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Making maps : a visual guide to map design for GIS / John Krygier, Denis Wood

Authors:

Abstract

Acclaimed for its innovative use of visual material, this book is engaging, clear, and compelling—exactly how an effective map should be. Nearly every page is organized around maps and other figures (many in full color) that illustrate all aspects of map making, including instructive examples of both good and poor design choices. The book covers everything from locating and processing data to making decisions about layout, symbols, color, and type. Readers are invited to think critically about both the technical features and social significance of maps as they learn to create better maps of their own. New to This Edition *Extensively revised and expanded core chapters on map design. *An annotated map design exemplar is used to show how the concepts in each chapter play out on an actual map. *Updated to reflect current technological developments. *Larger size and redesigned pages make the book even more user friendly. Sample of introduction and first chapter from book
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© 2011 The Guilford Press
A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.
72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012
www.guilford.com
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, translated,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written
permission from the Publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Krygier, John
Making maps : a visual guide to map design for GIS /
John Krygier, Denis Wood. 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographic references and index.
ISBN 978-1-60918-166-6 (pbk.)
1. Cartography. 2. Geographic information systems.
I. Wood, Denis. II. Title.
GA105.3.K79 2011
526dc22
2010040429
People communicate about their places with maps. Less common than talk or writing, maps
are made when called for by social circumstances. Jaki and Susan are making maps to protect
their neighborhood. Why a map? Because the city used a map. The map unambiguously
expresses the city’s intentions to widen Crestview Road, drawing from the maps, talk, and
text of city planners. If the plan is realized, the city will also use maps to communicate its
intentions to surveyors, engineers, contractors, utility companies, and others.
The maps are all of Crestview Road – all of the same place – and the maps are all different.
Yet they are all equally good. Different goals call for different maps: the quality of a map is
frequently a matter of perspective rather than design. Think of a map as a kind of statement
locating facts. People will select the facts that make their case. That’s what the map is for:
to make their case.
It’s Time to Make Maps...
The city’s case is that
Crestview Road needs to
be widened. They present
their plan as “a new vision,”
an enhancement, different
and better.
The city communicates to
construction firms and
utilities with detailed maps,
making the case that the
planners and engineers
have done their work.
Jaki and Susan’s case is that
widening Crestview Road
would be a terrible mistake.
Time to make a map!
Making maps, making your case...
xiii
low
med.
highProperty Values
Jaki and Susan soon realize the plan to widen Crestview is but a piece of a larger plan to
redevelop the northern and western suburbs of the city. The key feature of the plan is a
connector (in solid black below) proposed to link two major arteries. Different groups create
equally effective maps to articulate their different perspectives on the proposed road. Though
the maps may seem polemical, isolating the facts each presents is useful in focusing debate.
Different Goals Call for Different Maps
Goal: keeping costs low. A city map shows
that its plan is the shortest and least costly
route for the connector. The city’s map
focuses on moving traffic at the least cost
to taxpayers.
Goal: defending neighborhood integrity.
An African American community map
shows how the connector rubs salt in the
wound sustained by the earlier invasion of
the arterial highway. The focus of their
map is the further destruction of their
neighborhood by the proposed connector.
low
med.
high
% African
American
Crestview Rd.
African American
Community Center
1st African Methodist
Episcopal Church
Lincoln
Park
MLK High
School
Crestview Rd.
P
r
o
p
o
s
e
d
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
xiv
Crestview Rd.Crestview Rd.
Crestview Rd.
HistoricHistoric
Historic
City HallCity Hall
City Hall
HistoricHistoric
Historic
“Shotgun”“Shotgun”
“Shotgun”
HousesHouses
Houses
Olmsted’sOlmsted’s
Olmsted’s
LincolnLincoln
Lincoln
ParkPark
Park
Oldest HomeOldest Home
Oldest Home
in Cityin City
in City
OberlinOberlin
Oberlin
HistoricHistoric
Historic
DistrictDistrict
District
Goal: maintaining historic continuity. The
Society for Historic Preservation’s map
shows how the connector will affect
significant properties in an existing historic
district. Their map focuses on the adverse
effect on significant properties and on the
integrity of the historic district.
