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Medieval cities : their origins and the revival of trade / Henri Pirenne

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Nearly a century after it was first published in 1925, Medieval Cities remains one of the most provocative works of medieval history ever written. Here, Henri Pirenne argues that it was not the invasion of the Germanic tribes that destroyed the civilization of antiquity, but rather the closing of Mediterranean trade by Arab conquest in the seventh century. The consequent interruption of long-distance commerce accelerated the decline of the ancient cities of Europe. Pirenne challenges conventional wisdom by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade, tracing their growth from the tenth century to the twelfth. He also describes the important role the middle class played in the development of the modern economic system and modern culture. Featuring a new introduction by Michael McCormick, this Princeton Classics edition of Medieval Cities is essential reading for all students of medieval European history.

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... Assim, argumentamos que a organização espacial da venda a retalho alimentar transitou de dinâmicas associadas à centralidade e à proximidade para dinâmicas embutidas de atributos como a acessibilidade e a facilidade de estacionamento e, numa fase mais recente, associadas a novos atributos de proximidade e relações de conveniência em aglomerados densos ou de circulação pedonal, como descrito por Gardner & Sheppard (1989). Considerando que existe uma relação de dependência entre a cidade e o comércio, como defende Henri Pirenne (1946Pirenne ( [1925), argumentamos que as transformações na organização espacial da distribuição alimentar decorrem do nível de urbanização e da dimensão dos aglomerados urbanos, ou seja, das dinâmicas evolutivas do desenvolvimento urbano, no espaço e no tempo (Klaassen et al., 1981;Fernandes et al., 2000;Öner, 2014 de Parr (2005), em que a o sistema metropolitano é analisado de forma dual, permitindo distinguir a C-Zone (área central) e a S-Zone (área suburbana), cujos comportamentos demográficos permitem analisar e discutir a expansão ou encolhimento urbano de um sistema metropolitano e das suas componentes. ...
... Assim, argumentamos que a organização espacial da venda a retalho alimentar transitou de dinâmicas associadas à centralidade e à proximidade para dinâmicas embutidas de atributos como a acessibilidade e a facilidade de estacionamento e, numa fase mais recente, associadas a novos atributos de proximidade e relações de conveniência em aglomerados densos ou de circulação pedonal, como descrito por Gardner & Sheppard (1989). Considerando que existe uma relação de dependência entre a cidade e o comércio, como defende Henri Pirenne (1946Pirenne ( [1925), argumentamos que as transformações na organização espacial da distribuição alimentar decorrem do nível de urbanização e da dimensão dos aglomerados urbanos, ou seja, das dinâmicas evolutivas do desenvolvimento urbano, no espaço e no tempo (Klaassen et al., 1981;Fernandes et al., 2000;Öner, 2014 de Parr (2005), em que a o sistema metropolitano é analisado de forma dual, permitindo distinguir a C-Zone (área central) e a S-Zone (área suburbana), cujos comportamentos demográficos permitem analisar e discutir a expansão ou encolhimento urbano de um sistema metropolitano e das suas componentes. ...
... Consequentemente, assumimos que a venda a retalho sempre foi e continua a ser, por excelência, uma atividade eminentemente urbana. Se, como propõe o historiador Henri Pirenne (1946Pirenne ( [1925), nem todas as cidades são filhas de comerciantes, Barata-Salgueiro (1996) (2017), que procura estabelecer uma relação entre a atratividade do lugar com a acessibilidade aos estabelecimentos comerciais, concluiu que esta se encontra positivamente relacionada com aquela, o que parece confirmar que a atividade comercial se reveste de um elevado significado para as representações associadas aos lugares. ...
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The deep changes in urban dynamics in metropolitan areas and the growing concentration of capital concentration in food distribution sector in the last decades call for an analysis of the evolution of the relationship between city and retail. With the diffusion of large distribution chains, these changes were initially characterized by spatial switchings that, overlooking city-center, favored decentralized supply models, resulting from metropolitan suburbanization, to more recently focus on retail formats based on proximity spatial patterns. In this context, this research had as a main goal to establish a relation between the evolution of food distribution spatial organization and the dynamics of urban development in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (AML). Considering that spatial and temporal switchings intensified with the arrival of food distribution chains, which also developed strong territorial selectivity strategies in metropolitan areas, it was used as a case study the chain Sonae MC, which is the current leader of Portuguese food distribution market and which explores different retail formats in AML. Methodologically, through the reconstruction of center-periphery demographic dynamics, it was possible to understand the spatial and temporal evolution of dynamics of urban development in AML. Subsequently, empirical instruments related to spatial strategies of the food distribution were built. Using spatial metrics, the reconfiguration of the spatial pattern and morphology developed by Sonae MC was analyzed. Later, through density and proximity spatial measurements, the spatial attributes privileged by the different retail formats explored by the chain were characterized. Finally, by mobilizing the chorematic language, a graphic model of the relationship between urban dynamics and the recomposition of Sonae MC’s spatial strategies in AML was elaborated. The results demonstrated that spatial strategies of food distribution are derived, in part, from the urban development dynamics. In periods of strong suburban growth, Sonae MC developed decentralized spatial strategies, investing in large retail formats, such as hypermarkets and big supermarkets, located in areas of high accessibility. However, more recently, there has been a slowing down of the demographic robustness of the metropolitan periphery and a reversal of the sharp decline of the city center. This urban dynamic has also been displaced by the chain, which, for the very first time, developed a more centralized spatial investment in small and proximity retail formats, located in consolidated residential areas. At the same time, Sonae MC has been disinvesting in large retail formats in the periphery. The research findings allow us to state that to adjust to the different dynamics of urban development and to continue to grow, Sonae MC has been mobilizing space and developing new food retail formats in response to the new demands of the market.
... According to Henri Pirenne (1925Pirenne ( /2014, the beauty of historical European cities has its roots at the beginning of the 11th century when the civitas was instituted. The essential condition to be formally recognized as a citizen was the possession of a dwelling. ...
... According to Henri Pirenne (1925Pirenne ( /2014, the beauty of historical European cities has its roots at the beginning of the 11th century when the civitas was instituted. The essential condition to be formally recognized as a citizen was the possession of a dwelling. ...
