment) has been unexpectedly slow, partly due to the lack of mechanistic data. The mechanism by which manuka honey achieves its inhibitory efficacy has recently been identified against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with both of these contrasting organisms being inhibited through different mechanisms. Manuka honey inhibits S. aureus by interfering with the cell division process, whereas P. aeruginosa cells lyse in its presence due to the reduction of a key structural protein. In addition to these inhibitory effects, manuka honey is known to reduce virulence, motility, and biofilm formation. With this increasing in vitro dataset, we review the components and our mechanistic knowledge of manuka honey and how manuka honey could potentially be utilized in the future to impact positively on the treatment of microbial, resistant infections.
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Alternative therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication from natural products is gaining much attention. This study sought to isolate and characterize the fraction responsible for the antibacterial activity in Goldcrest (GC) n-hexane extract. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the extract was carried out on Silica gel plates to determine the presence of chemical compounds, which were separated and partially purified by column chromatography. The obtained fractions GCCL, GCF2, GCF3 and GCF4 were tested for anti-H. pylori activity using the broth microdilution method. Volatile compounds in the active fractions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. MINITAB was used for statistical analysis at 95% confidence interval. The best antibacterial activity was exhibited by GCF3 (5 mg/mL), which was composed of many compounds with known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. A total of 16 volatile compounds were identified from fractions GCF2, GCF3 and GCF4 into the following families; alcohol, ketone, aliphatic acid, benzene compound, hydrocarbon, furan and pyran derivatives. The demonstration of antibacterial activity by the column fractions of GC n-hexane extract may provide new lead molecules that could serve as selective agents for H. pylori chemotherapy and control.
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Many researchers have investigated the positive effects of honey on wounds. However it's rarely used on wounds these days. This is due to the arrival of antibiotics and antiseptics. Many bacteria have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics and some wounds just don't want to heal with regular antiseptics. Therefore I want to investigate the benefits of honey on wounds. Scientific literature learned me about the benefits of honey on wound healing, inflammation and infection. In the chapter "infection" I only worked with articles that used Manuka honey or Revamil®/ Vetramil® honey because these are the major medical honeys.
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Background: Diarrheal disease is one of the major causes of mortality of infants and toddlers in developing countries. Bee honey is a functional food that has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties, and bifidogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the effect of using pure honey as a form of adjuvant to oral rehydration solution (ORS) in the management of acute infantile diarrhea. Patients and methods: The effect of floral honey on 150 infants aged 6–24 months suffering from acute diarrhea with mild to moderate dehydration was assessed. They were randomized into three groups of 50 infants each. Group I received WHO ORS only. The other two groups received floral honey in various forms: group II: received 50 ml honey in 1 l of ORS; group III: received pure honey at a dose of 5 ml every 6 h/day, in addition to ORS. The studied groups were observed for rehydration time, vomiting, diarrhea, and recovery time. Stool culture was carried out at admission. Stool pH and serum sodium and potassium levels were estimated and followed up until recovery. Results: The recovery time was significantly shorter in group III, which was treated with pure honey and ORS (3.1±0.6 days) as compared with group I and group II (P<0.05). Moreover, pure honey and ORS shortened the recovery time significantly both in infants with bacterial and in those with nonbacterial diarrhea. A significant positive correlation was found between the degree of dehydration and frequency of diarrhea (r=0.340, P<0.01). The recovery time was significantly negatively correlated with the frequency of diarrhea and stool pH (r=−0.340, P<0.05). Conclusion: Honey is a nonallergic, natural agent of high nutrient value. Pure honey administered as a form of adjuvant therapy in addition to ORS in cases of acute infantile diarrhea causes significant shortening of the recovery period, decreases the frequency of passing loose stools, and improves stool consistency. Further studies on pure honey as an adjuvant therapy in infantile diarrhea are recommended on a large scale.
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From ancient times, honey was not only used as a natural sweetener but also as a healing agent. Many health-promoting and curative properties attributed to it are the basis for some traditional folk medicine treatments throughout the world today. Its beneficial effects in different disorders, rediscovered in recent decades, varying from its antibacterial effects and benefits in wound healing to its safe role in peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, oncology, ophthalmology, dermatology and dental hygiene. This will be discussed in this review on the basis of a series of scientific studies conducted to investigate the therapeutic properties of this natural product.