Goal: protecting endangered wetlands.
An environmental group shows that the
connector will violate the city’s policy of
avoiding road construction in floodplains.
The Oberlin Creek watershed, already
greatly impacted by over 100 years of
urban growth, cannot withstand a further
onslaught of development.
low
med.
high
% Historic
Buildings
Crestview Rd.
100 Year
Floodplain
xv
Goal: defending their street. Jaki and
Susan’s first map scales roads to show
existing traffic counts. It suggests how
much more effective it would be to widen
Armitage Avenue, a street already tied
into the downtown grid. Their focus is to
deflect attention from Crestview Road.
Goal: defeating the connector. Aware of
the connector’s role in motivating the
widening of Crestview, and informed by
the maps produced by other groups, Jaki
and Susan realize it’s less that Crestview
needs defending and more that the
connector needs defeating: low property
values correlate with historic discrimination
against African Americans, with older
housing, and the floodplain. The connector
exploits this nexus: their new map focuses
on social and environmental justice. Jaki
and Susan work out a “Social and
Environmental Justice Sensitivity” metric,
taking into account race, history, and
environmental factors.
Crestview Rd.
Armitage Ave.
low
med.
high
Daily Traffic
Counts
Crestview Rd.
low
med.
high
Social and
Environmental
Justice Sensitivity
xvi
DowntownDowntown
Downtown
Area Area
Area
(detail(detail
(detail
on previouson previous
on previous
maps)maps)
maps)
ProposedProposed
Proposed
PharmaceuticalPharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical
DevelopmentDevelopment
Development
ProposedProposed
Proposed
ResidentialResidential
Residential
DevelopmentDevelopment
Development
Goal: defeating the connector. Jaki and
Susan find interesting information while
researching the proposed connector. They
change scale and map this part of the
story: behind the connector lie quiet
negotiations between the state, an
international pharmaceutical firm, and
well-connected real-estate interests eager
to develop farmland to the southwest of
the city. The focus now is on the power
of lobbyists and back room deals. Jaki and
Susan’s maps are published with a story
on the controversy over the proposed
connector in a local independent
newspaper.
Goal: going in for the kill. The independent
newspaper jumps scale again, mapping
the seamy underside of the pharmaceutical
firm behind the proposed connector. The
focus is on the reach and impact of firms
operating on the global scale. Jaki and
Susan are astounded that a far-off
multinational corporation is behind the
threat to Crestview.
Mexico: Toxic
emissions exceed
Mexican standards
Alabama (U.S.):
Union busting at
two new plants
Peru: Toxins from
plant found in local
water sources
Thailand: Children
under 16 years old
routinely employed
Russia: Investors
in new plant tied to
organized crime
Canada: Removed
popular drugs from
market because of
price controls
xvii
DowntownDowntown
Downtown
AreaArea
Area
Proposed
Pharmaceutical
Development
Proposed
Residential
Development
AA
A
BB
B
CC
C
DowntownDowntown
Downtown
AreaArea
Area
Proposed
Pharmaceutical
Development
Proposed
Residential
Development
ProposedProposed
Proposed
BypassBypass
Bypass
The eight maps involved in this debate over the location of the connector are all good. Each
is clear. Each makes its points with accurate data in a way that is easy to read and understand.
What makes the maps different is the different purposes each was designed to serve. It is
this purpose that drove the selection of facts and these facts that dictated the design and
scale. The story continues...
Different Goals Produce Different Maps
Goal: consider the alternatives. Due to
historical, environmental, and social justice
concerns with the proposed connector,
and the embarrassing newspaper article,
the city council asks the city planning
department to develop alternatives. When
these alternatives are mapped, they raise
additional concerns (and maps). Route B,
while more costly than A, is cheaper than
C (which passes through property owned
by influential property developers opposed
to the connector). B also has a lower
environmental impact and does not
adversely affect any organized social
groups or business interests.
Goal: seek funds for the proposed bypass.
The newly proposed bypass will cost
significantly more than the downtown
alternative, so the city seeks additional
funding. The grant proposals include,
among many maps, a map showing the
general location of the proposed bypass.