... In other words, owners were generally free to do what they pleased within the existing constraints and conditions derived from neighbouring properties and rights. Beyond the legislative function of codes, municipalities also had the role of collecting the necessary taxes for the development of certain essential public works and the provision of certain collective services (see Pirenne, 1925Pirenne, /2014. ...
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While cities as a whole work as complex adaptive systems, the same cannot be said of many of their neighbourhoods constructed in the 20th century. The formation and perpetuation of anti-adaptive-neighbourhoods is a very recent and still under-explored phenomenon in urban history. The paper investigates the causes behind this phenomenon and suggests policy and design implications to generate neighbourhoods and built environments that are more adaptable. It demonstrates that contemporary discussions can be enriched if we pay more attention to certain underestimated urban factors that guarantee the incremental adaptation of the built environment: action, ownership, and time.
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
... . Em Bracara, por sua vez, a promoção da cidade a capital da província da Gallaecia, criada por Diocletianus, nos finais do século III, intensificou a competição pelos altos cargos na administração provincial e proporcionou a emergência de uma sociedade ainda mais hierarquizada e economicamente dinâmica. Entretanto, a desarticulação política e administrativa romana nas antigas províncias ocidentais, que na Hispania aconteceu logo nos inícios do século V, deu origem a novos poderes e relações, associados com a instalação dos povos germânicos, sem que isso, contudo, significasse a total dissolução das tradicionais rotas de intercâmbio, que permaneceram em funcionamento até à invasão muçulmana, nos finais do século VII, no norte da África, importante parceiro comercial do Ocidente europeu, e nos inícios do século VIII na Hispânia (Pirenne, 1925). No plano social, por sua vez, as relações globais que o Império proporcionava não sobreviveram ao colapso da estrutura administrativa nas províncias ocidentais, ainda que as estruturas organizativas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas, apesar da transferência do poder que antes vinha do Imperador em Roma e que passou a ser detido pelo bispo na basílica (Brown, 1971). ...
... Por outro lado, quando a perspetiva de análise é alterada, torna-se imperativo que se discuta ou mesmo reposicione os marcos temporais que assinalam o início e o fim de períodos cronológicos. Em relação ao mesmo fenómeno, a passagem da sociedade clássica para a medieval no Ocidente europeu, uma vez que se toma para o foco da análise os processos económicos (Pirenne, 1925), as lutas sociais (Jones, 1964) ou as práticas culturais (Brown, 1971), vemos uma mudança significativa nas balizas facto-temporais. ...
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O estudo do período histórico que sucedeu ao Império Romano no Ocidente evidenciou profundas transformações sociais e económicas que tiveram grande expressão no tecido urbano das cidades. Neste sentido, propomos uma síntese sobre as dinâmicas económicas de Bracara na Antiguidade Tardia, período profundamente marcado, por um lado, pela afirmação de novas realidades urbanísticas, sociais, políticas e religiosas, e por outro, pelo gradativo abandono de condicionantes e imperativos que marcaram a cidade alto-imperial. Para tal, vamos recorrer aos dados provenientes das intervenções arqueológicas realizadas em Braga, que documentam as transformações ocorridas entre os séculos III e VIII, período balizado pela elevação da cidade à capital da Gallaecia e pelas invasões muçulmanas, que marcam o fim do comércio a nível mediterrânico. The study of the historical period that followed the Western Roman Empire evidenced social and economic transformations that had great expression in the urban fabric of cities. In this sense, we propose a synthesis of the economic dynamics of Bracara in Late Antiquity, a period marked by the affirmation of new urban, social, political and religious realities, as well as by the gradual abandonment of constraints and imperatives that marked the previous city. For that, we will use data from archaeological interventions carried out in Braga, which document how transformations occurred between 3rd-8th centuries, a period delimited by the elevation of the city to capital of Gallaecia and Muslim invasions, which mark the end of trade at Mediterranean level
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
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The paper presents results of the study, which goal was to identify the structure of nightlife industry and the level of concentration of nightlife industry premises in the most attractive part of the central district of Warsaw. For the purpose of the study, the database of nightlife premises within relevant categories i.e. restaurants, coffee shops, bars and clubs was prepared. Specific location and time of operation of every premise were determined. Location patterns of every category of premises and the rhythm of activities were identified. The results of the study show that, just like retail commerce, restaurants and coffee shops prefer location on main streets and near tourists attractions, while bars and clubs are grouped in small clusters and typically are located in adjacent areas. The opening hours of the premises make the nightlife in this area short. The study shows that the city “goes to bed early” even in the most attractive, central location with potential to develop nightlife activities. The central part of the city cannot be considered a nightlife entertainment district.
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the rise of night-time economies in two major countries in the Global North (Germany and Japan) from a cultural policy perspective, focusing in particular on Berlin and Tokyo as major night-time hubs. Building on existing research, which has typically focused on major Western economic hubs like London and New York, the paper makes two main contributions by (1) comparing the development of cultural policy in two distinct global regions and (2) highlighting the role of culture and cultural histories, spaces and meanings in shaping relevant policies. The research draws on a range of different sources, including policy documents, interviews with policymakers, interviews with night-time workers in Berlin and Tokyo and relevant statistical data.The chapter reports several interesting findings. (1) Policy formation in both of these seemingly disparate countries is strongly influenced by the historical conflation of power and culture. (2) In both cases, the emergence of a flourishing night-time economy is driven by intermittent state policy supports that lack any clear or definitive power. (3) Linear and holistic models fail to account for inequities in the spatial distribution, success and downfall of night-time economies.The paper enhances existing understanding of policy cycles that account for these complex entanglements and resists any stereotypical account of cultural planning and distribution.
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
... As an anthropological archaeologist, I see patterns of behavior that emerge from comparative studies, showing how similar and yet unique each urban adaptation is or has been, and how the night has shaped city living . Studies of the urban environment have a long history in the social sciences (e.g., Adams 1960;Childe 1950;Creekmore and Fisher 2014;Pirenne 1925Pirenne [1969; M.L. Smith 2010). How to define cities (Wirth 1940) is still a process undertaken by modern researchers, some of whom now distinguish between "low-density" and "high-density" urbanism (e.g., ...
