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The Influence of Anger Expressions on Outcomes in Organizations

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Abstract

Anger can lead to positive organizational outcomes. Anger is an important emotion in negotiations and organizations create situations that promote anger, yet little research has examined the conditions under which anger expressions can lead to positive outcomes in organizations. We analyzed 129 anger episodes across six organizations. In these episodes we link the form of anger expression, characteristics of the expresser, and the organizational norms surrounding anger expressions with the valence of individual, relationship, and organizational outcomes. We find that outcomes are better when anger expressions are of low intensity, expressed verbally rather than in a physical way, and expressed in settings where anger expressions are normatively appropriate. Compared to expressions of anger by men, expressions of anger by women are associated with less positive organizational outcomes.

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... For instance, articles examined how envy can lead to deception while negotiating (Moran & Schweitzer, 2008), how one's schemas about negotiators from other cultures can influence one's approach to a crosscultural negotiation (Adair, Taylor, & Tinsley, 2009), and why some people may avoid negotiating about certain topics altogether (Bear, 2011). Topics for the non-negotiation articles include the positive effects of anger within organizations (Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009), team conflict and innovation (Desivilya, Somech, & Lidgoster, 2010), and altruistic punishment (Lotz, Baumert, Schl€ osser, Gresser, & Fetchenhauer, 2011). ...
... The eight empirical articles in the most cited list employed a range of methodologies, including archival data (Taylor & Thomas, 2008), experiments (Bear, 2011;Moran & Schweitzer, 2008), quasi-experiments (Lotz et al., 2011), surveys (Adair et al., 2009;Crotty & Brett, 2012;Desivilya et al., 2010), and field interviews (Gibson et al., 2009). This variety of overall approaches was mirrored by a variety of settings and subjects. ...
... Crotty and Brett (2012) surveyed 246 employees who were members of 37 multicultural teams at 11 large, multinational firms to test whether fusion teamwork relates to higher team-level creativity. As a final example, Gibson and colleagues (Gibson et al., 2009) interviewed 49 employees in six organizations, which yielded 129 "anger episodes" to test their hypotheses about when expressions of anger might lead to positive outcomes. ...
Article
This retrospective offers an empirical analysis of NCMR author demographics, scholarly content, and article impact over the journal's first decade. Results highlight the journal's broad content and scope including distinct networks of knowledge communities focused on both conflict and negotiation and their subfields. Authors interpret existing network patterns and offer future direction as NCMR continues to evolve and grow within the changing landscape of negotiation and conflict management research.
... relationships. These benefits include airing of differences, initiating beneficial change, addressing injustice, improving working relationships, and facilitating movement toward individual and organizational goals (Geddes & Callister, 2007;Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009;Lindebaum & Geddes, 2016;Stickney & Geddes, 2014;Tamir & Ford, 2012;Van Kleef & Côt e, 2007). The dual threshold model (DTM; Geddes & Callister, 2007) helps demonstrate the potential for favorable and unfavorable consequences from anger at work. ...
... We determine whether or not the outcome of an anger episode is positive by the perceptions of the person who expressed the anger, as well as the target(s) of that anger-especially the degree to which they regard the anger as serving adaptive or beneficial purposes for the relationship, group, or organization (Geddes & Callister, 2007). Existing empirical work examining outcomes from anger expression finds that anger leads to positive outcomes about 40-60% of the time (Gibson et al., 2009;Kassinove, Sukhodolsky, Tsytsarev, & Solovyova, 1997). Research by Geddes and Stickney (2011;Stickney & Geddes, 2014 reports that those who expressed workplace anger to "relevant others" (either the cause of their angst or management) consistently saw problematic situations and working relationships improve. ...
... The answer to this question is, not surprisingly, complicated and multifaceted. Proposed factors include intensity of the anger feeling and expression (Frijda, Ortony, Sonnemans, & Clore, 1992;Gibson et al., 2009), the anger expression target (Geddes & Callister, 2007), gender of the interactants (Domagalski & Steelman, 2007;Sloan, 2012), the nature of the parties' relationship (e.g., communal or exchange-oriented; Clark & Taraban, 1991), organizational commitment (Stickney & Geddes, 2014), and, importantly, the status of the interactants (Fitness, 2000;Sloan, 2004). ...
