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Varieties of Indecisive Experience: Explaining the Tendency to Not Make Timely and Stable Decisions.

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Abstract

The aim of this dissertation was to explain why some people are indecisive, in the broadest sense of the term. First, a behavioral definition of indecisiveness was synthesized from the range of conceptions of indecision and indecisiveness found across different literatures. Indecisive behaviors were derived from the synthesized definition and used to develop a multi-dimensional, behavioral self-report scale. The scale was designed to capture the breadth of indecisive behaviors, without a priori attributing to them any causes. In three studies, the scale was developed, refined, validated, and used to test distinct mechanisms underlying indecisiveness. In Study 1 (N = 369), the initial scale was developed. Four types of indecisiveness were hypothesized to exist at distinct phases in the decision-making process: 1) before commitment, 2) before enacting the commitment, 3) before completing the commitment, and 4) after fulfilling the commitment. Analysis suggested that indecisiveness was multidimensional, but consisted of: 1) decision evasion, 2) prolonged latency, 3) waiting, and 4) changing commitments. Indecisiveness was conceptually refined and reconceived as manifesting itself in three core behaviors: 1) prolonged latency, 2) not-deciding, and 3) changing decisions. The scale was refined accordingly, and other behaviors associated with indecisiveness, such as decision evasion and waiting, were considered to be proximal behavioral contributors. In Study 2 (N = 169), the multi-dimensionality and multi-determination of the refined indecisiveness scale were confirmed. The core indecisiveness behaviors were predicted by specific patterns of proximal behavioral contributors and four of the Big Five personality traits. The refined scale’s validity was established using two other measures of indecisiveness, information processing style, and a double-disjunct task. In Study 3 (N = 390), the scale was further refined and administered to a demographically broader sample. The multi-dimensionality and multi-determination of indecisiveness were again supported. Nine facets of the HEXACO (Ashton & Lee, 2007) model of personality contributed to indecisiveness through seven mechanisms: 1) worry, 2) low self-confidence, 3) dependence, 4) high standards, 5) escapist impulsivity, 6) careless impulsivity, and 7) concern for others. The scale’s validity was further established using peer report, a status quo bias task, and an optimistic bias task.

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... There are also other, less often used scales such as the one from Germeijs and De Boeck (22-item Indecisiveness Scale, 2002) and Elaydi (13-item Indecisiveness Scale, 2006), which, given their slightly different initial definition of the construct of indecisiveness, differ in content. For a more complete list of existing measures and definitions, see Potworowski (2010). ...
... The primary goal of this study is to explore the position of indecisiveness within the HEXACO six-factor model, both at the broad domains and at the facets level. It seems that only one previous research paper (Potworowski, 2010) explored the personality correlates of indecisiveness using the HEXACO framework. However, a different measure of indecisiveness was used, so this is the first study to compare the HEXACO framework to the IS. ...
Article
Background Decision making is one of the basic human activities. Indecisiveness, i.e. the stable tendency towards not making decisions in a timely manner, may influence the quality and speed in decision making and have long-term consequences for our professional and personal life. The goal of this research was to examine the position of indecisiveness within the HEXACO model of per-sonality, at both the broad domains and narrow facets level. A secondary goal was to translate the Frost & Shows Indecisive-ness Scale (IS) into the Croatian language and examine its validity and reliability. Participants and procedure An internet-based sample size of 296 participants filled in both short and long version of Indecisiveness Scale and the HEXA-CO-PI-R. Results The results show that the IS retains the original one-factor structure as proposed by the original authors and has a high reliabil-ity. The shortened version shows properties very similar to the longer version and is deemed an appropriate replacement. Extra-version showed the highest positive correlation with indecisiveness, followed by negative correlations with conscientiousness, emotionality and agreeableness. Conclusions The Croatian translation of the IS is a valid and reliable measure. The results also confirm that the shortened 11-item version can be used as a replacement for the full 15-item version. Since there was no measure of indecisiveness in Croa-tian before, this instrument could be used in the future by researchers interested in this construct. It was shown that extraversion has the strongest relationship with indecisiveness, followed by conscientiousness, emotionality and agreeableness.
