To determine the feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other therapies.
Six patients with very large hepatocellular carcinomas (>10 cm) unsuitable for surgical resection or that failed to respond to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) were treated by SBRT. Doses ranged from 32 Gy to 40 Gy in four fractions. Survival, response, and toxicities were evaluated.
After a median follow-up of 25.9 months (range 8.1-56 months), three patients had died and three were alive. Overall, treatment was well tolerated and no dose-limiting toxicity or radiation-induced liver disease was observed. The median survival was 10 months (range 3-56 months) and the median progression-free duration was 6 months (range, 2-21 months). Partial response was achieved by four patients, stable disease by one, and one patient had disease progression. One patient with a partial response who underwent lobectomy after SBRT was alive 56 months post-SBRT.
This study suggests that SBRT can be delivered safely at 32-40 Gy in four fractions to huge hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, combinations of SBRT with other modalities such as surgery or TACE might prolong survival.
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"Therefore, several alternative modalities of surgery such as transarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, sorafenib, or radiotherapy (RT) have been used234567. Although recent advances in RT techniques including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have augmented the role of RT in HCC6789101112, in the past, RT had a limited role because of the high risk of liver toxicities such as Radiat Oncol J 2015;33(3):233-241 http://dx.doi.org/10.3857/roj.2015.33.3. radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which is believed to be an almost fatal complication once it occurs131415. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy of RapidArc with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of CyberKnife in the planning and delivery of SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment by analyzing dosimetric parameters.
Materials and methods:
Two radiation treatment plans were generated for 29 HCC patients, one using Eclipse for the RapidArc plan and the other using Multiplan for the CyberKnife plan. The prescription dose was 60 Gy in 3 fractions. The dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and normal tissue sparing in the RapidArc and the CyberKnife plans were analyzed.
The conformity index was 1.05 ± 0.02 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.13 ± 0.10 for the RapidArc plan. The homogeneity index was 1.23 ± 0.01 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.10 ± 0.03 for the RapidArc plan. For the normal liver, there were significant differences between the two plans in the low-dose regions of V1 and V3. The normalized volumes of V60 for the normal liver in the RapidArc plan were drastically increased when the mean dose of the PTVs in RapidArc plan is equivalent to the mean dose of the PTVs in the CyberKnife plan.
CyberKnife plans show greater dose conformity, especially in small-sized tumors, while RapidArc plans show good dosimetric distribution of low dose sparing in the normal liver and body.
"With the help of internal markers (fiducials) and synchrony tracking of tumor during respiration. SBRT with Cyberknife (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) allows more accurate application by reducing the error margin with reducing the amount of normal tissue exposure during treatment, enhancing the chance of treating larger tumor with limited normal liver available or tumor in close proximity to critical organs [14-17]. Furthermore, fractionated SBRT may have 3 times the biological effect of conventional fractionated radiation therapy [18,19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background and aim
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option.
Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed.
After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated.
This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Radiation Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Hepatic tumors can be either primary disease (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma) or a site of metastases from other solid malignancies. The primary therapy for all liver tumors is resection, but only a minority of patients present with resectable disease. Various nonsurgical ablative techniques have been investigated to cure or palliate unresectable hepatic tumors by improving locoregional control.
The objective of this article is to review the radiotherapy options in managing primary or metastatic liver cancer.
Design and methods
Two emerging radical radiotherapy options include stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT). SBRT delivers ablative doses of radiation in a hypofractionated course and has been used in metastatic disease to the brain, spine, lung, and liver. The local tumor control for SBRT appears to exceed that of conventional fractionation external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). SIRT, also known as radioembolization, is the intraarterial delivery of microspheres impregnated with yttrium-90 (Y90) via the hepatic artery. The evidence is limited to cohort and comparative studies with historical controls; nonetheless, results appear to be promising. Both SBRT and SIRT to liver tumors may serve as a bridge to liver transplantation (LT) and as a treatment strategy for metastasis from colorectal cancer to achieve the effect of metastasectomy. Meanwhile, combining molecular-targeted agents with radiotherapy is an emerging strategy to enhance the therapeutic ratio.
SBRT and/or SIRT are promising local ablative modalities for management of unresectable liver tumors. Further well-designed trials are warranted to establish the proper combination of different therapeutic modalities.