ArticlePDF Available

Transformational leadership and shared values: The building blocks of trust

Authors:

Abstract

Interpersonal trust is central to sustaining team effectiveness. Whilst leaders play the primary role in establishing and developing trust, little research has examined the specific leadership practices which engender trust toward team leaders. This study investigated the relationship between a set of leadership practices (transformational, transactional, and consultative) and members's trust in their leader, in research and development (R&D) teams. Usable questionnaires were completed by 83 team members drawn from 33 R&D project teams. Three factors together predicted 67 per cent of the variance in team members's trust towards leaders, namely: Consulting team members when making decisions, communicating a collective vision, and sharing common values with the leader. Trust in the leader was also strongly associated with the leader's effectiveness. The implications of these findings for leadership development, team building and future research are discussed.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Transformational leadership and shared values: the building blocks of trust
Nicole A Gillespie; Leon Mann
Journal of Managerial Psychology; 2004; 19, 6; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 588
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... In der Literatur wird zwischen einer kognitiven und einer affektiven Ebene von Vertrauen unterschieden (McAllister, 1995 (Lau & Tan, 2006;Liu, Siu & Shi, 2010) und gibt den Mitarbeitenden das Gefühl, Gehör zu finden und Einfluss nehmen zu können (Gao, Janssen & Shi, 2011). Damit einher geht eine erhöhte Zufriedenheit sowohl mit dem Vorgesetzten (Gillespie & Mann, 2004) als auch mit der Arbeitstätigkeit (Dirks & Ferrin, 2002;Mulki, Jaramillo & Locander, 2006). Zudem stärkt ein hohes Maß an Vertrauen die Loyalität in die Führungskraft und die Bereitschaft, ihren Anweisungen und Wünschen zu folgen (Wong, Wong & Ngo, 2002). ...
... Grundsätzlich ist dabei festzuhalten, dass ein aktiver Führungsstil eine höhere Wahrscheinlichkeit hat, Vertrauen positiv zu beeinflussen. So genannte Laissez-Faire-Verhaltensmuster von Führungskräften, die ihre Führungsaufgaben zu vermeiden suchen, weisen dagegen keinen oder sogar einen negativen Zusammenhang mit Vertrauen auf(Gillespie & Mann, 2004).Bei den aktiven Führungsverhaltensweisen liegt der Fokus der bisherigen Forschung insbesondere auf drei Führungsstilen: transformationaler, transaktionaler und dienender Führung(Dirks & Ferrin, 2002;Nienaber et al., 2015).Bei transformationaler Führung handelt es sich um einen primär emotionsbasierten Führungsstil, der auf dem Einfluss von Vision, Inspiration und Charisma der Führungskraft beruht. Ziel dieses in den vergangenen 30 Jahren in der Forschung dominierenden Führungsstils ist es, die Bedürfnisse der Mitarbeitenden so zu transformieren, dass diese nicht nur nach der Befriedigung von Eigeninteressen streben, sondern auch ihre Bemühungen um einen Beitrag zum Erfolg ihres Teams und des Gesamtunternehmens intensivieren. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Vertrauen in die Führungskraft ist eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die Motivation und Leistung von Mitarbeitenden und damit auch für den Erfolg von Organisationen. Im Rahmen des Beitrags werden zentrale Befunde der organisationswissenschaftlichen Forschung zu Führung und Vertrauen resümiert und kritisch beleuchtet. Dabei zeigt sich, dass hohes Vertrauen in die Führungskraft die Zufriedenheit mit dem Vorgesetzten steigert, die Loyalität gegenüber der Führungskraft stärkt und insbesondere auch die Arbeitsleistung der Mitarbeitenden fördert. Die Entstehung von Vertrauen wird sowohl von den Führungskräften als auch von den Mitarbeitenden selbst beeinflusst. So spielen auf Seiten der Führungskräfte beispielsweise deren Integrität, Berechenbarkeit und Kompetenz eine Rolle. Gleichzeitig schafft ein aktiver und mitarbeiterorientierter Führungsstil Voraussetzungen für die Entstehung von Vertrauen. Auf Seiten der Mitarbeitenden zeigt sich beispielsweise, dass ihre Vertrauensneigung und Toleranz für Unsicherheit sowie ihre Bereitschaft, organisationalen Wandel mitzutragen, bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Bildung von Vertrauen ausüben. Der Beitrag schließt mit einem Ausblick auf Implikationen für Forschung und Praxis.