Article
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Anger expressers and targets often experience anger as an unpleasant and potentially damaging emotion. However, emerging social functional perspectives on workplace anger suggest that anger expressions can promote valued dialogue, facilitating the airing of differences that can lead to improved working relationship and movement toward organizational goals and beneficial change. While supervisors typically express work-related anger with impunity, subordinate anger may be challenged and sanctioned more frequently. Hypotheses tested status (supervisor vs. subordinate) and role (expresser vs. target) effects on perceived outcomes. Findings indicate a significant main effect for status and significant interaction with role such that subordinates who are targets of supervisor anger, reported significantly more negative outcomes from anger expression than any other type of anger interaction. We also found that existing strong relationships between supervisors and subordinates contribute to outcomes that are more favorable following anger expressions at work. © 2017 International Association for Conflict Management and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Traditionally, research on anger, and even more so in the organizational context, focuses on the maladaptive consequences of anger and thus the negative aspect of anger [14]. Lately, we witness an increased interest in a social functional approach to anger-an approach that is still underrepresented in organizational research [15,16]. ...
... Under this perspective venting refreshes the anger event and escalates conflict rather than reinforcing conflict resolution [23]. In the context of organizational change, venting is likely to violate organizational norms for anger expression [16,24] and is appraised as dysfunctional change behavior. In this perspective, venting is expected to have a positive impact on deviant resistance to change. ...
... As hypothesized, those individuals who tend to vent their anger (based on our findings more likely men and workers), are more likely to (dysfunctionally) resist against the change. Within the context of most organizations, such a behavior will be interpreted as deviant from cultural norms [16,24] and as something one should eliminate. It is less likely that the organization will be able and willing to use the information value of this resistance to change. ...
Article
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Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.
... Research on gender and anger typically has shown that White women, but not White men, are perceived negatively when described as experiencing anger in the workplace (Lewis, 2000;Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Gibson et al., 2009). In their 2008 study, Brescoll and Uhlmann found that White women are perceived as less competent, are conferred lower status and salary, and are perceived as higher in dispositional emotionality than White men when angry at work. ...
... Unlike White men's anger, White women's anger is often believed by others to be an emotional response caused by women's stereotypically emotional dispositions, rather than believed to be an expression of anger caused by the situation (e.g., Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Barrett and Bliss-Moreau, 2009). In the workplace, in particular, White women, but not White men, have been evaluated unfavorably for experiencing anger (Lewis, 2000;Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Gibson et al., 2009). For instance, although expressing anger in the workplace can result in gaining status for White men, anger expression for White women can lead to decreased status (e.g., Ragins and Winkel, 2011). ...
... Our results did not support the well-established expectation that representations of women's anger would be evaluated unfavorably relative to White men's (Lewis, 2000;Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Gibson et al., 2009;Ragins and Winkel, 2011). Rather, we found that Black women and White women were judged as more appropriate and thus as more entitled to anger than White men when perceivers had strong beliefs that workplace opportunities are gendered or were high in news engagement during a time of widespread discussion of #MeToo. ...
Article
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Researchers investigating gender and anger have consistently found that White women, but not White men, are evaluated unfavorably when experiencing anger in the workplace. Our project originally aimed to extend findings on White women’s, Black women’s, and White men’s workplace anger by examining whether evaluations are exacerbated or buffered by invalidating or affirming comments from others. In stark contrast to previous research on gender stereotyping and anger evaluations, however, results across four studies (N = 1,095) showed that both Black and White women portrayed as experiencing anger in the workplace were evaluated more favorably than White men doing so. After Study 1’s initial failure to conceptually replicate, we investigated whether perceivers’ evaluations of women’s workplace anger could have been affected by the contemporaneous cultural event of #MeToo. Supporting this possibility, we found evaluations were moderated by news engagement and beliefs that workplace opportunities are gendered. Additionally, we found invalidating comments rarely affected evaluations of a protagonist yet affirming comments tended to favorably affect evaluations. Overall, findings suggest the need for psychologists to consider the temporary, or perhaps lasting, effects of cultural events on research outcomes.