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Honey is a natural resource for sugar. It is prepared by honeybees from the nectar of various flowers with the help of the enzymes in its body. Honey, apart from being a high quality nutrient, serves as a functional food and has a wide range of medicinal properties attributed to it. Honey is the best catalyst and adjunct with medicine. It should not be heated or consumed with hot substances and drinks. However, it can be heated in conditions where it won't be digested but be thrown out of the body after consumption as in emesis. Honey should be consumed in less quantity as when consumed in excess, may cause indigestion which is difficult to treat.
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This study aims to identify the effect of honey with an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and a honey solution in ORS on the frequency of diarrhea and length of hospital stay for toddlers with diarrhea. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Padang and involved 72 toddlers aged 1–5 who were affected by diarrhea; the participants were selected through a probability sampling technique. The intervention group was provided with 5 ml of honey with an ORS and plain ORS at every diarrhea episode while the control group was provided with 10 ml of honey added to an ORS at every diarrhea episode. The findings suggest that there is a significant difference in the frequency of diarrhea between the intervention and control groups prior to and following the provision of honey with an ORS and honey added to an ORS (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference in the length of stay between both groups following the intervention and control treatments (p < 0.05). These results show that honey may be provided as an alternative therapy for toddlers with diarrhea.
Article
Honey is a natural product that has been used as medication since the ancient times for its nutritive and therapeutic value. Despite these properties, honey use has been limited in evidence-based medicine due to the lack of evidence in clinical settings, particularly in paediatric population. An increasing interest has grown towards honey during the last years. The aim of this article is to examine the possible role of honey as a therapeutic tool in paediatrics. We performed a literature search to summarise the highest quality evidences, analysed articles regarding honey’s nutritional properties and therapeutic value. The state of the art is represented by evidences related to beneficiary effects of honey on respiratory, gastroenterological and oncohaematologic diseases. Many other uses could promisingly come from in vitro studies or clinical trial based on adult samples. Honey shows an excellent risk-benefit profile and can be safely administrated in children older than 12 months. In conclusion, honey does not only represent a grandma’s remedy, but is a real useful tool in different clinical settings, including paediatrics practice. However, there is a need for high-quality, large randomised controlled trials confirming effectiveness and practical application of honey in paediatric population.
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Honey and propolis are the honey bee-derived products with a long history of consumption by humans for health purposes. Both of these substances consist of a wide spectrum of vital compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids that are capable of exerting beneficial clinical effects on health. The antimicrobial, anti-metastatic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-proliferative activities of honey ingredients and antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-protozoal, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, and cytotoxic properties of propolis make these substances potential candidates for therapeutics. Honey has been found effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory ailments, neurological abnormalities, gastrointestinal defects, skin ulcerations, ophthalmic defects, wounds, peptic ulcers, and different types of carcinomas. Likewise, propolis also exhibits potential role in the management of chronic kidney disease, neurological disorders, tumors, ulcers, chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, gastrointestinal defects, and wounds. Evidences suggest honey and propolis as potential phyto-derived clinico-pharmacological agents for effective treatment of different diseases.
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Bacterial biofilms are associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Hence, controlling pathogenic biofilm formation is important in bacteria-related diseases. Honey, at a low concentration of 0.5% (v/v), significantly reduced biofilm formation in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 without inhibiting the growth of planktonic cells. Conversely, this concentration did not inhibit commensal E. coli K-12 biofilm formation. Transcriptome analyses showed that honey significantly repressed curli genes (csgBAC), quorum sensing genes (AI-2 importer and indole biosynthesis), and virulence genes (LEE genes). Glucose and fructose in the honeys were found to be key components in reducing biofilm formation by E. coli O157:H7 through the suppression of curli production and AI-2 import. Furthermore, honey, glucose and fructose decreased the colonization of E. coli O157:H7 cells on human HT-29 epithelial cells. These results suggest that low concentrations of honey, such as in honeyed water, can be a practical means for reducing the colonization and virulence of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7.
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Due to the variation of botanical origin honey differs in appearance, sensory perception and composition. The main nutritional and health relevant components are carbohydrates, mainly fructose and glucose but also about 25 different oligosaccharides. Although honey is a high carbohydrate food, its glycemic index varies within a wide range from 32 to 85, depending on the botanical source. It contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphenols. The review covers the composition, the nutritional contribution of its components, its physiological and nutritional effects. It shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects, if consumed at higher doses of 50 to 80 g per intake.