... Although many books and articles offer advice as to how to make optimal decisions (e.g., Heath & Heath, 2013), some people experience problems making any final decision. Indecisiveness as a stable personal characteristic is defined as the inability to make decisions in a timely manner across situations and domains (Frost & Shows, 1993) and has been distinguished from the situation specific state -indecision (Germeijs & De Boeck, 2002; for a more detailed overview of indecisiveness and indecision definitions see Potworowski, 2010). The general view on indecisiveness is mainly negative, as people with a higher score have difficulties in decisions in a range of situations such as choosing college majors (Germeijs & De Boeck, 2002;Gayton et al., 1994), careers (Gati, Krausz & Osipow, 1996;Santos, Ferreira & Gonçalves, 2014) and a variety of other daily decisions (Germeijs & De Boeck, 2002). ...
... While many attempts to find factors of indecisiveness (and IS) have been conducted and the scales and definitions of indecisiveness differ, most of them include more than the core characteristics of indecisiveness describing the inability to make decisions in a timely manner. Emotional states during or after the decision-making process (worry, anxiety), effects of indecisiveness (confidence about the decision) or post-decisional behaviour are just some examples of these "contaminating" items (Potworowski, 2010), which could be responsible for the shared variance with some of the found correlates such as negative affect or neuroticism. ...
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The study investigates the psychometric characteristics of the Slovak version of the original and short form of the Indecisiveness Scale on three samples of university students and one general population sample. An exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one factor structure of the scale with a satisfactory internal consistency and time stability of scores. The criterion validity was examined through relationships with thinking styles, decision-making styles, the Big Five factors, decision outcomes, well-being and perceived stress, as well as through a comparison of the general population sample with a sample with an obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. Subjects who self-reported as undecided in their future intentions regarding migration tendencies had higher scores in indecisiveness. Both examined forms of the Slovak version of the Indecisiveness Scale were demonstrated to be reliable and valid instruments for the measurement of indecisiveness with the short form being favorited as more appropriately tapping into the core aspect of indecisiveness.
... Araştırıcı kararsızlık; hata yapma korkusu, tutarsız kararlar, bilgiyi arama, süre baskısı altında panik ve belirsizlik içinde hissetmek, tüm seçenekler önceden incelenmiş olsa bile uzun süre zarfında karara ulaşma olarak belirtilebilir. Aceleci kararsızlık; sabırsız olma, kararları değiştirme, fırsatları kaçırma korkusu, dikkatsizce düşünme, bir an önce sorumluluklardan kurtulmayı denemek, yetersizlik, bilgiye ulaşmada zorluk, çabucak karar verme ve kolayca bir fikirden vazgeçme gibi durumları içermektedir (Potworowski, 2010). ...
... Exploratory indecisiveness includes the difficulty experienced in decision making, the fear of making mistakes, unstable decisions, searching for information, the panic and inconsistency experienced under time pressure and the long period of decision making, even if all the choices have been investigated while making a decision. Impetuous indecisiveness includes properties such as being impatient, changing decisions, the fear of losing opportunities, thinking carelessly, trying to get rid of the responsibility at once, insufficiency, difficulty in searching for information, deciding quickly and giving up such decisions easily (Bacanlı, 2000(Bacanlı, , 2005Potworowski, 2010). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine whether the five-factor personality characteristics and self-esteem predict two subtypes of personal indecisiveness (exploratory indecisiveness and impetuous indecisiveness). A total of 483 students (269 female and 208 male students, 6 of the students did not state gender) studying at the various faculties of Gazi University participated in the study. The results show that both exploratory and impetuous indecisiveness are significantly and positively correlated to neuroticism, and are significantly and negatively correlated to extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and self-esteem. Exploratory indecisiveness is not correlated with agreeableness. Self-esteem was found to be the strongest predictor of exploratory indecisiveness, followed by neuroticism and extraversion. The strongest predictor of impetuous indecisiveness was found to be neuroticism, followed by self-esteem, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. The findings are discussed within the scope of the relevant literature.