... ith the receptivity of the message (Geddes & Callister, 2007; Parrott, 1993). Deamplified expressions of anger typically involve anger expressions of low intensity (e.g., frustration), display markers that are verbal rather than facial and physical, and are appropriate to the display norms of anger expression for that organizational context (e.g., Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). With regards to the differential use of emotion regulation strategies, Perrone and Vickers (2004) found three types of affective responses that employees invoked to strategically protect themselves in a hostile, bullying workplace: hiding emotions associated with the distress (suppression), emotional acting (faking), and deliberate expre ...
... These events can include job/organizational stressors (e.g., organizational change, work overload, interpersonal conflict) and interpersonal interactions (interpersonal communication, people work). Research demonstrated, for example, that both stressors and interpersonal interactions can result in the experience of anger (see Gibson & Callister, 2009). At this initial stage, the psychological experience of emotion will be at a basic valence level (i.e. ...
... It is important to acknowledge from the literature we have reviewed that there are other individual and contextual interactional factors that influence emotion generation, regulation and expression processes. Examples include neural physiology, adult attachment style, emotional expressivity, attributions, emotional dissonance, status, interactional expectations, supervisor support and cultural display rules (e.g., see Côté, 2005; Elfenbein, 2007; Gibson & Callister, 2009; Grandey, 2000; Van Winkle, 2000; John & Gross, 2007; Parrott, 2002; Wranik et al., 2007). We advise researchers to either control for factors such as these when empirically examining the framework or actively incorporate the influence of particular factors of interest into the dominant theoretical framework. ...
... Theoretical accounts assume that these negative consequences result from intense anger displays being seen as violating commonly acknowledged norms in work contexts, i.e., that they are triggered by cognitive mechanisms occurring in followers (Geddes & Callister, 2007). Indeed, empirical research has shown that intense anger displays are likely to provoke deviant reactions on the part of others and worsen workplace relationships (Geddes & Stickney, 2011;Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). ...
... Considering that anger is frequently perceived as aggression (Averill, 1982) and that anger displays are often used as an intimidation strategy by which leaders threaten their followers with negative consequences (Fitness, 2000), it seems plausible for followers to react with anxiety to leaders' anger displays. With higher-intensity anger displays suggesting that negative consequences are more likely to follow (Gibson et al., 2009), it also seems plausible to assume that the intensity of leaders' anger displays will positively affect the degree to which followers experience anxiety. ...
... With anger taking place in temporary episodes (Beal, Trougakos, Weiss, & Green, 2006), we decided to use an established critical incident procedure (Aquino, Tripp, & Bies, 2001 to elicit salient memories of leader anger. This approach is common in anger research (Averill, 1982;Gibson et al., 2009;Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor, 1987) and is characterized by high ecological validity (Zheng, Van Dijke, Leunissen, Giurge, & De Cremer, 2016). Hence, we asked employees to describe a situation in which their leader had recently displayed anger at work (these descriptions were later on used to qualitatively code leaders' anger intensity) and to report their affective and behavioral reactions to it. ...
Article
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Read this article online: http://rdcu.be/BJRl While previous research has assumed that intense leader anger displays result in negative consequences, researchers have recently started to outline their potential for prompting followers to improve their performance. We explain these conflicting positions by demonstrating that leaders’ anger intensity positively affects both deviance and work effort through triggering anger and anxiety in followers. We conducted two critical incident studies, replicating our results with different methodologies and controlling for potential alternative explanations. In line with theories on reciprocal emotions, supervisor-directed deviance became more likely with higher leader anger intensity because followers reacted with correspondingly more anger. However, in line with theories on complementary emotions, leaders’ anger intensity was also positively related to followers’ work effort due to followers’ anxiety. These results were replicated when taking leaders’ anger appropriateness into account as a potential moderator of the deviance-related path and when controlling for followers’ feelings of guilt (an alternative explanation for followers’ work effort). Our paper provides evidence that intense anger displays increase followers’ work effort but also cautions leaders to show these, as the work effort caused by them is based on followers’ intimidation and likely to be accompanied by deviant reactions. By considering the affective reactions triggered in followers, our paper integrates diverging theoretical perspectives on followers’ reactions to leaders’ anger intensity. Moreover, it is one of the first to disentangle the interpersonal effects that different expressions of the same emotion may have.