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A clinical study was undertaken using honey in oral rehydration solution in infants and children with gastroenteritis. The aim was to evaluate the influence of honey on the duration of acute diarrhoea and its value as a glucose substitute in oral rehydration. The results showed that honey shortens the duration of bacterial diarrhoea, does not prolong the duration of non-bacterial diarrhoea, and may safely be used as a substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration solution containing electrolytes. The correct dilution of honey, as well as the presence of electrolytes in the oral rehydration solution, however, must be maintained.
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Our objective was to determine the ability of several clinical signs of dehydration to distinguish among degrees of dehydration in infants with acute diarrhea. The design was a prospective cohort study in a pediatric referral hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Infant boys, 3-18 months old, with a history of acute diarrhea (5 or more watery stools per day for no more than 7 days) were eligible, except those with frank protein-energy malnutrition, serious nongastrointestinal illness, or being exclusively breast-fed. Several clinical signs of dehydration were assessed upon study entry. Subjects were then rehydrated with an oral rehydration solution and fed a standardized diet until diarrhea ceased (no watery or loose stools for 16 h). The main outcome measure was percent body weight gain at rehydration and at resolution of illness. Data from 135 subjects were available for analysis. Average (SD) rehydration phase duration was 5.2 (2.1) h, and average (SD) duration of illness was 54.5 (38) h. Multiple regression analysis selected prolonged skinfold, altered neurologic status, sunken eyes, and dry oral mucosa as the clinical signs that correlated best with percent dehydration (R2 for model 0.244, p < 0.001). Mean weight gain for the two assessment systems was 3.6-3.9% for mild, 4.9-5.3% for moderate, and 9.5-9.8% for severe dehydration. The most valid clinical signs of dehydration include prolonged skinfold, altered neurologic status, sunken eyes, and dry oral mucosa. Children with clinical signs of mild or moderate dehydration have fluid deficits on the order of 3 or 5% body weight, respectively.
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Acute gastroenteritis remains a common illness among infants and children throughout the world. Among children in the United States, acute diarrhea accounts for >1.5 million outpatient visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and approximately 300 deaths/year. In developing countries, diarrhea is a common cause of mortality among children aged <5 years, with an estimated 2 million deaths annually. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. Although ORT has been instrumental in improving health outcomes among children in developing countries, its use has lagged behind in the United States. This report provides a review of the historical background and physiologic basis for using ORT and provides recommendations for assessing and managing children with acute diarrhea, including those who have become dehydrated. Recent developments in the science of gastroenteritis management have substantially altered case management. Physicians now recognize that zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease, and an ORS of reduced osmolarity (i.e., proportionally reduced concentrations of sodium and glucose) has been developed for global use. The combination of oral rehydration and early nutritional support has proven effective throughout the world in treating acute diarrhea. In 1992, CDC prepared the first national guidelines for managing childhood diarrhea (CDC. The management of acute diarrhea in children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR 1992;41[No. RR-16]), and this report updates those recommendations. This report reviews the historical background and scientific basis of ORT and provides a framework for assessing and treating infants and children who have acute diarrhea. The discussion focuses on common clinical scenarios and traditional practices, especially regarding continued feeding. Limitations of ORT, ongoing research in the areas of micronutrient supplements, and functional foods are reviewed as well. These updated recommendations were developed by specialists in managing gastroenteritis, in consultation with CDC and external consultants. Relevant literature was identified through an extensive MEDLINE search by using related terms. Articles were then reviewed for their relevance to pediatric practice, with emphasis on U.S. populations. Unpublished references were sought from the external consultants and other researchers. In the United States, adoption of these updated recommendations could substantially reduce medical costs and childhood hospitalizations and deaths caused by diarrhea.
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That honey has antibacterial properties has been known for more than a century1. Although it has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures2,3, in its ancient usage there was no recognition of its antibacterial properties — it was just known to be an effective remedy. This is not surprising considering that it is only since the latter part of the last century that it has become known that many ailments are the result of infection by microorganisms. Now it can be seen that the effectiveness of honey in many of its medical uses is probably due to its antibacterial activity.
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A total of 48 honey samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum spores. Samples were prepared by direct addition (DA), dilution centrifugation (DC) and supernatant filtration (SF) methods and cultured in cooked meat medium (CMM) and trypticase peptone glucose yeast (TPGY) enrichment broths were used for the isolation of C. botulinum spores. The DC method was found most efficient while CMM enrichment broth was more successful than TPGY. Six of analysed 48 honey samples were C. botulinum positive (12.5%). Results indicated that honey sold in retail markets of Ankara found to be significantly (12.5%) contaminated with C. botulinum.