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The night has been the subject of multiple readings by the social and human sciences, as well as it has inspired multiple narratives throughout history, literature and popular culture. However, the study of nightlife, practices, and actors only gained attention in recent years. The appearance of “mayors of the night” with the intention of improving urban governance during this period and thus guaranteeing needs, rights and services is the result of a progressive change in the local political paradigm, which begins to face this space-time as a “new” opportunity for its economic, social and cultural development. We could say that the night and the activities that take place in it begin to be projected as forms of tourist attraction, whether for their leisure activities such as discos, parties or other forms of fun; or because of its cultural potential, such as the White Nights. Contemporary urban night implies having active professionals, capable of reacting to any incident, such as the case of health professionals, but also maintaining those professions – often illegal – that tend to be considered problematic or hidden as could be prostitution. Surveillance and control during this period is also a good example of active professions, such as the case of the police, surveillance companies, video-doorman, or firefighters. It has never been so easy to commute in the urban space, public transport normally meets the needs of users, and the emergence of new forms of transport resulting from the circular economy, both of people and goods, completes the demand, not without controversy. There are many different ways to approach the night, but here we collect some of the communications that participated during the I International Conference on Night Studies, that t
... We include city FE and century FE. Results are very similar when adding the full set of controls, including the spatial lag As described by Pirenne (2014) and Parker (2004), communal institutions often evolved from within the city, and were guided by the aspiration of the urban middle classes to gain freedom and independence from external influence (primarily in opposition to the Church or an external Lord). In some cases, autonomy and freedom were granted in order to encourage new settlements during periods of intense migration (Bartlett, 1994). ...
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Creativity is often highly concentrated in time and space, and across different domains. What explains the formation and decay of clusters of creativity? We match data on notable individuals born in Europe between the eleventh and the nineteenth centuries with historical city data. The production and attraction of creative talent is associated with city institutions that protected economic and political freedoms and promoted local autonomy. Instead, indicators of local economic conditions such as city size and real wages, do not predict creative clusters. We also show that famous creatives are spatially concentrated and clustered across disciplines, that their spatial mobility has remained stable over the centuries, and that creative clusters are persistent but less than population.
... A relação entre cidade e comércio é dinâmica e possui rebatimentos na organização espacial urbana e regional. Assim, parte-se da ideia de que se nem todas as cidades são de acordo com a expressão de Henri Pirenne (1969) No bojo da geografia do comércio e consumo novas perspectivas de análise estão sendo desenvolvidas, trazendo para o debate científico a interconexão entre as atividades terciárias e a morfologia urbana na dinâmica socioespacial das cidades. (CARRERAS, 2005). ...
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O comércio assumiu papel de destaque na reorganização socioespacial das cidades. Nesse quadro, observando a importância estadual da cidade Canindé no âmbito econômico e cultural vislumbra-se nesse artigo entender o circuito inferior da economia urbana no período das Festas de São Fransico de Assis e suas consequências na dinâmica socioespacial de Canindé. O estudo tem como fundamentação a teoria dos circuitos da economia urbana. Com isso, destacamos os ambulantes e camelôs. Sendo o recorte temporal o ano de 2018 e 2019 (nos períodos de setembro e outubro). Acreditamos que a análise feita à luz da ciência geográfica trará importantes contribuições no entendimento do comércio e suas consequências socioespaciais na cidade de Canindé.
... In these trading cities, the mutually beneficial nature of these economic relations ultimately encouraged local inhabitants to cooperate in order to ensure the stability and protection of their city (Eibach, 2007). It is on this basis that Weber (Weber, 1966: 55) argued for the peculiarity of the medieval European city, where the Bürger's membership was based on their individual involvement in the regulation of social matters as a citizen and bearer of rights and duties, subject to a common legislation (Häussermann and Haila, 2005;Pirenne, 1925). For Weber, this novelty would act as the early foundation of modern society. ...
... É por demais evidente que a atividade comercial viabiliza a existência e o dinamismo dos centros urbanos, independentemente da sua dimensão (Bromley & Thomas, 1993a, 1993bVargas, 2001). E se os centros urbanos dificilmente se estruturaram sem a presença do comércio (Barata-Salgueiro, 1996;O'Brien & Harris, 1991;Pirenne, 1925), a verdade é que as relações cidade-comércio se têm caracterizado por mudanças profundas ao longo do tempo, sobretudo nas sociedades economicamente mais desenvolvidas (Cachinho, 2011(Cachinho, , 2014Dugot & Gasnier, 2012). Essas mudanças, quase sempre com impactes notáveis na metamorfose da estrutura urbana, encabeçaram, em particular nas grandes cidades, uma autêntica revolução comercial, com repercussões na diversidade de atores e de formatos de estabelecimentos comerciais, bem como nas estratégias espaciais desenvolvidas por esses atores (Messerlin, 1982;Gardner & Sheppard, 1989;Cachinho, 2002). ...
... The apparent historical break in access to Byzantine coinage in England appears to come from the later seventh century onwards, to be renewed from the ninth century. This gap in Byzantine coinage has been attributed to the growth of Islam and the Arab conquest of the Levant (AD 634-44), North Africa (AD 640 onwards) and Spain (AD 711 onwards) (Pirenne 1939). The gradual reduction of the Byzantine Empire following the Battle of Yarmouk in August 636 led to a strangulation of seaborne trade through the Mediterranean and around the western seaboard to Britain, although other routes across land may have opened up to compensate. ...
... While the third estate was generally commoners, in the High Middle Ages a politically powerful segment of that estate began to emerge: the burghers of commercial cities. The precedents for these commercial cities were merchant caravans that settled outside of towns governed by a secular or ecclesiastical lord (Pirenne 2014(Pirenne [1925; Rörig 1967). These merchant settlements came to rival the wealth of their adjacent towns; they established their own courts and penal codes (Prienne 2014 [1925], pp. ...
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Why did enduring traditions of economic and political liberty arise in Western Europe? An answer to this question must be sought at the constitutional level. Within the medieval constitutional order, traditions of representative and limited government developed through patterns of constitutional bargaining. The politically fragmented landscape that emerged following the decline of the Western Roman Empire and the barbarian migrations was conducive to those patterns. In particular, that landscape was characterized by polycentric and hierarchical governance structures; within those structures, political property rights holders were sovereign and residual claimants to governance returns. I elaborate on why this environment of polycentric sovereignty promoted constitutional bargaining in the direction of good governance and greater liberty.
... Many scholars have also made empirical studies on the determinants of urbanisation development. For example, Jacobs [32,33], Pirenne [34], Polanyi [35], Pandey [36] and Chandler and Fox [37], among others, have highlighted these processes. From these works to the present, there is a large amount of theoretical and empirical literature on the factors that affect the urbanisation process. ...