Crestview is saved! Jaki and Susan throw
a party to celebrate. They include a map
on the party flyer...
xviii
1: How to Make a Map
2: What’s Your Map For?
3: Mappable Data
4: Map Making Tools
5: Geographic Framework
6: The Big Picture of Map Design
7: The Inner Workings of Map Design
8: Map Generalization and Classification
9: Map Symbolization
10: Words on Maps
11: Color on Maps
Index
i
5
19
41
65
79
107
127
145
171
205
227
249
Making Maps:
A Visual Guide to Map Design for GIS
xxi
In December 1986 an experimental aircraft
named Voyager became the first piloted
aircraft to circle the earth without refueling.
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Flight data courtesy of Len Snellman and Larry Burch, Voyager meteorologists
Mapped by David DiBiase and John Krygier, Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1987
40° N
20° N
20° S
40° S
20° W60° W
40° W80° W 40° E120° W
100° W 20° E 60° E
DAY 9 DAY 8 DAY 7 DAY 6 DAY 5
Hours
Aloft 216
hours 192
hours 168
hours 144
hours 120
hours 96
hours
Fuel on landing: 18 gallons
104112128136152160176184200
Distance 10,000 miles to go
12,532 miles previous record
5,000 miles to go26,678 miles traveled
Altitude
(feet)
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
sea level
Visibility
WNW
NNW
20
NW
10-15
ENE
18 ESE
14
E
37
E
34
E
20
E
10-20
W
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Cameroon
Gabon
Congo Zaire Tanzania
Kenya
Uganda
Somalia
Ethiopia
United States
Triumphant landing
at Edwards AFB
Engine stalled;
unable to restart
for five harrowing
minutes
Transition
from tailwinds
to headwinds
Rutan disabled
by exhaustion
Oil warning
light goes on
Thunderstorm
forces Voyager
into 90° bank Flying among
‘the redwoods’:
life and death
struggle to avoid
towering
thunderstorms
Passing between
two mountains,
Rutan and Yeager
weep with relief
at having survived
Africa’s storms
Discovery
of backwards
fuel flow
Squall line
Worried about flying
through restricted
airspace, Rutan and
Yeager mistake the
morning star for
a hostile aircraft Coolant
seal leak
What do you need to know to make this map?
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
40° N
20° N
20° S
40° S
140° W180°140° E
120° W160° W160° E120° E80° E
60° E 100° E
DAY 4 DAY 3 DAY 2 DAY 1
96
hours 72
hours 48
hours 24
hours Take-
off
Hours
Aloft
Fuel on takeoff: 1,168 gallons
40 32 16 864 568088
Distance
Take-
off
15,000 miles to go 20,000 miles to go
Altitude
(feet)
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
sea level
Visibility
W
E
22 SE
24
E
15
NE
33
SE
12
ENE
15
ENE
20
NNE
28
NW
15
NE
10
Sri Lanka Vietnam
Philippines
India
Thailand
United
States
THE FLIGHT OF VOYAGER
December 14-23, 1986
Mercator map projection
Scale at equator is
1:43,000,000
Wind speed,
direction,
& cloud cover
Voyager pilots: Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager
Voyager designer: Burt Rutan
Squall line
Rendezvous team
not permitted
to take off
Coolant
seal leak
Voyager squeezes
between restricted
Vietnamese airspace
and thunderstorms
Autopilot
failure
Typhoon
Marge
Voyager flies
between feeder band
and main storm to
maximize tailwinds
Impromptu rendezvous
with chase plane
Dramatic takeoff;
wingtips scraped off Edwards
AFB
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Flight data courtesy of Len Snellman and Larry Burch, Voyager meteorologists
Mapped by David DiBiase and John Krygier, Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1987
40° N
20° N
20° S
40° S
20° W60° W
40° W80° W 40° E120° W
100° W 20° E 60° E
DAY 9 DAY 8 DAY 7 DAY 6 DAY 5
Hours
Aloft 216
hours 192
hours 168
hours 144
hours 120
hours 96
hours
Fuel on landing: 18 gallons
104112128136152160176184200
Distance 10,000 miles to go
12,532 miles previous record
5,000 miles to go26,678 miles traveled
Altitude
(feet)
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
sea level
Visibility
WNW
NNW
20
NW
10-15
ENE
18 ESE
14
E
37
E
34
E
20
E
10-20
W
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Cameroon
Gabon
Congo Zaire Tanzania
Kenya
Uganda
Somalia
Ethiopia
United States
Triumphant landing
at Edwards AFB
Engine stalled;
unable to restart
for five harrowing
minutes
Transition
from tailwinds
to headwinds
Rutan disabled
by exhaustion
Oil warning
light goes on
Thunderstorm
forces Voyager
into 90° bank Flying among
‘the redwoods’:
life and death
struggle to avoid
towering
thunderstorms
Passing between
two mountains,
Rutan and Yeager
weep with relief
at having survived
Africa’s storms
Discovery
of backwards
fuel flow
Squall line
Worried about flying
through restricted
airspace, Rutan and
Yeager mistake the
morning star for
a hostile aircraft Coolant
seal leak
Where did the flight path and
meteorological data for the
map come from?