... However, scholarly definitions of indecision have largely failed to reflect these known impediments to rational choice or to ground themselves in decision-making theory more broadly (an exception, based on normative, neoclassical models of decision-making , is Germeijs & De Boeck, 2003). They have also failed to reach much consensus (Potworowski, 2010, chapt. 2). ...
... Exploratory indecisiveness includes a difficulty experienced in decision making despite all choices being examined while deciding, the fear of making mistakes, unstable decisions, the search for information, the panic experienced under time pressure and instability, and the long duration of the decision-making process. Impetuous indecisiveness includes impatience, changing the decision, the fear of losing opportunities, thinking carelessly, trying to get rid of the responsibility immediately, incapability, the difficulty in searching for information, deciding quickly, and giving up such decisions easily (Bacanlı, 2000(Bacanlı, , 2005Potworowski, 2010). ...
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Career indecisiveness involves more pervasive, severe, and chronic difficulties in making career decisions and focuses on deeper personality roots as well as cognitive origin. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between career indecisiveness on one hand and self-esteem, personal indecisiveness, and five-factor personality characteristics on the other. As hypothesized, the career indecisiveness was higher in 545 Turkish high school students who had not yet decided on a profession than that of decided individuals. Also, the results showed that emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties are positively related to self-esteem, exploratory and impetuous indecisiveness, and neuroticism, while being negatively related to extroversion and conscientiousness. In addition, female experienced more career indecisiveness. Based on the result of the multiple regression analysis, exploratory indecisiveness was the most significant contributory factor to career indecisiveness for female and male.
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This paper described two studies in which Skinner and Lei's (1980a) Modal Profile Analysis was applied to scores on a procrastination scale and a number of other trait scales. In study I, ratings on 18 dimensions regarding 10 personal projects were also included in the Analysis. Four profiles were retained in this study, with procrastination defining two of them. In one profile, procrastinators were also high on the neurotic disorganization scale and the rebelliousness scale and had personal projects which, overall, were characterized by high stress, high difficulty and low progress, and on which less than adequate time was spent. In the second profile, the procrastinator was neurotically disorganized, low in organization, energy level, and need-achievement, and had projects which were low in difficulty and stress, and high in progress. In Study II, four profiles were retained with the male data, with procrastination defining two of them. With the female data, three profiles were retained, only one defined by procrastination. With females procrastination, neurotic disorganization, high cognitive failures, and low organization were linked with low self-esteem and low energy level. Such was not the case with males. Rather, in one profile, the disorganized procrastinator was high in other-directed self-monitoring and low in stimulus screening and sensitivity to rejection. In the other male profile, the disorganized procrastinator was high in private self-consciousness and breadth of interest, and low in both stimulus screening and other-directed self-monitoring. Various interpretations of the pertinent profiles in Studies I and II were made, particularly as they might relate to classifications of the underachiever. Correlation coefficients in Study II between procrastination and the other trait measures were also presented.
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Chronically career-indecisive undergraduates have been described in the literature in terms that characterize high scorers on the Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Three measures derived from the Career Decision Scale (CDS) (i.e., Indecision scale scores, Factor 1 scores, and Indecision and Certainty scale score percentiles) were investigated for their usefulness in identifying such students. Of the three CDS measures, the Indecision scale was found to be most strongly related to neuroticism. Exploratory analysis of the relationships between indecision and scores on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire indicated that differences in indecision were associated with anxiety.