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This study attempts to measure the drag effect of carbon emissions on China's economic growth by incorporating carbon emissions as an endogenous variable into an economic growth model and by relaxing the assumption that the size of the economy will remain unchanged. The drag effect of carbon emissions on the process of urbanisation is derived based on the intrinsic relationship between economic growth and urban development. Then, unit root and cointegration tests are performed using panel data from 30 provincial regions in Mainland China from 2003 to 2016 to prove and estimate the resistance caused by carbon emission in the process of urbanisation. Results show that the drag effect of carbon emission between 2003 and 2016 has a certain negative impact on the process of urbanisation in China. Due to the constraints of carbon emissions, the growth rate of China's economic growth and urbanization level is 0.74% and 4.96% lower than that without constraints, respectively. Therefore, in the process of rapid urbanisation, formulating a reasonable carbon emission reduction strategy by the provincial government is conducive to the healthy and sustainable development of urbanisation.
... Historically, given the self-governed nature of many Western cities, the demography and economy in western urban areas were different from their rural surroundings [5,6]. As one of the principal demographic characteristics, the western cities have a higher mortality rate than in their rural surroundings. ...
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The progress in reducing the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) since 1990 has been remarkable but uneven within countries between urban and rural populations. While trend U5MR estimates have been published frequently, an analysis of U5MR by urban and rural area has not been available across countries over time. In this paper, we provide annual estimates of U5MR among urban residence for 109 countries from 1990 to 2018 using a Bayesian time series model and assess the corresponding uncertainty. The analyses are based on an extensive database complied from surveys (including DHS, MICS, RHS, PAPFAM, PAPCHILD), censuses, and vital registration system. We present results for selected countries and identify country-years with the highest disparities in U5MR between urban area and national level.
... One of the most consistent explanations for the existence of the city has been trade. Several market theories buttressed discussions of urban origins from Pirenne's faubourg to Christaller's central place theory and Jane Jacob's The Economy of Cities (Jane Jacobs, 1969;Pirenne, 1948). The simplest example of the environment built on trade is the unwalled town that was born or created exclusively for the exchange of goods (Kostof, 1992). ...
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This study presents a comparison of form and function for two traditional markets within their metropolitan regions on the Arabian Peninsula: Souq Waqif in Doha, State of Qatar, and Souq Mutrah in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Rapid urbanization and globalization characterize both cities over the previous half-century. Doha and Muscat possess strong similarities in terms of historical origin as coastal settlements. A clear contrast is topography. Flat terrain characterizes Doha. Mountainous terrain characterizes Muscat. The study will explore the dynamic relationship between urban morphology, land use, and social function to better understand the nature and impact of urban changes on the use and experience of these souqs as public spaces today. The research applies several representational techniques common to morphological research including space syntax. The findings reveal the complex nature of these souqs as traditional markets. Understanding better their form and function in their urban context is an important first step for enhancing them in the future.
... Wood (2002) stated that in the commercialization model, the development of capitalism was accepted as old as human history and it was attributed to the first commercial practices in history. While Pirenne (1969) advocated that in the commercialization period, the political and cultural pressures upon cities were mitigated and cities became dominated by the bourgeoisie, Wood emphasised that the transition of bourgeoisie or 'burgher' to capitalists in medieval Europe underpinned the commercialization model. However, Marx (1959) introduced the terms of the mode of production and the relations of production referring to the interaction between bourgeoisie and proletariat in industrial capitalism implying that the development of capitalism was attributed to the industrial practices. ...
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The aim of the research is to demonstrate whether the restraint, prudent and long-term oriented type of personality fostered by Calvinist Protestantism was influential on the development of capitalism as mainly focusing on European countries. The relevant literature has been reviewed in order to identify the subject and analyse the empirical studies to investigate the validity of the theory. The predestination doctrine of Calvinism associated with the religious calling is the key concept to identify the behavioural patterns of the first capitalists. The main finding was that the Protestant work ethic was valid and the predestined personality type posed by Calvinism was influential on the development of capitalism based on the empirical data. Nevertheless, it appears that the development of capitalism cannot be completely attributed to the Protestant work ethic.
... 82. See Najemy 2006;Pirenne 1969;Weber 1968. to oppose absolutism. ...
Article
Institutional constraints on executive behavior are commonly understood to be crucial constitutional features that limit state expropriation, protect property rights, and promote economic development. Combining new data describing the presence of parliamentary constraints for the entire European continent with data on city sizes, we build upon theories of endogenous economic growth to demonstrate that paths of both economic and political development over the long span of European history from 1200 to 1900 are the consequence of a common process of urban agglomeration. In doing so, we provide evidence that both outcomes—the existence of constraining institutions and growth—are driven by initial conditions that fostered technical know-how embodied in urban-dwelling artisans who, in turn, were able to force institutional limits on rulers’ actions. Hence, instead of reflecting a true underlying cause of development, parliamentary constraints are themselves outcomes determined by an endogenous process of growth.
... Igualmente, la tabla 1 enlista un conjunto de obras básicas para acercarse a la historiografía urbana, incluida la historia del urbanismo y de las utopías urbanas. General Bairoch (1990); Choay (1996);Hall (1996;; Mumford (1979); Pirenne ([1925] 2014); Roncayolo (1997); Vance (1990); Weber (1958). ...
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Al describir la urbanización contemporánea Brugmann (2009) recalca que el mundo en sí mismo está siendo convertido en una ciudad, con la emergencia de un sistema global de ciudades heterogéneo y jerárquico, entrelazado por complejas re- des de comunicaciones. Esta caracterización, que evoca la célebre utopía de Coruscant, el planeta urbano de la saga de Star Wars, se reafirma en los datos del World urbanization prospects que muestran cómo el mundo pasó de apenas un 30% de población urbana en 1950 al 54% en el 2015, y un estimado del 66.4% en el 2050. Este proceso de rápido movimiento de la población hacia las ciudades ha contribuido significativamente en hacer de los estudios urbanos una de las áreas temáticas más dinámicas y de mayor desarrollo en las últimas décadas. Es, además, reconfortante reconocer que, en la expansión de los estudios de la ciudad, la geografía ha tenido una contribución capital, tanto teórica como aplicada, incluyendo la planificación urbana y regional como subcampo desarrollado en conjunto con otras ciencias como la economía y la sociología.