What type font is this, and
why was it chosen?
Whom was this map made
for? Who is its audience?
Where is the rest of the world?
Why are some, but not all,
country names on the map?
Why is the latitude/longitude
grid only on the water?
Why is the ocean type
italicized?
How were these symbols
chosen?
Was this map created to be
shown in a book? On the
web? On a sheet of paper?
How was this map created?
On the computer? What kind
of software was used?
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
40° N
20° N
20° S
40° S
140° W180°140° E
120° W160° W160° E120° E80° E
60° E 100° E
DAY 4 DAY 3 DAY 2 DAY 1
96
hours 72
hours 48
hours 24
hours Take-
off
Hours
Aloft
Fuel on takeoff: 1,168 gallons
40 32 16 864 568088
Distance
Take-
off
15,000 miles to go 20,000 miles to go
Altitude
(feet)
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
sea level
Visibility
W
E
22 SE
24
E
15
NE
33
SE
12
ENE
15
ENE
20
NNE
28
NW
15
NE
10
Sri Lanka Vietnam
Philippines
India
Thailand
United
States
THE FLIGHT OF VOYAGER
December 14-23, 1986
Mercator map projection
Scale at equator is
1:43,000,000
Wind speed,
direction,
& cloud cover
Voyager pilots: Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager
Voyager designer: Burt Rutan
Squall line
Rendezvous team
not permitted
to take off
Coolant
seal leak
Voyager squeezes
between restricted
Vietnamese airspace
and thunderstorms
Autopilot
failure
Typhoon
Marge
Voyager flies
between feeder band
and main storm to
maximize tailwinds
Impromptu rendezvous
with chase plane
Dramatic takeoff;
wingtips scraped off Edwards
AFB
1
Start by looking; what do you see? Looking at maps is easy. Not really. You can
glance at the Mona Lisa in a second. But to get the Mona Lisa you have to look
more carefully. What do you see on the Voyager map? Words, lines, continents, a
grid. A story, some information with the story. What do you notice first? Black lines,
gray lines, white lines ... why are they different? Making maps requires that you
answer such questions, and many more. Throughout this book, in nearly every
chapter, we annotate The Flight of Voyager. By the end of the book, you will
understand how to really see – and make – a map.
CHAPTER
How to Make a Map
Isn’t every map supposed to
have a north arrow?
Why is this line darker than
other lines on the map?
Why are the days running
backwards on the map?
Why isn’t there color on the
map? Would color make the
map better?
Where did data for the storms
and typhoons come from?
5
Making Maps is Hard
Whether looking at or making maps, there is a lot to see, think about, and do. Throughout
this book, myriad subjects are considered in general and in relation to The Flight of Voyager
map. A systematic critique of an existing map or the successful making of your own map is
accomplished by considering the following issues. When making maps, think about everything
before starting; then, when your map is complete, reconsider them all once again.
The Whole Map
Write out exactly what the map is supposed to
accomplish: does the map meet its goals?
Are you sure a map is necessary?
Is the map suitable for the intended audience?
Will the audience be confused, bored, interested,
or informed?
Look at the map in its final medium: does it
work? Has the potential of a black-and-white
or color design been reached?
Is the map, its authors, its data, and any other
relevant information documented and accessible
to the map reader?