... In times of crisis, productivity matters, but people matter more than productivity. It is the job of leadership to determine the right focus of creating a culture of shared values in times of crisis (Gillespie and Mann, 2004). Companies focus on a shortcut (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose The business sector plays a major role in achieving comprehensive economic development goals in emerging economies. Consequently, the effects of business responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are receiving increasing research attention from an organizational management development perspective. This article aims to examine the role of leadership in charting the course in an extraordinary crisis context. Design/methodology/approach Using institutional leadership theory, leadership contingency theory and dynamic leadership capability theory, the authors present a research framework that defines macrochallenges and organizational level responses and outcomes. The article adopts a case study approach, which includes the identification of four target companies and conducting in-depth interviews with senior management professionals within those companies at different time periods. Findings Based on the interviews, the steps that Indian companies adopted to respond to the COVID-19 challenge are identified. Expanding the insight from the case study, the findings suggest that although feeling overwhelmed at first, organizational leaders combine prudent (i.e. timely and speedy actions for survival first) and bold (i.e. future envisioning for expansion and growth) actions enabling these firms to weather two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Originality/value These multiple case studies are unique in exploring MNEs from different industries. This study also highlights the dynamic relationships between leadership practices, risk management strategies and performance outcomes based on a sound theoretical model and rigorous study methods.
... Beyond its role in exchange relationships, trust and its manifestations have various main and moderating positive effects on individual, team, and organizational level outcomes (De Jong et al., 2016;Dirks and Ferrin, 2001;Ng and Feldman, 2013). Higher levels of trust among organizational members result in positive attitudes, increased levels of cooperation, acceptance of interdependence, information sharing, and communication (Gillespie and Mann, 2004). Organizations that foster interpersonal trust among their members experience significantly higher levels of employee engagement (Zak, 2017), reduced levels of conflict, and lower cost of control (Dirks and Ferrin, 2001). ...
Article
Building trusting, multicultural organizations require us to accentuate ‘sharedness’ rather than identifying differences. This study investigates how organizational members activate multiple sources of cultural values to develop trust with their colleagues from different cultural backgrounds. Through a series of surveys followed by semi-structured interviews, data were collected from members operating in five different multinational organizations based in Germany and South Africa. Analyzed abductively, our findings illustrate the multiple sources of cultural values that influence members' disposition to trust and their assessment of their colleague's trustworthiness. We further show how four levels of trust emerge as an outcome of the interplay between these various cultural dimensions. Through our multidimensional operationalization of culture, we show how variations, not only across, but within individuals can hinder or promote trusting relationships in the workplace. This study highlights the need for more nuanced approaches towards the examination of the influence of culture on trust.
... Hassan et al., (2012) emphasized a study on role of interpersonal trust in organizations and recommendedthat productivity and commitment can be increased in the organization as result of interpersonal trust between two group of employees. Gillespie and Mann (2004) have similar findings. ...
Research
Full-text available
Employee interpersonal trust is considered one of the vital driver of productivity, quality and satisfaction. Whereas, general role stress is inevitable and require to manage on time for betterment of the individual and organization. The present study initiated in Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University employees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The instruments used in the research. Interpersonal Trust Scale and General Role Stress Scale was used to collect the data. Both inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Revealed that role boundedness appeared as the most dominant factors of general role stress, nationality, openness, professional support and managerial competence revealed significant correlation with role boundedness, managerial competence one of the parameter of interpersonal trust showed inverse relationship with inter role distance. Further result showed that openness one of the facet of interpersonal trust revealed very low relationship with personal inadequacy, communication one the dimension of interpersonal trust has significant impact on general role stress, openness as one of the parameter of interpersonal trust has significant impact on personal inadequacy ,professional support played significant effect on role boundedness and personal inadequacy. Moreover, managerial competence one of the most dominant parameter of interpersonal trust has significant effect on general role stress as a whole and nationality emerged as the dominant predictor of self-role distance among university employees. The significance and implications of the study also discussed at length.