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Using tools from operations research, airlines have, for many years, taken a strategic approach to pricing the seats available on a particular flight based on demand forecasts and information. The result of this approach is that the same seat on the same flight is often offered at different fares at different times. Setting of these prices using yield-management approaches is a major activity for many airlines and is well studied in the literature. However, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the existence of pricing strategies used by airlines. In addition, the availability of airline travel pricing on the Internet affords consumers the opportunity to behave more strategically when making purchase decisions. The onset of the information age makes it possible for an informed consumer or a third party, such as a travel agent, to obtain demand information similar to that used by the airlines. In particular, it is possible for consumers or travel agents to purchase historical data or to obtain it by monitoring the seats that are available at various prices for a given flight. If a consumer understands the pricing strategy and has access to demand information, he/she may decide to defer purchase of a ticket because they believe that a cheaper seat may yet become available. If consumers were to make use of this information to make such strategic purchasing decisions, what would be the impact on airline revenues? The purpose of this paper is to investigate these impacts. This work indicates that use of standard yield management approaches to pricing by airlines can result in significantly reduced revenues when buyers are using an informed and strategic approach to purchasing. Therefore, when airlines are setting or presenting prices, they should investigate the effect of strategic purchasing on their decisions.
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Purpose The current study aims to aid in the theoretical development of the indecisiveness construct, create a definition of indecisiveness that reflects current research, and differentiate indecisiveness from other constructs in the field. An indecisiveness scale with positive psychometric properties is developed to measure the construct. Design/methodology/approach A total of 578 undergraduate participants answered an open ended question inquiring about a “big” decision they were facing in their life. Participants completed questionnaires on indecisiveness and decision‐making strategies. Findings Of the 578 total participants who completed the study, 465 (approximately 81 percent) stated that they felt indecisive with regard to their “big” decision. While researchers may be hesitant to study indecisiveness because the phenomenon is thought to be rare, the current study indicates that the presumed anomaly may exist more often than the literature reflects. What's more, the widespread occurrence of indecisiveness speaks the importance of studying the phenomenon. Results also suggest strong support for using the indecisiveness scale, with psychometric tests finding convergent validity with emotion‐focused decision‐making strategies and divergent validity with logic‐focused strategies. Research limitations/implications Limitations include using a sample of undergraduate students to initially test the indecisiveness scale. Practical implications With a solid construct definition and psychometrically sound measurement instrument, this paper hopes to encourage future research on indecisiveness and its role in the decision‐making process. This work is especially critical in the upper echelons of organizations, where indecisiveness can affect millions of lives and cost billions of dollars. Originality/value Research studying indecisiveness is sparse at best, and the need to study the construct has been consistently overlooked in the literature. This study is the first of its kind to develop a solid definition of indecisiveness as it exists in the decision‐making process and an accompanying measurement instrument with positive psychometric qualities.
Article
A common concern when faced with multivariate data with missing values is whether the missing data are missing completely at random (MCAR); that is, whether missingness depends on the variables in the data set. One way of assessing this is to compare the means of recorded values of each variable between groups defined by whether other variables in the data set are missing or not. Although informative, this procedure yields potentially many correlated statistics for testing MCAR, resulting in multiple-comparison problems. This article proposes a single global test statistic for MCAR that uses all of the available data. The asymptotic null distribution is given, and the small-sample null distribution is derived for multivariate normal data with a monotone pattern of missing data. The test reduces to a standard t test when the data are bivariate with missing data confined to a single variable. A limited simulation study of empirical sizes for the test applied to normal and nonnormal data suggests that the test is conservative for small samples.
Article
SUMMARY When making sampling distribution inferences about the parameter of the data, θ, it is appropriate to ignore the process that causes missing data if the missing data are ‘missing at random’ and the observed data are ‘observed at random’, but these inferences are generally conditional on the observed pattern of missing data. When making direct-likelihood or Bayesian inferences about θ, it is appropriate to ignore the process that causes missing data if the missing data are missing at random and the parameter of the missing data process is ‘distinct’ from θ. These conditions are the weakest general conditions under which ignoring the process that causes missing data always leads to correct inferences.