Look at the map and assess what you see; is it:
confusing or clear
interesting or boring
lopsided or balanced
amorphous or structured
light or dark
neat or sloppy
fragmented or coherent
constrained or lavish
crude or elegant
random or ordered
modern or traditional
hard or soft
crowded or empty
bold or timid
tentative or finished
free or bounded
subtle or blatant
flexible or rigid
high or low contrast
authoritative or unauthoratative
complex or simple
appropriate or inappropriate
Given the goals of the map, are any of these
impressions inappropriate?
The Map’s Data
Do the data serve the goals of the map?
Is the relationship between the data and the
phenomena they are based on clear?
Does the map symbolization reflect the character
of the phenomena or the character of the data?
Does the origin of the data – primary, secondary,
tertiary – have any implications?
Are the data too generalized or too complex,
given the map’s goals ?
Is the map maker’s interpretation of the data
sound?
Are qualitative and quantitative characteristics
of the data effectively symbolized?
Have the data been properly derived?
Has the temporal character of the data been
properly understood and symbolized?
Is the scale of the map (and inset) adequate,
given the goals of the map?
What about the accuracy of the data? Are the
facts complete? Are things where they should
be? Does detail vary? When were the data
collected? Are they from a trustworthy source?
Have you consulted metadata (data about data)?
Does the map maker document copyright issues
related to the data?
Is the map copyright or copyleft licensed?
The Map’s Framework
What are the characteristics of the map’s
projection, and is it appropriate for the data
and map goals? What is distorted?
Is the coordinate system appropriate and noted
on the map?
6
The Design of the Map
Does the title indicate what, when, and where?
Is the scale of the map appropriate for the data
and the map goals? Is the scale indicated?
Does textual explanation or discussion on the
map enhance its effectiveness?
Does the legend include symbols that are not
self-explanatory?
If the orientation of the map is not obvious, is
a directional indicator included?
Are authorship and date of map indicated?
Are inset and locator maps appropriate?
Is the goal of the map promoted by its visual
arrangement, engaging path, visual center,
balance, symmetry, sight-lines, and the grid?
Has the map been thoroughly edited?
Does the map contain non data ink?
Has detail been added to clarify?
Do the data merit a map?
Do variations in design reflect variations in the
data?
Is the context of the map and its data clear?
Are there additional variables of data that would
clarify the goals of the map?
Do visual differences on the map reflect data
differences?
Do important data stand out as figure, and the
less important as ground, on the map? Are there
consequences of data not included on the map?
Have visual difference, detail, edges, texture,
layering, shape and size, closure, proximity,
simplicity, direction, familiarity, and color been
used to reflect figure-ground relationships
appropriate to the map’s goals?
Are the level of generalization and the data
classification appropriate, given the map’s goals?
Do map symbols work by resemblance,
relationship, convention, difference,
standardization, or unconvention? Are the
choices optimal for the map’s goals?
How do the map symbols relate to the concepts
they stand for? Is the relationship meaningful?
Have the map symbols been chosen to reflect
the guidelines suggested by the visual variables?
If symbolizing data aggregated in areas, is the
most appropriate method used? How will the
choice affect the interpretation of the map?
What do the words on your map mean? How
do they shape the meaning of the map?
Has the chosen typeface (font) and its size,
weight, and form effectively shaped the overall
impression of the map as well as helping to
symbolize variations in the data?
Does the arrangement of type on the map
clarify, as much as possible, the data and the
goals of the map?
Do color choice and variation reflect data choice
and variation on the map?
Is color necessary for the map to be successful?
Does color add anything besides decoration?
Do color choices grab viewer’s attention while
being appropriate for your data?
Does the map’s design reflect the conditions
under which it will be viewed?
Are color interactions and perceptual differences
among your audience accounted for?
Have symbolic and cultural color conventions
been taken into account and used to enhance
the goals of the map?
7
Responsible Map Making
Areas crossed by two or more radioactive clouds
during the era of nuclear testing (1951-1962)
in the American Southwest. Richard Miller
painstakingly created his map showing where
humans, animals, and the environment were
contaminated by nuclear fallout.