... Brescoll and Uhlmann (2008) found that expressions of anger reduced attributions of status to women regardless of their actual organizational status or rank. Gibson et al. (2009) also found that female displays of anger in organizations are less likely to result in positive outcomes compared to those of males. ...
... In this vein, the intensity of anger displays has been addressed by Geddes and Callister's (2007) Dual Threshold Model of Anger, discussed above. Extremely high-intensity anger displays, such as those that involve physical actions (e.g., slamming a door or pounding on a desk), are likely to cross the impropriety threshold in most contexts (Gibson et al., 2009). Such highintensity expressions of anger yield negative rather than positive outcomes, because they shift the focus from the reason for the anger to the person displaying it. ...
... Cheshin et al. (2012) found that patients and their escorts who displayed "loud" (i.e., high-intensity)-and thus inappropriate-anger were more likely than those who displayed "silent" (i.e., low-intensity) anger to be removed by security staff from a hospital emergency room. Gibson et al. (2009) evaluated anger episodes in six different organizations, and looked at outcomes for the displayer of anger, for the relationship between the displayer and the target, and for the organization. In all cases, the less intense (and therefore more appropriate) the display of anger was assessed to be, the more positive were the consequences across all three outcomes studied. ...
Article
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When it comes to evaluating emotions as either “good” or “bad,” everyday beliefs regarding emotions rely mostly on their hedonic features—does the emotion feel good to the person experiencing the emotion? However, emotions are not only felt inwardly; they are also displayed outwardly, and others’ responses to an emotional display can produce asymmetric outcomes (i.e., even emotions that feel good to the displayer can lead to negative outcomes for the displayer and others). Focusing on organizational settings, this manuscript reviews the literature on the outcomes of emotional expressions and argues that the evidence points to perceived (in)appropriateness of emotional displays as key to their consequences: emotional displays that are deemed inappropriate generate disadvantageous outcomes for the displayer, and at times also the organization. Drawing on relevant theoretical models [Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theory, the Dual Threshold Model of Anger, and Asymmetrical Outcomes of Emotions], the paper highlights three broad and interrelated reasons why emotion displays could be deemed unfitting and inappropriate: (1) characteristics of the displayer (e.g., status, gender); (2) characteristics of the display (e.g., intensity, mode); and (3) characteristics of the context (e.g., national or organizational culture, topic of interaction). The review focuses on three different emotions—anger, sadness, and happiness—which differ in their valence based on how they feel to the displayer, but can yield different interpersonal outcomes. In conclusion, the paper argues that inappropriateness must be judged separately from whether an emotional display is civil (i.e., polite and courteous) or uncivil (i.e., rude, discourteous, and offensive). Testable propositions are presented, as well as suggested future research directions.
... Theoretical accounts assume that these negative consequences result from intense anger displays being seen as violating commonly acknowledged norms in work contexts, i.e., that they are triggered by cognitive mechanisms occurring in followers (Geddes & Callister, 2007). Indeed, empirical research has shown that intense anger displays are likely to provoke deviant reactions on the part of others and worsen workplace relationships (Geddes & Stickney, 2011;Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). ...
... Considering that anger is frequently perceived as aggression (Averill, 1982) and that anger displays are often used as an intimidation strategy by which leaders threaten their followers with negative consequences (Fitness, 2000), it seems plausible for followers to react with anxiety to leaders' anger displays. With higher-intensity anger displays suggesting that negative consequences are more likely to follow (Gibson et al., 2009), it also seems plausible to assume that the intensity of leaders' anger displays will positively affect the degree to which followers experience anxiety. ...
