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Alpine ungulates are ubiquitous in Northern Pakistan but have declined in numbers in recent decades, possibly because of poaching and habitat degradation by livestock. Experience suggests that the most pragmatic way of achieving sustainable management of wild Caprinae is through a community-based trophy hunting programme. Since the early 1990s, the Bar Valley has been the focus of a project designed to conserve its ibex population using high-priced trophy hunting to generate funds for local development. In 2000, an audit of the project was undertaken to determine its effects on ibex and benefits for local people. Ibex survey data were retrospectively analyzed to determine density and productivity indices for each year. A survey of Bar Valley households was also conducted to obtain both historical and contemporary views on the project's function and effectiveness. The survey was repeated in the adjacent Naltar Valley, where there has been no similar project. The Bar Valley ibex population has remained relatively stable over the past decade, whilst that of Naltar and other valleys has all but disappeared.
Au nord du Pakistan, les ongulés alpins se distribuent dans des habitats diversifiés mais leur nombre a diminué ces dernières décades, peut-être du fait du braconnage et de la dégradation de l'habitat par les troupeaux domestiques. Si Von veut mettre en place une gestion soutenable des Caprinae sauvages, l'expérience montre qu'une solution pragmatique est l'établissement d'un programme de chasse au trophée géré par la population locale. Ainsi, depuis les années 1990 s'est développé dans la vallée Bar un projet de conservation de la population de bouquetins basé sur des trophés de chasse à prix élevés pouvant générer des revenus pour le développement local. En 2000, une révision a été faite pour connaître les effets de ce programme sur le bouquetin et ses bénéfices pour les habitants de la zone. La densité et les index de productivité ont été déterminés année par année. L'effectivité du projet et son influence sur les revenus locaux ont aussi été étudiés pour obtenir h la fois une vision historique et actuelle. Cette enquête a été répétée dans la vallée voisine de Naltar, où aucun projet semblable ne s'est établi. La population de bouquetin de la vallée Bar s'est relativement stabilisée cette dernière décade, tandis que celle de Nalthar et d'autres vallées a presque disparu.
Aunque los ungidados alpinos son ubicuos en el norte de Pakistán, han disminuido en número en las últimas décadas, probablemente debido al furtivismo y la degradación del hábitat producida por el ganado. La experiencia indica que la forma más pragmática de desarrollar una gestión sostenible de los caprinos silvestres es a través de un plan de caza de trofeo con participación local. Desde principio de los 90 en el valle de Bar se ha llevado a cabo un proyecto basado en la caza de trofeo de alta cotización, obteniendo así fondos para el desarrollo local. En 2000 se realizó una auditoría con el fin de determinar el efecto del proyecto en el íbice y sus beneficios para la población local. Los datos obtenidos con el seguimiento del íbice fueron analizados retrospectivamente para determinar los índices de productividad y densidad por años. Se encuesto a las familias del valle de Bar con el fin de averiguar su percepción histórica y actual sobre el funcionamiento y efectividad del proyecto. Se repitió la encuesta en el valle adyacente de Naltar, donde no existe un proyecto similar. En el valle de Bar la población de íbice permaneció relativamente estable durante la pasada década, mientras que en el valle de Naltar, y en otros valles, casi ha desaparecido.
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... The revenue generated by trophy hunting of Himalayan ibex has contributed to the socio-economic uplift of local communities ; hence persuading local people to conserve wildlife in their area has resulted in an increased population of wildlife species . However, since the establishment of these CCHAs, very few studies had been conducted to estimate population of Himalayan ibex [22,23] and Markhor . Monitoring these ungulates always remains necessary in order to know about their population trend and habitat utilization  and to check the effectiveness of conservation interventions . ...
... The population density of Ibex was 0.22 animals/km 2 in Bar valley in spring whereas an earlier study reported a density of 0.68 animals/km 2 in spring . This fluctuation can be attributed to community conflicts over trophy hunting revenue and subsequent poaching. ...
Monitoring of animal populations and their habitat is necessary to conserve, manage or harvest species and to understand their population trend. Present study determined the population size and habitat use of Himalayan Ibex in Nagar Valley of Gilgit-Baltistan. Vantage point count method was applied to estimate population. During winter, 478 Ibex were observed in 25 groups, with mean group size of (19.12 SD= 8.79) and a population density of 0.32 animals/km2, while during spring 456 Ibex were observed in 24 groups with mean group size of (19 SD= 8.65), and with a population density of 0.33 animals/km2. A sex ratio of 1.24 females/male in winter, 1.33 females/male in spring, 1.36 females/young in winter and 1.25 females/young in spring was recorded. A total of 47 plant species were identified in Ibex habitat, dominated by herbaceous species. It prefers precipitous habitat with 60º-70 º slopes angle, and closer to escape terrain between 21m-50m distance (69.23%). It also showed preference for southern aspect (53.8%) with less snow accumulation, the majority of Ibex were observed between 2500m and 3500m (53.8%). Major threats to Ibex in study area include poaching, competition with livestock and weak watch and ward system.