... Tal premisa puede ser criticable en tanto que puede argumentarse que lo urbano ha dirigido la vida social al menos desde la emergencia de las grandes civilizaciones y que no es evidente en la historia social posterior una guía ni de la economía, ni de la política, ni de la cultura, desde los espacios rurales. Por el contrario, en el Medioevo la ciudad direccionó el control de la economía y el flujo de la técnica y las ideas (Pirenne [1925] 2014 ;Vance 1990); el Renacimiento fue comandado por centros urbanos como Venecia y Florencia (Hall 2001); el período mercantil por capitales y ciudades imperiales como Ámsterdam, Sevilla, Londres, ...
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Desde las polis griegas, pasando por la ciudad medieval, la ciudad mercantil e industrial, hasta llegar a la ciudad global y la idea de ‘urbanismo planetario’, el estudio de lo urbano ha sido central, tanto en la geografía, como en otros campos del cono- cimiento englobados en el genérico de ‘los estudios urbanos’: urbanismo, sociología urbana, antropología urbana, economía urbana, arquitectura, ciencia política... En este capítulo, el lector tendrá́ un panorama del proceso reciente de urbanización: su magnitud, su morfología asociada a un capitalismo posindustrial diverso, su estructura según los grupos sociales emergentes, entre otros aspectos. Para alcanzar este propósito, se examinan las redes urbanas de los diferentes continentes, repasando América Latina, América del Norte, Europa, África, y agrupando Asia y Oceanía. El enfoque es principalmente de sistemas urbanos, esto es, la forma en que se organizan las redes de ciudades en cadenas regionales, continentales y globales, definidas en lo esencial por sus dinámicas económicas, pero también demográficas y políticas.
... Pirenne and McCormick 2014 [1925]; Smith 1910; Weber 1963 Weber [1899.2 Hein 2011;Meyer 1999; Broeze 1997 andHoyle and Hilling 1984;Konvitz 1978;Bird 1963. ...
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Dubai has evolved from fishing village into a transportation and logistics world hub with the largest man-made harbor in the world. From the Dubai base, DP World – as the overall operating company is now known – encompasses a total of 77 marine and inland terminals across the world. As a global operator, DP World now is third in world ranking for container throughput. Under the Dubai regimen, ports push inland to organize or reorganize urban territory at increasingly distant locations, utilizing rail, highway, and air facilities for intermodal logistics systems. The deliberate instituting of multi-modality thus goes beyond the limited physical infrastructure of what is needed for shipping per se and includes free trade zones and other distinctive governance arrangements. Hardware and software aligns to coordinate across global sites. DP World represents success in fostering UAE diversification away from oil and gas and reaching far beyond its borders.
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This chapter offers a brief historical–geographical review on the genesis of urbanism. Drawing on the literature of urban history and sociology, notably that of Henri Pirenne and Max Weber, the rise of the city is approached from the perspective of the institutionalization of the urban against the rural. The outcasts in Chinese cities from the imperial times to the Repulican period are introduced through literature review. In light of that, it is stressed that the contemporary chengzhongcun issue should be comprehended with a more informed awareness of its broader relevance. Importantly, the several radically different ways in which the term “urban village” has been adopted are highlighted. An oxymoron in its own right, the nostalgia of a past or lost ideal of British village life should not be confused with its contemporary connotations in the Chinese context.KeywordsUrbanismHenri PirenneUrban villageUrban outcast“Random conceptual appropriation”
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Το ζήτημα των απαρχών ή της γένεσης του καπιταλισμού που απασχόλησε τους συγγραφείς της Ιστορικής Σχολής και οδήγησε στις διαμάχες μεταξύ τους κατά τις τρεις πρώτες δεκαετίες του 20ού αιώνα είχε ως «φόντο» τη Μαρξική θεωρία του καπιταλισμού και της γέννησής του, η οποία είχε ήδη αποκτήσει σημαντική επιρροή στις γερμανόφωνες χώρες, και απέναντι στην οποία οι υπό εξέταση συγγραφείς επιχείρησαν να διατυπώσουν μια εναλλακτική ιστορική ανάλυση και θεωρία. Στο παρόν κείμενο θα ξεκινήσω παραθέτοντας τις βασικές θέσεις που διατύπωσε ο Μαρξ αναφορικά με τη γέννηση του καπιταλισμού στα ώριμα «οικονομικά» του έργα. Στη συνέχεια, αφού παρουσιάσω ένα περίγραμμα των θεωρητικών διαμαχών μεταξύ των εκπροσώπων της Ιστορικής Σχολής σχετικά με τις απαρχές του καπιταλισμού, θα επικεντρωθώ στην έννοια «πνεύμα του καπιταλισμού», η οποία, καίτοι εισήχθη από τον Βέρνερ Ζόμπαρτ, παρέμεινε θεωρητικά ενεργή μόνο στην τροποποιημένη από τον Μαξ Βέμπερ μορφή της.
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The paper follows the formation and the rise of mining marketplaces in Medieval Serbia and their contribution to the urban development of the country. In addition to mining marketplaces in Serbia, there were others as well, but the mining marketplaces experienced the highest rise and the greatest urban development. Present urban elements bear witness to the fact that that they were modern elements in those times. Their rise was discontinued, as well as the development of Medieval Serbian state in the middle of the 15th century.
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Research objectives: On the basis of a recently discovered map – found in the manuscript library of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg – of Iske Kazan’s fortification made by P.N. Rychkov in 1770, this article investigates the manner in which its population protected itself against its foes in the restless era that witnessed the dissolution of the Golden Horde and the transition to the Kazan khanate. It additionally asks why in fact this map was composed. Research materials: Combining the evidence of Rychkov’s map with archaeological findings and in dialogue with the relevant historiography, the authors place the map in its historical context and ponder its significance, and suggest why this map was made in 1770. Results and novelty of the research: It appears that Iske Kazan’s inhabitants turned to a unique manner to defend themselves against their enemies, using a wall-moat-wall design to prevent any storming by mounted troops, different from what has been hitherto thought about the ruins of this defensive structure. This manner of defending seems eminently well suited to the restless conditions prevailing in the Volga-Kama region around 1400 and the art of war as practiced in this region. The article additionally suggests why this map was made in 1770, linking it to the general desire of the Romanov government to discover much more precisely how its subjects lived their lives. This impetus was born from the introduction of the Western-European scientific mindset in Peter I’s reign, which paid much closer heed to a realistic understanding of nature and culture. The Russian Academy of Sciences mounted from the 1720s onward a host of scientific expeditions, which almost resemble voyages of discovery, to map the tsarist empire, of which Rychkov’s travels formed a part. The article hints at the possibility that such fact-finding missions gradually allowed the central government in St. Petersburg to increase its power over its subject peoples.