Steven R Holloway's Right Map Making (next
spread) is his “manifesto, proclamation or map
maker’s creed” to stimulate and encourage
“right action.” Making maps means engaging
your mind and your heart. Develop an ethics
of map making, however you may define it.
The maps you make make a difference.
8
9
10
11
Who died and made you the map police?
Jill, Home Improvement (1991)
For the execution of the voyage to the Indies, I did not make use of intelligence, mathematics
or maps.
Christopher Columbus, Book of Prophecies (15th century)
I presume you have reference to a map I had in my room with some X's on it. I have no
automobile. I have no means of conveyance. I have to walk from where I am going most
of the time. I had my applications with the Texas Employment Commission. They furnished
me names and addresses of places that had openings like I might fill, and neighborhood
people had furnished me information on jobs I might get.... I was seeking a job, and I would
put these markings on this map so I could plan my itinerary around with less walking. Each
one of these X's represented a place where I went and interviewed for a job.... You can check
each one of them out if you want to.... The X on the intersection of Elm and Houston is the
location of the Texas School Book Depository. I did go there and interview for a job. In fact,
I got the job there. That is all the map amounts to.
Lee Harvey Oswald, Interrogation after Kennedy assassination (November 24, 1963)
12
More...
The blog for this book, makingmaps.net, contains a curious collection of materials on maps
and mapping and serves as an extension of this book. Check out cartotalk.com, a great
discussion forum about maps and map design chock-full of cool map people.
Engage your thinking about maps: Jeremy Crampton, Mapping: A Critical Introduction to
Cartography and GIS (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010); Brian Harley, The New Nature of Maps (Johns
Hopkins University Press, 2002); Alan MacEachren, How Maps Work (Guilford Press, 2004);
Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps (University of Chicago Press, 1996); and Denis Wood,
Rethinking the Power of Maps (Guilford Press, 2010). For a terrific overview of the diversity
of maps througout history, see Brian Harley and David Woodward’s multi-volume History of
Cartography (1987-date, University of Chicago Press) series. Tony Campbell’s website
www.maphistory.info is a tremendous resource for the history of mapping.
This book, like all books, draws from numerous other texts, old and new, that can be consulted
for more information than you’ll ever want or need: R.W. Anson and F.J. Ormeling (eds.),
Basic Cartography (International Cartographic Association, 1984); Borden Dent, Jeff Torguson,
and Thomas Hodler, Cartography: Thematic Map Design (McGraw-Hill, 2008); J.S. Keates,
Cartographic Design and Production (Wiley, 1973); Menno-Jan Kraak and F.J. Ormeling,
Cartography: Visualization of Spatial Data (Longman, 1996); Juliana Muehrcke, A. Jon Kimerling,
Aileen Buckley, and Phillip Muehrcke, Map Use: Reading and Analysis (ESRI Press, 2009); Arthur
Robinson, Joel Morrison, Phillip Muehrcke, and A. Jon Kimerling, Elements of Cartography
(Wiley, 1995); Erwin Raisz, General Cartography (McGraw-Hill, 1938) and Principles of
Cartography (McGraw-Hill, 1962); Terry Slocum, Robert McMaster, Fritz Kessler, and Hugh
Howard, Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization (Prentice Hall, 2008); and Judith Tyner,
Principles of Map Design (Guilford Press, 2010). These folks are the “map police.”
Check out the journal Cartographic Perspectives and the North American Cartographic
Information Society (nacis.org), the journal Cartographica and the Canadian Cartographic
Association (cca-acc.org), the Cartographic Journal and the British Cartographic Society
(www.cartography.org.uk), and the International Cartographic Association (icaci.org).
Sources: Richard Miller, “Areas crossed by two or more radioactive clouds during the era of nuclear
testing in the American Southwest, 1951-62” in Under the Cloud: The Decades of Nuclear Testing (Two-
Sixty Press, 1999), between chapters 4 and 5. “Right MAP Making” copyright 2007 by Steven R Holloway.
Designed and produced by toMake.com Press. “Right MAP Making” is intended to articulate the
fundamental principles of ethical conduct in mapping and maps and to stimulate “right action.” Set
in Operina and Dante and printed from a freely distributed digital file. Forty letterpress copies are signed
and numbered by the author. Editioned on the occasion of the 2007 Pecha Kucha of the North American
Cartographic Information Society.