Article
Administered a trait indecisiveness scale and the Interpersonal Check List to 268 male and 57 female incoming freshmen. 51% indicated uncertainty about career choice. Results indicate a positive relationship between vocational uncertainty and trait indecisiveness. Ss with high indecisiveness, compared to Ss with low indecisiveness, rated themselves higher on submissiveness, lack of dominance, self-criticism, passivity, and cooperativeness. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the relationship between need for cognition (a motivation to engage in thinking and cognitive endeavors), time pressure, and predecisional external information search using an information display board paradigm in 90 Ss (aged 16–72 yrs) from the Netherlands. Under time pressure, Ss accelerated processing and reported less confidence in their decision. Low-need-for-cognition (NC) Ss expended less cognitive effort to the task than did high-NC Ss, as was indicated by cognitive responses and self-reports. Differences in search strategy in response to time pressure were found only among low-NC Ss and not among high-NC Ss. Under time pressure low-NC Ss, compared to unpressured low-NC Ss, exhibited search strategies that were more variable in amount of information assessed across alternatives, indicating the use of more heuristic strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Need for Closure Scale (NFCS; D. M. Webster & A. W. Kruglanski, 1994) was introduced to assess the extent to which a person, faced with a decision or judgment, desires any answer, as compared with confusion and ambiguity. The NFCS was presented as being unidimensional and as having adequate discriminant validity. Our data contradict these conceptual and psychometric claims. As a unidimensional scale, the NFCS is redundant with the Personal Need for Structure Scale (PNS; M. M. Thompson, M. E. Naccarato, & K. E. Parker, 1989). When the NFCS is used more appropriately as a multidimensional instrument, 3 of its facets are redundant with the PNS Scale, and a 4th is redundant with the Personal Fear of Invalidity Scale (M. M. Thompson et al., 1989). It is suggested that the NFCS masks important distinctions between 2 independent epistemic motives: the preference for quick, decisive answers (nonspecific closure) and the need to create and maintain simple structures (one form of specific closure). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Argues that career indecision cannot be addressed as a unidimensional construct. A comprehensive diagnostic system and individualized treatment approaches are necessary. An example is presented of a student's career decision-making problem that may be viewed from 3 perspectives: developmental, acute/situational, or chronic. Each perspective consists of 4 dimensions: primary symptoms, barriers to resolution, treatment approach, and desired outcomes. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The development from immaturity to maturity in vocational planning may be thought of as falling into four phases, though there are many variations and the phases are not discrete. These phases are phantasy, transitional, general preparation, and specific preparation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Career indecision is reconceptualized as a complex, multidimensional problem composed of an undecided state and an indecisive trait.
Article
Indecisiveness is a trait-related general tendency to experience decision difficulties across a variety of situations, leading to decision delay, worry, and regret. Indecisiveness is proposed (Rassin, 2007) to be associated with an increase in desire for information acquisition and reliance on compensatory strategies—as evidenced by alternative-based information search—during decision making. However existing studies provide conflicting findings. We conducted an information board study of indecisiveness, using eye tracking methodology, to test the hypotheses that the relationship between indecisiveness and choice strategy depends on being in the early stage of the decision making process, and that it depends on being in the presence of an opportunity to delay choice. We found strong evidence for the first hypothesis in that indecisive individuals changed shift behavior from the first to the second half of the task, consistent with a move from greater to lesser compensatory processing, while the shift behavior of decisive individuals suggested lesser compensatory processing over the whole task. Indecisiveness was also related to time spent viewing attributes of the selected course, and to time spent looking away from decision information. These findings resolve past discrepancies, suggest an interesting account of how the decision process unfolds for indecisive versus decisive individuals, and contribute to a better understanding of this tendency. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Decision attitude — an analog of risk attitude — is the propensity to make (or avoid making) a decision: in decision aversion, a person finds it more desirable to receive through fiat the better of two options than to have a choice between them; in decision seeking, the choice is more desirable, even though it can lead to nothing better than the best option. Both decision aversion and decision seeking were found in hypothetical scenarios. Experimental manipulations and subjects' justifications point to anticipated regret, fear of blame for poor outcomes, and desire for equitable distributions as sources of decision aversion. One source of decision seeking (for self) and decision aversion (when deciding for others) appears to be the desire for the self-determination of the affected parties. We consider the implications of our results for personal choice and public policy decisions.