... Hence, it is pragmatic to monitor the wild fauna of any area using advanced techniques to better understand the population trends, impacts of management and conservation (Zhang et al., 2012). Population trends of animals can be used as the best indicator of assessing the conservation success (Gaillard et al., 1998), especially in the areas where trophy hunting is in practice (Arshad et al., 2002) though, conducting such largescale and long-term surveys in the remote areas often remain difficult due to the budget and human resource limitations (Singh and Milner-Gulland, 2011). But under the ...
... According to the numerous bone fragments of wild animals, these Neanderthal people hunted mainly mountain ibexes, and infrequently wild horses, marals (Cervus elaphus), bears (Ursus arctos), leopards (Panthera pardus), and birds (Okladnikov, 1949;Derevianko, 2011). Initially, the most common hunting method was to use a team of hunters who drop large rocks on animals in areas where they would be most vulnerable, such as along narrow rocky trails (August and Burian, 1963). This method is thought to have been used in hunting ibexes, along with ambushing or forcing animals into deep snow. ...
Initially, hunting was the primary means for getting food for the survival of ancient people. As time passed, people started to breed livestock and develop agriculture, gradually reducing their reliance on unpredictability of hunting. People, however, continued to hunt and, even though their survival did not depend on hunting. During the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) period, attitudes toward the use of natural resources fluctuated significantly, and after the establishment of new reserves for wildlife protection, the government soon weakened protections it had introduced. In the current, the organizations in dependent countries of the USSR that are chartered to protect areas with wildlife diversity are very weak and have no sufficient material resources to provide any real control of poaching, especially when hunting weapons and ammunition are easily available. Trophy hunting companies exploit wildlife resources but do not make protecting wildlife from poaching as a priority in their work; they just use whatever resources are available as if they are unlimited. To help solve this problem, we suggest to organize the local people to join the wildlife protection societies and give them official rights to benefit from the development of hunting tourism in the future. There are numerous examples of successful and very profitable hunting businesses in different countries in the world. In Central Asia, all the prerequisites exist for organizing highly effective trophy hunting tourism, maintaining the richness of biodiversity, and at the same time providing a sustainable and significant income for local communities as the country as a whole. The sustainable use of wildlife resources is a very tangible challenge in the countries of Central Asia, and the most important consideration is to establish and enforce hunting laws equally, irrespective of a person’s social status or financial assets, otherwise no laws will work.
The number and structure of the tur (Capra caucasica Guldenstaedt et Pallas 1783) population on the territory of Caucasian Reserve (Western Caucasus), as well as peculiarities of the effect of natural and anthropogenic factors on the population, were studied based on ideas of meta-population species dynamics. Fourteen local tur groupings were united into three groups by the similarity of long-term number dynamics. A negative effect of winter, which deviated from the average long-term winter by the level of snowiness, on the tur population was detected. Snowy winters damage not only males (that frequently die in avalanches), but also affect the birth rate subsequently; the portion of females, in spite of the male death, decreases anyway two years after winter, as well as the portion of underyearlings. It was demonstrated that the snowy winter effect is manifested only when the animal density is rather high. The following tendency was detected for the tur population: the greater the density before the winter, the larger the decrease in the animal density after it (and this tendency weakens one year after the winter). Wolf predation has no negative effect on the tur population in the reserve. A maximal association between the tur density and wolf density was found at a tur density up to 50 individuals/1000 hectares. With a further increase in the victim density, the wolf density changes independently of the tur density. Turs in the reserve are not easily accessible to poachers due to habitat peculiarities, and therefore, the role of poaching in the dynamics of their numbers is not significant.
The number and structure of the tur (Capra caucasica Guldenstadt et Pallas, 1783) population were studied at the Caucasian Reserve (the western Caucasus). The effect of natural and anthropogenic factors on this population was assessed. Fourteen local tur groups were combined in three ones based on the similarity of the long-term dynamics of the tur number. An adverse influence of winters, when the snow depth exceeded its average value, on the tur population was revealed. Snowy winters affect not only males that perish under snowglides; they are also reflected in the birth rate: the share of females and young of the current year decreases in two years after the winter. The effect of snowy winters is shown to manifest itself only at the high density of the animals. The higher the density of the population is before the winter, the more the intense decline in its density is observed. In a year, this trend became weaker. The wolf predation did not affect the tur population at the reserve. The tightest correlation between the density of tur and that of wolf was found at the density of tur of 50 ind./1000 ha. The further increase in the density of tur was irrelative of the wolf's density. Turs at the reserve are inaccessible for poachers; therefore, the role of poaching in the dynamics of their number is insignificant.