13
... Just like a book, a map also has a reading direction, which is usually from top-left to bottom-right. The visual centre of the map is located slightly above the actual centre (Krygier and Wood, 2005). The map reader tends to focus on the visual centre, implying that the most important information should be positioned here. ...
... The grid subdivides the map sheet into horizontal and vertical spaces and generates sight-lines that create stability of the layout. Map items should be aligned along the grid to generate order and visual harmony between them (Krygier and Wood, 2005). Colours draw the viewer's attention strongly to certain areas. ...
Chapter
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Geomorphological maps are specific kind of thematic maps that use complex and illustrative symbolisation. Many different symbol sets, also referred to as legend or mapping systems, exist, each following different cartographic principles and focusing on different geomorphological aspects. Geomorphologists commonly use one of the existing symbol sets instead of creating their own symbols. We introduce the basic principles of cartographic design and map creation before we describe several symbol sets. It is worth understanding how symbol development, arrangement and map composition work in order to produce good geomorphological maps. The chapter continues with a review of practical issues of computer-assisted map creation using graphic and geographical information systems (GIS) software. This part includes brief comments on the creation of geomorphological symbols using a GIS. We conclude the chapter with an overview of different ways of map dissemination including maps on the Internet.
... There are many domains that have historically used type to express data. The most obvious may be cartography (e.g. [8,9]), for example, road maps that use all caps to indicate state capitals. The map infigure 2 uses typographic attributes such as reverse italics to indicate rivers, underline style to indicate different administrative levels of cities, as well as all caps, spacing and typeface. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Type attributes, such as bold and italic, can be used to represent data in visualizations. A review across domains shows various uses of type attributes and these can itemized and assessed for different ways to encoded data. Numerous examples show how these attributes can be applied to new kinds of visualizations,.
... The visualization aspects can be found in a wide range of publications. The following can be used as examples as traditional cartographic approaches: Robinson (1995), Bertin (1973, Krygier and Wood (2005). New visualization types, e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the Czech Republic, Integrated Rescue System (IRS) is coordinated by regional emergency centres. Operators of these centres use the geographic information system for spatial analysis and visualization of the situation. It is obvious that the used cartographic visualization (colours, cartographic signs, etc.) should be unified in the whole Czech Republic to assure effective communication and organisation of emergency response especially in a case of large disaster where IRS units from several regions need to be coordinated. The pro symbology for IRS. It consists of the recommended basic principles for the construction and definition of a symbol set, scaling range and standardized description of individual symbols to be used for maps in the analogue and digital forms. The presented paper describes the basics of the aforementioned methodology and experience retrieved during the IRS
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Bajo el paradigma de la neogeografía sobre el uso de las herramientas cartográficas, este artículo presenta una reflexión conceptual y distintas experiencias, que aúnan las aportaciones clásicas de la semiología cartográfica con las nuevas demandas de los ciudadanos. Los soportes expositivos, páginas web o atlas temáticos se han convertido en las herramientas para participar y cooperar en la ciudad, interactuar entre expertos y habitantes, reforzar las capacidades de los ciudadanos para empoderarse, y conocer con objetividad científica la realidad del espacio geográfico en el que viven.
Chapter
Communicating the positive experiential aspects of living and/or working in a particular locale is a critical element of place marketing activity. This has become an increasingly important element of place management, as organizations and groups (such as Town Centre Management schemes, Business Improvement Districts, local authorities, economic development partnerships etc.) with such responsibility seem tofocus ever more on maximizing positive aspects of the user’s experience of urban locales (Warnaby 2009a) as a means of place differentiation in an increasingly competitive environment. Maps — as representations of milieux (Robinson and Petchenik 1976) — have, throughout history, been regarded as a well-established means by which urban places can be represented. The aim of this chapter is to review the use of maps in the marketing of urban place ‘products’, before moving to consider, using de Certeau’s (1984) notion of ‘spatial stories’, how recent technical developments in cartography can be used in contemporary urban place marketing/promotion.
