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Zonas de vida natural en el Perú : memoria explicativa sobre el mapa ecológico del Perú / Joseph A. Tosi

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    • "La primera es un esquema de clasificación de vegetación potencial que se basa en los efectos de la precipitación, temperatura y evapotranspiración sobre la vegetación (Holdridge, 1967) y que fue aplicada por J. Tosi para desarrollar el Mapa Ecológico de Perú, publicado originalmente a escala 1:1.000.000 (Tosi, 1957). En Bolivia también fue publicado un mapa con el uso de este esquema (Unzueta, 1975). "
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    ABSTRACT: El área de estudio comprende 1.249.281 km2 en los que se han identificado 84 sistemas ecológicos distintos, lo cual se explica por el extenso gradiente latitudinal y la gran diversidad de ambientes o regiones ecológicas incluidos en esta geografía, tales como: laderas montañosas andinas húmedas y nubladas, valles interandinos xéricos, mesetas sedimentarias y colinas del subandino, la penillanura amazónica con sus llanuras aluviales inundables, afloramientos rocosos de diverso origen y el complejo mosaico de sabanas drenadas, anegables y bosques de galería, propios de la enorme llanura aluvial de la cuenca de los ríos Mamore y Beni. En conjunto estos ambientes cubren la mayoría de bioclimas tropicales, y se encuentran sobre las mas variadas geomorfologías y geologías. Vale la pena remarcar en este contexto algunas de las características mas sobresalientes de esta sección de los Andes y la Amazonia.
    No preview · Book · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Sechura Desert of Peru is among the most arid, barren regions of South America. Four species of nocturnal geckos (Phyllodactylus) are parapatric in part of the desert. By comparing niche associations of these species in allopatry and parapatry, I attempt to determine whether the observed parapatric distributions and niche dimension complementarity are related to competition — as is frequently assumed. While parapatry suggests a role for competition, distributional patterns can alternatively be related to adaptations of geckos to different physical environments (sandy desert and rocky foothill) that abut in the study area. Niche complementarity might also be a result of competition, but potentially contradictory evidence suggests that niche complementarity might instead be the result of adaptations developed in allopatry and having no relationship to competition. The ambiguity of these interpretations sets limits on the significance of this kind of evidence: in the absence of attempts to falsify alternative explanations, observations of parapatry or of niche dimension complementarity do not demonstrate conclusively the impact of competition as a force structuring communities.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1978 · Oecologia
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    ABSTRACT: The perception of the surrounding environment and use of the flora by the inhabitants of Toconce, a Pre-Altiplanic community in the Andes of northern Chile, were investigated. Six ecological units, which are given the local names of Pampa, Tolar, Medano, Pajonal, Hoyada, and Paniso, are recognized by the people of Toconce on the basis of their different dominant plants, geomorphology and microclimate. These units are in turn integrated into 3 units of landscape utilization: Cerro, Campo and Chacra. The latter is an artificial unit, corresponding to the man-made terraces located on the steep slopes of the Andean canyons. The Campo is a pastoral area, mainly for llamas. The Cerro, situated at higher elevation, has ritual as well as economic importance. This altitudinal sector is the place for the gathering of llareta, the most valuable vegetal fuel in Toconce. Seven categories of plant use are defined: forage, medicinal, food, fuel, crafts, ritual and construction. The inhabitants of Toconce have maximized the use of the plant resources in each altitudinal level. This long-lasting cultural pattern is being gradually modified due to the influence of industrial development and growth of the neighboring urban centers.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1982 · Economic Botany
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