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In 1946, the economist Maurice Dobb published a book that attempted to explain how feudalism gave way to capitalism. Dobb's book began a debate among economists and historians that has continued until this day. Dobb thought that feudalism went into decline and was replaced by capitalism because of endogenous causes rooted in the class struggles between serfs and noblemen. An early and prominent critic, Paul M. Sweezy, thought that the factors which led to the decline of feudalism and rise of capitalism were exogenous, and these factors included the development and growth of international trade, production for markets and money, the growth and importance of cities, and the need for European monarchies to unite their kingdoms and to finance their wars and overseas empires. This paper does some preliminary empirical testing of these hypotheses using data from Britain from the 1200s to the 1800s. The findings of this paper are informative in trying to better understand the debate and provide some food for thought on how capitalism may change in the future.
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The urban history, archeology, regional science and urban economics literatures all stress many different locational characteristics as important in driving city location. The availability of ever better, spatially more finegrained, data on the historical and geographical characteristics of cities, and of locations that never developed into a city, makes it possible to start to enrich this debate with (much-needed) empirical evidence. Using this data in combination with more advanced empirical and computational methods will almost surely give us a better, empirically well-grounded, understanding of the relative importance of the many alleged “city seeds” in different parts of the world and at different points in history.
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VII. asır ortalarında Afrika kıtasına giren Müslümanlar VIII. asrın başlarında İspanya’yı fethetmişler ve böylece bir asırdan daha kısa bir zamanda Akdeniz’in güneyi yeni bir siyasî yapıyla karşılaşmıştır. İspanya’da kurulan Endülüs Emevi Devleti ise ilk yıllarında bir donanma siyaseti geliştirmemiş ancak IX. asırdan itibaren ülkenin doğu sahillerinde devletten bağımsız denizci gruplar ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu asırda hem devlet çeşitli sebeplerden dolayı donanmasını güçlendirmek zorunda kalmış hem de bu denizci gruplar Sicilya ve Girit gibi daha doğudaki hedeflere gitmişlerdir. Bu Müslüman denizciler cihad amacıyla Hristiyan sahillerine akınlarda bulunmuşlar ya da korsanlık ve deniz ticareti gibi faaliyetleri yürütmüşlerdir. Endülüs’te kalan denizci gruplar 844 yılındaki Viking saldırısından sonra Endülüs emirlerinin resmî bir donanma teşkilatı oluşturma çabaları çerçevesinde devletin deniz ordusunun insan kaynağını teşkil etmiştir. Bilhassa ülkenin güney ve güneydoğu sahillerinde yaşayan ve Bahriyyun olarak tabir edilen denizcilerin bir kısmı Sevilla’daki ilk tersanenin çalışanları oldukları gibi gemilerde askerlik ve diğer hizmetlerde bulunmuşlardır. Bahriyyun taifesi IX. asrın sonlarına doğru ileride Endülüs halifelik donanmasının ana üssü olacak olan Almería şehrinin öncülü olan Pechina mevkiine yerleşmeye başlamışlardır. Denizci grupların tamamı devlet hizmetine hemen girmemiş ve bazıları deniz akınları ve ticaretle meşgul olmuşlardır. IX. asrın sonlarında bu gruplardan biri Fransa’nın güney sahillerine bir fırtına sebebiyle çıkmak zorunda kalmış ve planlanmayan bir şekilde burada seksen yıl kadar devam edecek olan Fraxinetum (Cebelu’l-Kılal) kıyı devletçiğini teşkil etmişlerdir. Endülüs’le insan ve malzeme takviyesi amacıyla denizden bağlantı kuran bu savaşçılar siyasî kargaşa içinde bulunan Provans bölgesinde zaman içinde çoğalmışlar ve Alp dağlarındaki geçitleri kullanmak suretiyle İtalya ve İsviçre’ye kadar yayılarak saldırılarda bulunmuşlardır. Dağ geçitlerindeki yolcu gruplarını hedef alarak esirler elde ettikleri gibi şehirlere saldırarak buralardan ganimet elde etmişlerdir. Bölgenin siyasî egemenleri Fraxinetum’daki bu savaşçılardan kurtulmak için Bizans’tan deniz yardımı talep etmişler ancak kendi aralarındaki siyasî anlaşmazlıklar bu küçük üssün 973 tarihine kadar yaşamasına imkân vermiştir. Endülüs Emevileri ile dolaylı bir ilişki içinde olan Fraxinetum bölgedeki Latin ve Cermen devletleri karşısında farklı bir tür sugr (tampon bölge) işlevi görmüştür. Bu çalışma Fraxinetum’da Müslüman denizciler tarafından oluşturulan deniz üssü ve Batı Akdeniz’deki ve Alp Dağları bölgesindeki faaliyetleri hakkında bilgi vermek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Endülüs coğrafyasına yakınlığına rağmen Fraxinetum’un İslam tarihindeki yeri hakkında ülkemizde çalışmalar yapılmamıştır. Makalemiz bu konuda başka çalışmalar için bir giriş yapmak amacını taşımaktadır.
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This essay is part of a special section entitled “Legacies of Sociology’s Past.” My work addresses the contributions of Janet Abu‐Lughod.
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Los trabajos aquí reunidos tienen varios motivos que me han impulsado a reditarlos, no por el simple sentido de tener una publicación, sino por la convicción de que han sido textos que me han permitido resolver preguntas básicas que me hice en ciertos momentos, asimismo, me han abierto nuevas inquietudes para consolidar estos resultados, o bien han dejado puertas abiertas para nuevas investigaciones, ya sea impulsadas por estudiantes o por colegas que han compartido este proceso conmigo. El orden responde a una inquietud que he tenido desde siempre sobre la economía mexicana, cómo fue que hemos perdido todo y no hemos logrado tener un crecimiento o desarrollo o por qué no acabamos de diseñar las políticas públicas que permitan una distribución de la riqueza nacional (lo que signifique este sustantivo) que permee a toda la población, sin duda bajo los criterios propios del capitalismo, pero sin la brutal desigualdad que se vive aún y a pesar de los diversos programas y políticas implementadas desde tiempo atrás. Las dudas que siempre nos asaltan y que constantemente nos señalan son las siguientes: ¿cuál es la función del historiador?, ¿qué puede aportar si siempre está en el pasado?, estas y otras preguntas me hice en su momento y aún están presentes en mis alumnos.