Article
Full-text available
In leadership research, Psychological Capital is considered an important construct and gained prominence. For both leadership development and job performance of employees’ psychological capital is considered as a vital factor. The present study investigated the impact of transformational leadership on job performance with the mediating role of psychological capital in the context of Quetta, Pakistan. The survey was conducted in public and private higher educational institutes of Quetta city. Respondents of the study comprised of teaching faculty and their heads of departments (HOD’s). 261 responses were collected, out of which 200 were teachers and 61 were HOD’s. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS. Results of the study showed that transformational leadership has a positive influence on job performance, in addition, psychological capital fully mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job performance. Thus, this was revealed that transformational leaders with positive attitudes enhance the psychological capacities of their subordinates and employees with higher psychological capital can do more through their positive work behavior to achieve organizational objectives
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper is to determine whether leadership affects strategic flexibility and business performance taking into consideration the mediating role of talent management in these relationships. Design/methodology/approach The proposed framework is tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and finally structural equation modeling (SEM), using the survey data from 462 Greek firms. The mediation effect of talent management was tested by the Sobel test. Findings The results show that leadership drives firms to strategic flexibility and business performance, but the introduction of talent management fully mediates these relationships. Strategic flexibility also affects business performance positively. Research limitations/implications This study explores a formal style of leadership; many leadership styles remain unexplored. The field of talent management is in urgent need of more empirical research to explain its importance and how talent management is handled in the 21st-century. Practical implications This study proves that managers should invest more in talent management; outstanding talent can be leveraged to implement the best operational practices while managers' motivation for talent management contributes to a deeper anchoring of strategic flexibility and performance efforts in firms. Originality/value The current state of knowledge of both theory and practice for critical organizational factors such as strategic flexibility and talent management will be extended.
Article
Full-text available
Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας είναι η διερεύνηση των απόψεων νεοεισερχόμενων εκπαιδευτικών σχετικά με τον συμβουλευτικό ρόλο του Διευθυντή της σχολικής μονάδας κατά τη διαδικασία της επαγγελματικής τους κοινωνικοποίησης, αναδεικνύοντας παράλληλα τα προβλήματα που ανακύπτουν και χρήζουν συμβουλευτικής υποστήριξης. Η έρευνα που διενεργήθηκε είναι ποσοτική και το εργαλείο συλλογής δεδομένων που αξιοποιήθηκε είναι το ηλεκτρονικό δομημένο ερωτηματολόγιο. Το δείγμα της έρευνας αποτέλεσαν 220 νεοεισερχόμενοι αναπληρωτές εκπαιδευτικοί πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης με προϋπηρεσία έως και 5 έτη. Οι συμμετέχοντες δηλώνουν ότι χρειάζονται συμβουλευτική υποστήριξη για να διαχειριστούν προβλήματα και στρεσογόνες καταστάσεις που ανακύπτουν στα πρώτα χρόνια της επαγγελματικής τους σταδιοδρομίας. Δηλώνουν επίσης, ότι ο Διευθυντής αποτελεί πρόσωπο αναφοράς γι’ αυτούς, διαμορφώνει ένα υποστηρικτικό πλαίσιο και συμπαραστέκεται στα προβλήματά τους, χωρίς ωστόσο να αναδεικνύει σε μεγάλο βαθμό τη συμβουλευτική διάσταση του ρόλου του.
Chapter
Full-text available
RESUMEN Las investigaciones de los últimos años confirman que los liderazgos basados en los valores morales traen resultados positivos para los líderes, sus seguidores y las organizaciones. Dentro de los estilos de liderazgo con un importante componente moral destacan dos: el liderazgo transformacional y el liderazgo ético. Aunque existe una amplia literatura acerca de los dos liderazgos, éstos se han investigado por separado y no existen investigaciones que comparen ambos estilos de liderazgo. Por ello el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar cuál de los dos estilos de liderazgo (transformacional y ético) es más eficaz. Esto se realiza vinculando los dos liderazgos con diferentes variables organizacionales: el compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador, el comportamiento organizacional ciudadano, el rendimiento individual del empleado y el rendimiento de equipo. Esta investigación tiene un carácter empírico y transversal, llevando a cabo una encuesta basada en cuestionarios. Se han obtenido 166 respuestas válidas. Los principales resultados de esta investigación son 2: en primer lugar que, a pesar de que ambos estilos de liderazgo están muy consolidados en la literatura como constructos diferenciados, a la hora de analizarlos en una misma investigación, las personas que responden al cuestionario no logran diferenciarlos. En segundo lugar, que el liderazgo basado en valores (transformacional + ético) afecta positiva y significativamente no solo la actitud (compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador) sino también el comportamiento individual y al rendimiento de equipo, creando beneficios en la organización. Palabras clave: liderazgo transformacional; liderazgo ético; compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador; comportamiento organizacional ciudadano (OCB); rendimiento individual; rendimiento de equipo.
