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Available from: C-M Charlie Ma, Dec 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This work contributed the following new information to the study of inhomogeneity correction algorithm: (1) Evaluation of lung dose calculation methods as a function of lung relative electron density (rhoe,lung) and treatment geometry and (2) comparison of doses calculated using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) and adaptive convolution (AC) in lung using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with the EGSnrc-based code. The variations of rhoe,lung and geometry such as the position and dimension of the lung were studied with different photon beam energies and field sizes. Three groups of inhomogeneous lung phantoms, namely, "slab," "column," and "cube," with different positions, volumes, and shapes of lung in water as well as clinical computed tomography lung images were used. The rhoe,lung in each group of phantoms vary from 0.05 to 0.7. 6 and 18 MV photon beams with small (4 x 4 cm2) and medium (10 x 10 cm2) field sizes produced by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator were used. This study reveals that doses in the inhomogeneous lung calculated by the CCC match well with those by AC within +/- 1%, indicating that the AC, with an advantage of shorter computing times (three to four times shorter than CCC), is a good substitute for CCC. Comparing the CCC and AC to MC in general, significant dose deviations are found when the rhoe,lung is < or =0.3. The degree of deviation depends on the photon beam energy and field size and is relatively large when high-energy photon beams with small fields are used. For penumbra widths (20%-80%), the CCC and AC agree well with MC for the slab and cube phantoms with the lung volumes at the central beam axis (CAX). However, deviations (>2 mm) occur in the column phantoms, with two lung volumes separated by a unit density column along the CAX in the middle using the 18 MV beam with 4 x 4 cm2 field for rhoe,lung < or =0.1. This study provides new dosimetric data to evaluate the impact of the variations of rhoe,lung and geometry on dose calculations in inhomogeneous media using CCC and AC.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We study how mucosal dose in the oral or nasal cavity depends on the irradiated small segmental photon fields varying with beam energy, beam angle and mucosa thickness. Dose ratio (mucosal dose with bone underneath to dose at the same point without bone) reflecting the dose enhancement due to the bone backscatter was determined by Monte Carlo simulation (EGSnrc-based code), validated by measurements. Phase space files based on the 6 and 18 MV photon beams with small field size of 1 × 1 cm 2, produced by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator, were generated using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. Mucosa phantoms (mucosa thickness = 1, 2 and 3 mm) with and without a bone under the mucosa were irradiated by photon beams with gantry angles varying from 0 to 30°. Doses along the central beam axis in the mucosa and the dose ratio were calculated with different mucosa thicknesses. For the 6 MV photon beams, the dose at the mucosa-bone interface increased by 44.9-41.7%, when the mucosa thickness increased from 1 to 3 mm for the beam angle ranging from 0 to 30°. These values were lower than those (58.8-53.6%) for the 18 MV photon beams with the same beam angle range. For both the 6 and 18 MV photon beams, depth doses in the mucosa were found to increase with an increase of the beam angle. Moreover, the dose gradient in the mucosa was greater for the 18 MV photon beams compared to the 6 MV. For the dose ratio, it was found that the dose enhancement due to the bone backscatter increased with a decrease of mucosa thickness, and was more significant at both the air-mucosa and mucosa-bone interface. Mucosal dose with bone was investigated by Monte Carlo simulations with different experimental configurations, and was found vary with the beam energy, beam angle and mucosa thickness for a small segmental photon field. The dosimetric information in this study should be considered when searching for an optimized treatment strategy to minimize the mucosal complications in the head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice
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    ABSTRACT: In this work dosimetric parameters of two multi-leaf collimator (MLC) systems, namely the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta "Synergy S" linear accelerator and Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC), are compared using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Dosimetric parameters, such as percentage depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles, and penumbras for different depths and field sizes of the 6MV photon beams were measured using ionization chamber and a water tank. The collimator leakages were measured using radiographic films. MMLC and BM were modeled using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and above dosimetric parameters were calculated. The energy fluence spectra for the two MLCs were also determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. Dosimetric parameters of the two MLCs were similar, except for penumbras. Leaf-side and leaf-end 80-20% dose penumbras at 10cm depth for a 10×10cm(2) field size were 4.8 and 5.1mm for MMLC and 5.3mm and 6.3mm for BM, respectively. Both Radionics MMLC and Elekta BM can be used effectively based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, although the former showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Physica Medica
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