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Boerner and Severgnini study the spread of plagues from a comparative perspective. They investigate the determinants of the speed of the spread of the Black Death and the Justinianic Plague. In addition, they compare the speed of infection during both periods of time. The investigation finds that the Justinianic Plague follows a similar pattern as the Black Death. In particular, the study detects that the speed of transmission between two destinations along a trade route is determined by the trade technology and trade geography, which is the physical time to travel between two destinations following the ORBIS data set. This supports claims made by other scholarly work that argues that both diseases were spread by human interaction, particularly through trade activities.
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The Highway of Brotherhood and Unity - the motto of Yugoslav Communists – may help us decode the multiple layers of meaning interlocked in the built environment. Undoubtedly, construction of the Highway was organic to national cohesion. Built by brigades of young volunteers, the Highway allowed a one-day trip across Yugoslavia: an experiential approach of the common motherland by which “federalism” acquired a concrete dimension. From an architect’s viewpoint, our contribution lays claim to a project-oriented approach to the Highway as a coherent built-up form, posing new technical problems, yet orienting urban change and opening up a whole range of narratives. To do that, we oscillate back and forth actual construction of the Highway - combining engineering, landscape design, urbanism and architecture - and its role as a catalyst of new collective perceptions and behavioural patterns. The Highway provided the centre of gravity for a far-reaching cross-cultural venture, a large-scale collective work of art.
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In The Fabric of Religious Life in Medieval Ashkenaz, Jeffrey R. Woolf presents the first integrated presentation of the ideals and beliefs that comprised the self-image and worldview of Ashkenazic Jews in the Central and High Middle Ages (900-1300). Through careful examination of a wide range of sources (legal, customal, liturgical, artistic), Woolf shows how religious practice played a dual role in creating and sustaining Jewish life in a hostile environment. They instilled these values, and recast religious traditions to reflect them. The author demonstrates how hitherto underappreciated ideals such as Purity, Sanctity, and a palpable sense of Divine In-Dwelling played a central role in Ashkenazic religiousity and merged to form the texture, or the "Sacred Canopy," of their lives.
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Tendo como referência principal o clássico debate sobre a transição do feudalismo ao capitalismo, este artigo discute algumas das vias que o capital mercantil tomou para penetrar na “produção” e, desse modo, acelerar a formação do capitalismo. Deste ponto de vista, adentramos na polêmica sobre as duas vias para a gênese do capitalismo, que dividiu Maurice Dobb e Paul Sweezy, na década de 1950. Por fim, será discutida a acalorada controvérsia sobre o papel das cidades na formação do capitalismo, uma temática que exige a incorporação crítica das reflexões de Henri Pirenne ao terreno da discussão marxista. As cidades não devem ser vistas como um “elemento externo” ao feudalismo, mas como outra forma de autoridade e de institucionalidade, distinta daquela do feudo e das unidades institucionais da nobreza eclesiástica.
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Regional or international trade has always played an important role in the history of Georgia. Trade routes made it possible to establish close political, cultural and economic relations with neighboring as well as distant countries. Nevertheless, the study of trade and economic questions of 6th-13th centuries Georgia so far have got far less attention in the Georgian historiography than, for example, various military-political topics/questions of the same period. Throughout its history, Georgia has always had empires as neighboring states. Wars or piece agreements between those empires always influence the development of the country. Indeed all the empires (Byzantium, Sasanian Iran, the Arab state) discussed in this book had economic interests in Georgia or in trade-economic routes which run near the Georgian territory.
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In this article will be argued, drawing on primary source material, that Romanians in Transylvanian cities were socially and professionally discriminated against. Due to this, Romanians could not officially settle in Transylvanian cities (except in the suburbs of some cities or small boroughs) until the 18th century. Also, they could not officially establish Romanian professional guilds until the 17th century. It will be argued here that this demonstrates that ethnic and professional ‘frontiers’ operated in Transylvanian cities in this period, which were favorable to the Hungarians, Saxons and Szeklers, but unfavorable to the Romanians.
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This paper introduces a new measure of Roman roads that has been constructed for the Italian territory. The measure computes the length in kilometers of Roman roads at different administrative and territorial levels (NUTS, Local Labor Systems, grid cells), and contributes to the literature on historical infrastructures, providing a new precise measure to use for empirical purposes and easy to extend in all those territories where Roman roads have been constructed. From a mere econometric point of view, the index allows to capture the intensity of the treatment, providing an alternative empirical strategy for all those cases where the simple binary treatment cannot be performed.
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The medieval Scholastics’ concern for distributive and commutative justice made the “just price” concept important. Although Church and civil authorities reserved the right to regulate prices, the price level determined by the interplay of demand and supply was often considered a “just price.” Authorities took a dim view of attempts to gain price-setting power through market manipulation, and they tried to ensure that the poor could afford their daily bread. Authorities also scrutinized market behavior with regard to fraud.
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The medieval Scholastics elaborated on business ethics, especially with regard to usury and the “just price.” The medievalists often based their philosophies upon rediscovered Greek thinkers. Thomas Aquinas and his contemporaries emphasized justice, whether distributive or commutative. Longstanding reservations toward usury came to the fore during the eleventh through thirteenth centuries. Did the medieval Catholic Church operate as a business that used its monopoly power in opportunistic ways or as a promoter of the social good? The Catholic Church, though, found itself needing loans, so its stance with regard to usury fluctuated across the centuries.