Article
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Chapter
This chapter outlines the methods for a new approach to create cartograms. The methodology aims to address the limitations that cartograms previously faced, and also considers the changing relevance of different spaces in geography.
Chapter
The function of a court is to resolve disputes through a legal process. With few exceptions, the progression of a legal case will follow the strict guidelines of rules and codes developed from numerous court decisions to fairly and efficiently securing a just determination. All federal courts adhere to a flexible set of rules published in the Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE ). The FRE provides rules and definitions governing general provisions, judicial notice, presumptions, relevance , privileges, witnesses , expert witnesses , hearsay , and authentication . However, there are as yet no special rules governing the use of geospatial technologies or spatial data . From a pragmatic legal perspective, spatial data differs immensely from the traditional form of evidence. However, the power of spatial information is extremely persuasive and compelling in litigation. While the acceptance of spatial data and methods has increased in litigation, there are also several issues that merit careful consideration when using spatial data. This chapter examines key rules and court decisions that impact the potential admissibility of spatial data and technologies in a modern courtroom.
Research
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To assess the fitness for purpose of data sets used in a project and to consider the potential impacts of data errors on GIS-based analysis.
Article
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Check out the journal Cartographic Perspectives and the North American Cartographic Information Society (nacis.org), the journal Cartographica and the Canadian Cartographic Association (cca-acc.org), the Cartographic Journal and the British Cartographic Society
  • Terry Slocum
  • Robert Mcmaster
  • Fritz Kessler
  • Hugh Howard
  • Judith Tyner
Terry Slocum, Robert McMaster, Fritz Kessler, and Hugh Howard, Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization (Prentice Hall, 2008); and Judith Tyner, Principles of Map Design (Guilford Press, 2010). These folks are the "map police." Check out the journal Cartographic Perspectives and the North American Cartographic Information Society (nacis.org), the journal Cartographica and the Canadian Cartographic Association (cca-acc.org), the Cartographic Journal and the British Cartographic Society (www.cartography.org.uk), and the International Cartographic Association (icaci.org).
The New Nature of Maps
  • Brian Harley
Brian Harley, The New Nature of Maps (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002);
  • Arthur Robinson
  • Joel Morrison
  • Phillip Muehrcke
  • A. Jon Kimerling
Arthur Robinson, Joel Morrison, Phillip Muehrcke, and A. Jon Kimerling, Elements of Cartography (Wiley, 1995);
  • Juliana Muehrcke
  • A Jon Kimerling
  • Aileen Buckley
  • Phillip Muehrcke
Juliana Muehrcke, A. Jon Kimerling, Aileen Buckley, and Phillip Muehrcke, Map Use: Reading and Analysis (ESRI Press, 2009);
General Cartography (McGraw-Hill, 1938) and Principles of Cartography
  • Erwin Raisz
Erwin Raisz, General Cartography (McGraw-Hill, 1938) and Principles of Cartography (McGraw-Hill, 1962);
For a terrific overview of the diversity of maps througout history, see Brian Harley and David Woodward's multi-volume History of Cartography (1987-date
  • Denis Wood
and Denis Wood, Rethinking the Power of Maps (Guilford Press, 2010). For a terrific overview of the diversity of maps througout history, see Brian Harley and David Woodward's multi-volume History of Cartography (1987-date, University of Chicago Press) series. Tony Campbell's website www.maphistory.info is a tremendous resource for the history of mapping.
Right MAP Making" is intended to articulate the fundamental principles of ethical conduct in mapping and maps and to stimulate "right action
  • Richard Sources
  • Miller
Sources: Richard Miller, "Areas crossed by two or more radioactive clouds during the era of nuclear testing in the American Southwest, 1951-62" in Under the Cloud: The Decades of Nuclear Testing (Two-Sixty Press, 1999), between chapters 4 and 5. "Right MAP Making" copyright 2007 by Steven R Holloway. Designed and produced by toMake.com Press. "Right MAP Making" is intended to articulate the fundamental principles of ethical conduct in mapping and maps and to stimulate "right action." Set in Operina and Dante and printed from a freely distributed digital file. Forty letterpress copies are signed and numbered by the author. Editioned on the occasion of the 2007 Pecha Kucha of the North American Cartographic Information Society.