The distribution and status of large mammals was surveyed in a 15 000 km2 study area in Ladakh, India. Snow leopard Panthera uncia, wolf Canis lupus, ibex Capra ibex and bharal Pseudois nayaur have an almost continuous distribution throughout; Ladakh urial Ovis vignei, Tibetan argali Ovis ammon, wild ass Equus kiang and brown bear Ursus arctos have a limited distribution. Snow leopard prefer lower altitudes and rocky, undisturbed areas. Ibex and bharal occupy similar rocky habitats but their ranges are mostly separate, with a small area of overlap. The Ladakh urial shows signs of recovery from an earlier decline. Natural resources are widely used for fuel, fodder and grazing, but favourable factors include a low human population, low level of hunting and the existence of some uninhabited and undisturbed areas. A comprehensive Protected Area Network has been proposed.
The density of feral goats in about 234 km2 of arid rangeland used for sheep grazing in South Australia
was estimated by means of a mark-resight technique. Marking and subsequent resighting were done at
watering points. The Petersen estimate was 4.4 goats per square kilometre; adjustment to allow for nonrandom
behaviour raised this estimate to 5.0 km-1. Maximum allowable sheep density is 12 km-2.
The goat density we observed imposes an added burden on the vegetation. The densities of red and
western grey kangaroos, when added together, approximate that of the goats. Rabbits are virtually
absent. The long-term effects of the total grazing pressure on the vegetation cannot be predicted in detail
but will probably be deleterious.
Beginning in the 1500s, over-exploitation and poaching led to a steady decline of ibex (Capra ibex ibex) numbers in the European Alps. The use of ibex products in many folk remedies guaranteed high financial returns for the hunter and resulted in the relentless pursuit of this species. By the early 1800s, <100 animals survived in a single population in the Italian Gran Paradiso mountain massif.The recovery to more than 20 000 animals today is the result of a four-stage conservation effort which returned alpine ibex to almost their entire original range of distribution: (1) effective protection of the last remaining population, (2) captive breeding of animals caught in the recovered last population, (3) reintroduction of captive-bred animals into protected original habitat, (4) translocation of animals from successfully established “reservoir” populations to uninhabited sites.Alpine ibex management faces two challenges today: (1) habitat destruction in areas of high population densities, and (2) low genetic variability possibly a result of inbreeding during a succession of four potential population bottleneck situations.
The saiga antelope is exploited principally for its horn. Two major factors will influence the manager's decision about the best sustainable hunting strategy for the saiga: the climatic unpredictability of the region in which it lives and the effects of highly selective hunting for males on the population dynamics of the species. This paper discusses these factors and assesses the prospects for sustainable management of the saiga.
A status survey of large mammals was conducted in the western half of China's 14 000 km2 Taxkorgan Reserve. About 7750 people and 70 000 domestic animals inhabit the reserve. Only one viable population of fewer than 150 Marco Polo sheep survives, and it appears to be augmented by adult males from Russia and Afghanistan during the winter rut. Ibex occur primarily in the western part of the reserve and blue sheep—the most abundant wild ungulate—in the eastern and southeastern parts. The two species overlap in the area of contact. Counts in selected mountain blocks totalling 1445 km2 within the reserve revealed an average wild ungulate density of 0·34 animals km−2. Snow leopard were rare, with possibly 50–75 in the reserve, as were wolves and brown bear. The principal spring food of snow leopard was blue sheep (60%) and marmot (29%). Local people have greatly decimated wildlife, killing wild ungulates for meat and predators to protect livestock. Overgrazing by livestock and overuse of shrubs for fuelwood is turning this arid steppe habitat into desert. There is need to place restraints on the killing of wildlife, to introduce appropriate technology such as solar cookers, and to encourage occupations that remove people from the land—trade, manufacture of handicrafts, and activities associated with tourism.
The Ladakhl urial Ovis orientalis vignei has a limited distribution and in recent years has declined in number. The author made three visits to Ladakh to investigate the status of the urial in a major part of its range which had been little studied before. The objects of the survey were to ascertain in which parts of its former range the Ladakh urial still occured; to assess its numbers, the reasons for any decrease in numbers and the prospects for its future survival. It was found that the decline of this animal in Ladakh had taken place later than that of animals in other areas of the Himalayas, due in part to unique social conditions, and that a numerically much reduced but widely distributed population remains, and has reasonable prospects for survival.