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RESUMEN Los enfoques teóricos utilizados para el estudio de las cadenas agroalimentarias son heterogéneos y presentan ambigüedades que dificultan su uso. El objetivo general de esta investigación consistió en descubrir los autores y trabajos identificados con Filière, la Cadena de Valor de Porter y la Nueva Economía Institucional para analizarlos, discutirlos y caracterizarlos conceptual y metodológicamente. Los objetivos particulares fueron identificar ideológicamente a Filière, estudiar el concepto de valor y su creación, discutir el problema del costo social y definir los costos de transacción. Para ello se utilizó un enfoque interdisciplinario. Filière tiene su origen en el marxismo y mercantilismo, y su núcleo conceptual está compuesto por las relaciones técnicas, económicas y estratégicas, el diagrama de flujo de productos y el concepto de cadena. Fue utilizado por Francia en su comercio con sus ex colonias. La Cadena de Valor es un instrumento de análisis y política integrado en una teoría de creación de valor para alcanzar las ventajas competitivas. Hace referencia a la organización de las actividades de valor en una empresa y junto al valor, a las 5 fuerzas competitivas y al sistema de valor, constituye su núcleo teórico. El concepto de valor no guarda relación alguna con el valor agregado contable; sí con la utilidad y escasez de un bien. La Nueva Economía Institucional complementa la teoría económica abarcando nuevas unidades de análisis: transacción y regulación. Su objetivo es diseñar los arreglos institucionales óptimos, que maximicen el output y el bienestar social, minimizando los costos de transacción. Su núcleo teórico lo componen los derechos de propiedad, las instituciones, los mecanismos de enforcement, los costos de transacción y las salvaguardas. Los costos de transacción son el sacrificio económico y financiero directo, ex ante y ex post que se devenga de una unidad de transacción o de una transacción comercial Palabras Clave: Sistemas Agroalimentarios, Cadenas Agroalimentarias, Filière, Cadena de Valor, Nueva Economía Institucional, Economía de los Costos de Transacción, Smart Chains. ABSTRACT The theoretical approaches used to study agrifood chains are heterogenous and present ambiguities which difficult their use. The general objective of this research was to discover authors and papers identifying with Filière, Porter’s Value Chain and New Institutional Economics, to analyze, discuss and conceptually and methodologically characterize them. The particular objectives were to ideologically trace Filière, study the concept of value and its creation, discuss the problem of social cost and define transaction costs. For this purpose an interdisciplinary approach was used. Filière has its roots in Marxism and Mercantilism; its conceptual core being the technical, economic and strategic relations, the flow diagram of products and the concept of chain. It was used in France to trade with its former colonies. The Value Chain is an instrument of analysis and policy integrated in a theory of value creation to achieve the Competitive Advantages. It refers to the organization of value activities in a firm, and together with value, the 5 competitive forces and value systems comprise its theoretical core. The concept of value has no relation with accounting added value, but with the utility and scarcity of a good. The New Institutional Economy complements economic theory, integrating new analysis units: transaction and regulation. Its goal is to device the optimum institutional arrays that maximize output and social welfare, minimizing transaction costs. Property rights, institutions, mechanism of enforcement, transaction costs and safeguards constitute the theoretical core. Transaction costs are the ex ante and ex post direct economic and financial sacrifice, that accrue to a transaction unit or a commercial one. Keywords: agrifood systems, agrifood chains, Filière, Value Chain, New Institutional Economics, Transaction Cost Economics, Smart Chains.
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The fall of the Western Roman Empire was followed by a dark period of regression and a critical decline of the European urban system. However, it is in that long epoch of the Middle Ages that the future Renaissance grew its roots thanks to the survival of the Byzantine Empire, the rise of Russia, the Spanish Reconquista, the resurrection of the Italian urbexplosion, the forming of France, the expansion of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire, and the emergence of a Northern Europe urbexplosion. Thus, a new northwestward trend developed in Europe in the wake of the Great Ebb.
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Every map implies an intended reader, and understanding the nature of that reader is part of arriving at an understanding why the map was created and its subsequent histories. The focus of this essay is on the aspects of the map–reader relationship from the middle ages to the twentieth century as a way of presenting the history of maps and explaining why maps of the same geographical area can look so different one from the other, irrespective of whether drawn or printed on the page of a book or on a separate sheet of parchment or paper, and what their stylistic differences and choice of content reveal of the intended readership. We also reflect on the role of the patron in map production and use and consider mapmaking through the eyes of the map user, the purchaser, and the collections on which the history of maps ultimately rests.
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This chapter describes the process of designing and constructing the Mesuca Sports Park in Petare, Caracas, as a way to promote peace through the increase of dialogue and resilience in the community. Venezuelan institutions have partially collapsed and generated a state of violence and chaos that is reflected in high rates of homicide. The country holds one of the highest rates of homicide in the world at 90 per 100,000 Venezuelans. One of the main tools to promote peace was involving the community of Petare in the design of this Sports Park through Participatory Design Workshops (PDWs) with a transdisciplinary approach between mental health providers, urban designers, and sports specialists. The PDWs were the main tool to foster dialogue among the diverse participants involved in designing and constructing the Sports Park. It is suggested that this dialogue was instrumental in reducing violence. The number of homicides in the Mesuca sector before and after the construction is used as an indicator of the effectiveness of this intervention. In addition, qualitative indicators such a one-year ethnographic research project are also used to reflect the impact of this intervention that seeks to activate the resources of the community despite adversity.
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Defining markets has never been an easy task. Despite their importance for economic theory and practice, they are hard to pin down as a concept and economists have tended to adopt simplified axiomatic models or rely on piecemeal case studies. This book argues that an extended range of theory, social as well as economic, can provide a better foundation for the portrayal of markets. The book first looks at the definition of markets, their inadequate treatment in orthodox economic theory, and their historical background in the pre-capitalist and capitalist eras. It then assesses various alternatives to orthodox theory, categorised as social/cultural, structural, functional and ethical approaches. Among the alternatives considered are institutionalist accounts, Marxian views, network models, performativity arguments, field theories, Austrian views and ethical notions of fair trade. A key finding of the book is that these diverse approaches, valuable as they are, could present a more effective challenge to orthodoxy if they were less disparate. Possibilities are investigated for a more unified theoretical alternative to orthodoxy. Unlike most studies of markets, this book adopts a fully interdisciplinary viewpoint expressed in accessible, non-technical language. Ideas are brought together from heterodox economics, social theory, critical realism, as well as other social sciences such as sociology, anthropology and geography. Anybody seeking a broad critical survey of the theoretical analysis of markets will find this book useful and it will be of great interest to economists, social scientists, students and policy-makers.
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