Article
When making decisions, people must determine not only what to choose but also when to choose. Do individuals modulate behavior in response to potential risks associated with delay in determining when to choose? The present work provides evidence that at least one group of people—indecisive individuals—do not. Two process-tracing studies simulated a 5-day college-course selection period in which new course altern-atives appeared on each day. In a risk-free condition, no risks were associated with delay of decision making over the days. In a risk condition, each day of delay was associated with a risk of loss of existing course alternatives. Unlike decisive individuals, who modulated days of deliberation in response to presence versus absence of risk, indecisive individuals did not. The results illustrate not that indecisive individuals show uniformly increased delay relative to others, but rather that their delay behavior may be more striking in its unresponsiveness to risk.
Article
Researchers have debated including a midpoint response in questionnaire scales, and they have debated what the selection of that response option represents. Using data from employee opinion surveys of a large financial services organization based primarily in the United States, this study explored whether the endorsement of the midpoint response is related to an item’s readability and its perceived clarity. The results showed the endorsement of the midpoint response was significantly correlated with the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level index, average letters per word, and average number of syllables per word. The results also showed that as the perceived clarity of an item increases, the endorsement of the midpoint response decreases. These findings have important implications both to researchers and organizations that conduct surveys with their employees.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
Decision-making and choosing is not always easy. Thus, indecisiveness seems to be a widespread phenomenon. However, the scientific literature on indecisiveness is rather limited. Indeed, even a clear definition of indecisiveness is lacking, let alone a model in which various indecisiveness-related concepts are integrated. The present article aims at developing an indecisiveness model. Within this model, indecisiveness refers to the experience of decision problems (i.e., lack of information, valuation difficulty, and outcome uncertainty) resulting in overt choice-related behaviours such as delay, tunnel vision, and post-decision dysfunctional behaviour (e.g., worry). Existing knowledge is discussed within the context of this model, and it is argued that the model may serve as a guideline for future research on indecisiveness. (Netherlands Journal of Psychology, 63, 2-13.) indecisiveness-decision-making-psychopathology
Article
We examined two questions involving the relative validity of the HEXACO and Five-Factor Models of personality structure. First, would the HEXACO model outpredict the Five-Factor Model (FFM) with regard to several diverse criteria that are conceptually relevant to the Honesty–Humility dimension of personality? If so, would the addition of a proxy Honesty–Humility scale—as computed from relevant facets of the FFM Agreeableness domain—allow the FFM to achieve predictive validities matching those of the HEXACO model? Results from self- and observer ratings in three samples (each N > 200) indicated that the HEXACO model showed considerable predictive validity advantages over the FFM. When a measure of Honesty–Humility derived from the FFM was added to the original five domains of that model, the predictive validity reached that of the HEXACO model for some criteria, but remained substantially below for others.
Article
This study examined the relationship between career indecision and personality dimensions represented on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), using high and low career indecision groups. The 20 scales of the CPI were factor analyzed, yielding four factors: Extraversion, Control, Flexibility, and Consensuality. Establishing cutoff scores on the Career Decision Scale and My Vocational Situation, high and low indecision groups were created. Factor scores were computed for participants, and a MANOVA was performed with the career groups representing two levels of the independent variable with the four factor scores serving as the depending variables. The high and low indecision groups were found to differ significantly on a linear combination of the CPI factor scores. The profiles of the two indecision groups were also compared using meanTscores for the 20 CPI scales. There was a clear tendency for the low indecision group to score higher on CPI dimensions, significantly so on 12 of 20 scales.
Article
The present study examined the career indecision of 397 managers and professionals in a large banking establishment. A measure of career indecision was developed, and a preliminary model of employee career indecision was tested. A factor analysis revealed seven potential sources of career indecision. Three antecedent variables (employee work/life experience, trait anxiety, and career management assistance) had direct and indirect effects on career indecision status. Potential outcomes of career indecision and its sources include negative work attitudes, high levels of life stress, and intentions to engage in future career exploration.