... With anger taking place in temporary episodes (Beal, Trougakos, Weiss, & Green, 2006), we decided to use an established critical incident procedure (Aquino, Tripp, & Bies, 2001 to elicit salient memories of leader anger. This approach is common in anger research (Averill, 1982;Gibson et al., 2009;Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor, 1987) and is characterized by high ecological validity (Zheng, Van Dijke, Leunissen, Giurge, & De Cremer, 2016). Hence, we asked employees to describe a situation in which their leader had recently displayed anger at work (these descriptions were later on used to qualitatively code leaders' anger intensity) and to report their affective and behavioral reactions to it. ...
... A number of factors have been proposed to influence the consequences of anger in the workplace. Gender is one such factor; for example, Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, and Gray (2009) reported that anger expressions by women are received less favorably than equivalent expressions by men. Status may also influence how anger is received by others; according to Fitness (2000), supervisors are more likely than subordinates to think that anger incidents have been successfully resolved, while Van Kleef, De Dreu, Pietroni, and Manstead, (2006) demonstrated that negotiators only conceded more to angry opponents of a higher status than them. ...
... Another important factor that is likely to influence the effects of anger within organizations is the intensity of the anger expression. Studies by Gibson et al. (2009) and Glomb (2002) suggests that anger expressions of lower intensity are associated with more functional consequences whereas anger expressions of higher intensity are associated with more negative consequences, including lower job satisfaction and performance and higher stress. Geddes and Callister's (2007) dual threshold model explains these differences, suggesting that expressing anger at a relatively low intensity is functional as it motivates people to resolve the anger-provoking situation rather than allowing a problem or issue to continue. ...
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This review examines the nature, causes and consequences of momentary affect at work. It focuses on two major categories of affect: moods and discrete emotions. The review begins by explaining the nature of momentary affect and why it is important to study within-person fluctuations in affect. Following that it describes major theories and methods that facilitate research on momentary affect in the workplace, especially affective events theory and time-sampling methods. Next, the review examines the empirical evidence concerning the characteristics of the worker and the work environment that cause momentary mood, and the consequences of momentary mood for workers’ affective response, satisfaction, cognitive performance, behavior and relationships. It then reviews the evidence for the causes and consequences of discrete emotions, including anger and envy. Finally, the review identifies some questions that future research on momentary affect needs to address in the form of ten challenges.
... Esse sentimento pode se manifestar por comportamentos verbais, não verbais e reações motoras. O resultado da frequência com que a raiva foi encontrada é corroborado pela pesquisa de Gibson et al. (2009) que, além de verificar a alta frequência dessa emoção, constatou que, se utilizada em pequena intensidade, pode ter consequências positivas no contexto organizacional. A ideia de a raiva provocar resultados positivos é defendida também por Gross (1999), a partir do momento em que é concebida como adaptativa e funcional no contexto em que está inserida. ...
... A ideia de a raiva provocar resultados positivos é defendida também por Gross (1999), a partir do momento em que é concebida como adaptativa e funcional no contexto em que está inserida. Porém, para Gibson et al. (2009), a raiva, quando sentida em grande intensidade, pode ser contraproducente, sobretudo quando o indivíduo perde o foco do evento que desencadeou a emoção. ...
Article
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Emotions are characterized by a set of integrated responses that involve physiological and motor changes (that prepare the individual to act and feelings associated to internal experiences (allowing an situational evaluation). The emotional expressions are crucial to development and regulation of interpersonal relationships. Knowing how to deal with personal emotions and with others has become an important requirement in the relationships of the individual with the organization. Management of emotions has consequences in relationships among work pairs and in assistance to clients. Everyday work situations, organizational changes and clients and colleagues features involve emotions that need to be regulated. Emotional regulation can be defined as a controlled or automatic attempt in dealing with emotions showing how and why they will be felt and expressed. During the last years, public sector has been submitted to changes in its structure and dynamics that have required emotional management from public workers, demanding empirical studies aiming a better understanding of this reality. The quantitative study showed in this paper analyzed the relationships among emotions, emotional regulations strategies and sociodemographic variables of public workers in southern Brazil. Data were obtained using a questionnaire with examples of hypothetic everyday situations in the work. Participants were asked to choose emotional expressions associated to these situations and strategies of emotional regulation that could be used. The sample was formed by 400. Results indicated that in everyday negative situations the prevalent emotions were associated to anger and the less prevalent were associated to fear. The emotional regulation strategies used to deal with situations were those of deep action. The results also showed the differences in emotional regulation regarding gender, activity level in the public organization and work regimen.