Article
Purpose The main purpose of the study is to identify the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and impersonal trust. The study focuses on five HRM practices, namely training, fair reward and promotion opportunity, employment security and performance appraisal and impact of those on impersonal trust. Design/methodology/approach Data for the study have been collected from 384 front line service provider female employees of 39 private commercial banks through non-probability judgmental sampling technique and analyzed by applying structural equation modeling-partial least square (SEM-PLS) method. Findings The findings of the study reveals that all the five HRM practices, namely training, fair reward and promotion opportunity, employment security and performance appraisal, are positively and significantly related with impersonal trust. Originality/value Private commercial banks in Bangladesh are rapidly growing and facing huge competition to improve the competitive advantage of employees. Impersonal trust of employees is required for achieving competitive advantage. Due to the lack of research and scanty of knowledge in that field, the study offers a new avenue of existing knowledge to the stakeholders and researchers on how to develop impersonal trust with necessary recommendations.
Article
Full-text available
We tested several hypotheses derived from an extended version of Shamir, House, and Arthur's (1993) theory of charismatic leadership. We used three different samples of subordinates to assess leader behavior, individual-level correlates, and unit-level correlates, respectively. We also examined the effects of charismatic behaviors and unit-level correlates on superiors' assessments of leaders' performance. The findings provide only very partial support for the theory and indicate a need for greater sensitivity to the multiple constituencies of leaders in theories and studies of charismatic leadership in organizations.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the context of Kerr and Jermier’s (1978) substitutes for leadership. Data were collected from 1539 employees across a wide variety of different industries, organizational settings, and job levels. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis procedures generally showed that few of the substitutes variables moderated the effects of the transformational leader behaviors on followers’ attitudes, role perceptions, and “in-role” and “citizenship” behaviors in a manner consistent with the predictions of Howell, Dorfman and Kerr (1986). However, the results did show that: (a) the transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had unique effects on follower criterion variables; (b) the total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership and the transformational leader behaviors was substantially greater than that reported in prior leadership research; and (c) several of the transformational behaviors were significantly related to several of the substitutes for leadership variables. Implications of these findings for our understanding of the effects of transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership are then discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Charismatic leadership has been largely overlooked by organizational theorists. In part, the problem can be attributed to the lack of a systematic conceptual framework Drawing from political science, sociology, and social psychology, this paper addresses the problem by proposing a model linking organizational contexts to charismatic leadership. A series of research hypotheses is offered.
Article
Full-text available
The empirical literature on charismatic or transformational leadership demonstrates that such leadership has profound effects on followers. However, while several versions of charismatic leadership theory predict such effects, none of them explains the process by which these effects are achieved. In this paper we seek to advance leadership theory by addressing this fundamental problem. We offer a self-concept based motivational theory to explain the process by which charismatic leader behaviors cause profound transformational effects on followers. The theory presents the argument that charismatic leadership has its effects by strongly engaging followers' self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader. We derive from this theory testable propositions about (a) the behavior of charismatic leaders and their effects on followers, (b) the role of followers' values and orientations in the charismatic relationship, and (c) some of the organizational conditions that favor the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders.
Article
In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.
Article
This paper presents a model of trust and its interaction with information flow, influence, and control, and reports on an experiment based on the model to test several hypotheses about problem-solving effectiveness. The subjects were managers and the independent variable was the individual manager's initial level of trust. Groups of business executives were given identical factual information about a difficult manufacturing-marketing policy problem; half the groups were briefed to expect trusting behavior, the other half to expect untrusting behavior. There were highly significant differences in effectiveness between the high-trust groups and the low-trust groups in the clarification of goals, the reality of information exchanged, the scope of search for solutions, and the commitment of managers to implement solutions. The findings indicate that shared trust or lack of trust apparently are a significant determinant of managerial problem-solving effectiveness.
Article
This article examines the relationship between managerial trust and employee empowerment. Hypotheses derived from leader-member exchange (LMX) theory suggest that the quality of leader-member relations mediates the linkage between managerial trust and employee empowerment. Data from 128 manager-employee dyads from 13 organizations support this model. Whereas previous research has pointed to the influence of organizational and social structural variables on empowerment, this research shows the importance of manager-employee relationships on perceived empowerment. Implications for researchers and managers leading empowerment initiatives are discussed.
Article
This research presents a comprehensive model of relationships between transformational and transactional leadership, procedural and distributive justice, trust, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical model with two independent samples that were comprised of 192 and 155 matched leaders and subordinates. Several rival models were also tested. Finally, “stacked” modeling techniques showed that the parameter estimates developed from the two samples were invariant except for one additional relationship, which was significant in the second sample only. The results supported the indirect effect of transformational leadership on OCBs through procedural justice and trust. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.