Article
Indecisiveness is an often mentioned symptom of obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder, yet very little research has been done examining its nature and measurement. Three studies are presented here which examine the nature of compulsive indecisiveness using a newly developed scale. In study 1 the Indecisiveness Scale was correlated with measures of obsessionality and compulsive checking among normal Ss. It was also correlated with the maladaptive evaluative concern dimensions of perfectionism and with compulsive hoarding. In study 2 indecisive Ss (as measured by the Indecisiveness Scale) were found to score higher on measures of procrastination and general psychopathology. In addition, they reported problems in making decisions in a variety of life domains (social, academic, family and everyday). In study 3 Ss who scored high on the Indecisiveness Scale were found to have longer latencies on an experimental decision-making task. The implications of these findings for the nature of indecisiveness were discussed.
Two process tracing techniques, explicit information search and verbal protocols, were used to examine the information processing strategies subjects use in reaching a decision. Subjects indicated preferences among apartments. The number of alternatives available and number of dimensions of information available was varied across sets of apartments. When faced with a two alternative situation, the subjects employed search strategies consistent with a compensatory decision process. In contrast, when faced with a more complex (multialternative) decision task, the subjects employed decision strategies designed to eliminate some of the available alternatives as quickly as possible and on the basis of a limited amount of information search and evaluation. The results demonstrate that the information processing leading to choice will vary as a function of task complexity. An integration of research in decision behavior with the methodology and theory of more established areas of cognitive psychology, such as human problem solving, is advocated.
Article
A commonly held belief in economics is that an individual's preferences that are revealed by her choices must be complete. This paper takes issue with this position by showing that one may be able to distinguish between indifference and indecisiveness of an agent upon observing her choice behavior. We relax the standard Weak Axiom of Revealed Preferences (WARP) and show that a potent theory of individual choice (with and without risk) can be founded on this weaker axiom when it is coupled with some other standard postulates. The most notable features here are that an agent is allowed to be indifferent between certain alternatives and indecisive about others. Moreover, an outside observer can identify which of these actually occur upon examining the (observable) choice behavior of the decision maker. As an application, we also show how our theory may be able to cope with the classical preference reversal phenomenon.
Article
Indecisiveness has been argued to be associated with process characteristics of decision making, such as decision latency, required amount of information, and reluctance to decide. In this study, the possible effect of indecisiveness on the content of decisions was explored. Fifty female undergraduate students completed a scale measuring indecisiveness and subsequently evaluated various situation descriptions either as concerning or not concerning. Scores on the Indecisiveness Scale correlated with the number of ambiguous situations that were labeled as concerning. This association was maintained after controlling for anxiety, depression, worry-proneness, and intolerance of uncertainty. Apparently, indecisiveness fosters worst case scenario reasoning, in that indecisive individuals tend to interpret ambiguous situations more readily as threatening.
Article
Fifty-three subjects indicated desired information at a brands × attributes information display board and generated cognitive responses in a thought-listing task. Need for cognition was measured. High need for cognition (NC) subjects selected more information and generated more task-related cognitive responses than low NC subjects. The results suggest that high NC subjects expended more cognitive effort on information search than low NC subjects.
Article
The origins of zeteophobia, the anxiety associated with career decision making and exploration, may be in (1) the negative connotations of the term “undecided,” (2) the social pressure to make some decision—any decision, (3) the social pressure to choose prestigious occupations as goals whether or not the choice is well founded, and (4) the absence of legitimate mechanisms in our society to teach career decision-making skills. Correlational evidence among employed adults leaves in question whether career indecision is a cause or a result of job dissatisfaction. Being undecided might mean that one has adopted a profound philosophical perspective that desire itself is the source of human unhappiness. Open-mindedness can be viewed as a greater virtue than decisiveness.