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Honey is gaining acceptance by the medical profession for use as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other surface infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many cases it is being used with success on infections not responding to standard antibiotic and antiseptic therapy. Its effectiveness in rapidly clearing up infection and promoting healing is not surprising in light of the large number of research findings on its antibacterial activity, covered in Part 1 of this review. This article is published in the journal: Bee World. Used with permission.
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The reported antibacterial effect of pure honey was evaluated by an in vitro study testing the growth of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in media containing varying concentrations of honey. It was found that most pathogenic bacteria failed to grow in honey at a concentration of 40% and above. The possible mechanisms of this effect are briefly outlined.
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Glucose-electrolyte solutions were administered to cholera patients by intestinal tube and the effect of this treatment on net stool output was assessed; an ancillary concern was the comparison of the sugar used in the rehydration solution, comparing glucose, galactose, and fructose. All 8 patients studied were cholera victims who had been given intravenous rehydration upon presentation with severe shock; 25 controls were studied for comparison. Average net stool rate of the controls not given perfusions declined at an approximately linear rate throughout the course of diarrhea. However, in every case when glucose was added to perfusion solution, net stool output decreased compared with the decline seen in the total course of non-sugar-containing per fusion studies. In fact, the rate of intestinal fluid loss was decreased with the glucose solution within 12-32 hours of perfusion. Since intestinal sodium absorption was so enhanced by an actively transported sugar, fructose and galactose perfusion fluids were prepared, and it was found that fructose was less well absorbed than glucose or galactose: in general, the results with these sugars were consistent with the sodium-dependent active transport of galactose and the passive transport of fructose, unrelated to sodium transport.
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In a controlled trial of oral rehydration therapy, a rice-based electrolyte solution was evaluated in a group (n=26) of infants and young children aged between 3 months and 5 years with moderate to severe dehydration owing to acute diarrhoea, and the results were compared with a matched control group (n=26) receiving WHO recommended glucose electrolyte solution. The former was found to be more effective than the latter as shown by an appreciably lower rate of stool output, a shorter duration of diarrhoea, and a smaller intake of rehydration fluid.
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A study was designed to define the osmol gap in patients whose serum ethanol concentrations are known, to reevaluate several accepted equations for calculating osmolarity, and to apply the results to the theoretical clinical scenario of a toxic alcohol ingestion. The design for the study used consecutive, prospective enrollment of all patients presenting to a large inner city hospital who clinically required determination of their serum ethanol and electrolytes. Three hundred and twenty one consecutive adult patients were enrolled in the study, sixteen were excluded from the final analysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the best coefficients for sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and ethanol from the data set. Osmolarity was then calculated using these coefficients and traditional models. The osmol gap (measured osmolality minus calculated osmolarity [2*Na + BUN/2.8 + Glu/18 + Etoh/4.6]) was -2 +/- 6 mOsm. Although different equations produced different osmol gaps (ranging from -5 to + 15 mOsm) the standard deviations and correlation coefficients were similar. Large variations exist in the range of osmol gaps. Absolute values are very dependent on the equations used to calculate osmolarity. Because of the larger range of values, small osmol gaps should not be used to eliminate the possibility of toxic alcohol ingestion.
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Twelve normal, healthy adult individuals, 9 men and 3 women, 25-48 years of age (mean, 38 years), were recruited in the study. After 12 hours of fasting, blood specimens were collected at 8:00 AM for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), PGF(2alpha), and thromboxane B(2) assays. Each individual then drank 250 ml of water containing 1.2 g/kg body weight of natural unprocessed honey, after which collection of blood was repeated at 1, 2, and 3 hours for estimation of prostaglandins. Each individual was asked to drink the same amount of honey diluted in water once a day for a maximum of 15 days. After 12 hours of fasting, morning blood specimens were collected on day 16, and plasma prostaglandin concentrations were measured. The quantitative analysis of prostaglandins was performed with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) test. Results showed that the mean plasma concentration of thromboxane B(2) was reduced by 7%, 34%, and 35%, and that of PGE(2) by 14%, 10%, and 19%, at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after honey ingestion. The level of PGF(2alpha) was decreased by 31% at 2 hours and 14% at 3 hours after honey ingestion. At day 15, plasma concentrations of thromboxane B(2), PGE(2), and PGF(2a) were decreased by 48%, 63%, and 50%, respectively. It may be concluded that honey can lower the concentrations of prostaglandins in plasma of normal individuals.