... Similar to any other emotion, anger is experienced and displayed in varying degrees of intensity (Brehm 1999;Cheshin et al. 2018;Frijda et al. 1992;Gibson et al. 2009;Miron-Spektor and Rafaeli 2009). The intensity of the anger display may play an important role in employee perceptions of, and reactions to, customer anger (Adam and Brett 2018;Geddes and Callister 2007;Miron-Spektor and Rafaeli 2009). ...
... In particular, these findings expand our knowledge of anger perception and compensation tendencies following customer complaints about a perceived service failure. More generally, and building on burgeoning research on anger intensity (Adam and Brett 2018;Cheshin et al. 2018), our findings highlight the need to continue exploring the consequential influence of emotion at varying intensity on people's perceptions and behaviors in organizational settings (Barsade and Gibson 2007;Elfenbein 2007;Gelfand et al. 2007;Geddes and Callister 2007;Gibson et al. 2009;Miron-Spektor and Rafaeli 2009;Ybarra et al. 2013 at both macro (national culture) and micro (individual differences) levels, on compensation responses to customer anger. Extending prior work that explored the impact of PD on customer service expectations (Dash et al. 2009;Zhang, Beatty, and Walsh 2008) and customer satisfaction (Du et al. 2010;Krishna et al. 2011;Mattila and Patterson 2004;Morgeson et al. 2011;Schoefer and Diamantopoulos 2009;Wirtz and Mattila 2004;Zhang et al. 2008), our findings illustrate how PD shapes the cognitive and behavioral implications for service employees as recipients of expressed customer anger. ...
Article
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When customers express anger, do they gain greater returns, as suggested by the proverb “the squeaky wheel gets the grease”? If so, does the intensity of the squeak matter? In four studies we explore employee compensation responses to customers who express relatively high- versus low-intensity anger in service-failure settings. The studies demonstrate that the cultural value of power distance (PD) moderates the relationship between emotional intensity and customer compensation: high-PD service employees offer less compensation to customers expressing higher-intensity anger and low-PD service employees offer more to customers expressing higher-intensity anger. For high-PD service employees this relationship between emotional intensity and compensation is mediated by the perceived appropriateness of the anger expression; for low-PD employees it is mediated by perceived threat. However, when perceptions of threat are mitigated, low-PD service employees offer higher compensation to lower-intensity anger and this effect is mediated by perceptions of appropriateness. This research is the first to examine the effect of anger intensity in service-failure settings. For managers, the findings illuminate the importance of adopting a cultural lens when designing emotion management training programs and when setting practices for compensating angry customers.
... Another study used a survey to examine the effect of expressed anger on the resolution of workplace conflicts by measuring perceptions of positive change that occurred in workplaces following incidents in which a co-worker expressed anger about some aspect of the job or the performance of colleagues (Gibson et al. 2009). The study tested hypotheses such as: ...
... Thus the intensity of anger and the method in which it was expressed were predictive of its effectiveness in generating change. The individual's status in the organization did not affect whether his expression of anger would catalyze change (Gibson et al. 2009). ...
Article
One in five individuals in society has or will have a mental illness at some point in his or her lifetime. Conflict resolution theory, however, largely assumes that all individuals operate within the range of behaviors considered mentally healthy. Evidence suggests that professionals who deal with conflict, however, may have to deal with individuals who have mental health problems more frequently than would be the statistical norm. Clearly then, new theories of practice and norms of mediator behavior are needed to respond to the distinctive challenges presented by engaging with those who face mental health difficulty. This paper surveys the research on how people with mental health challenges approach and respond to conflict and provides practical advice to conflict resolution professionals on how to recognize and tailor their approach to meet the needs of these individuals.
... Lebel (2017) illustrates that anger strengthens the proactive reactions of employees by activating the intention to be constructive, the desire to act in advance and the determination to make a change and surpass challenges. Gibson et al. (2009), Stephens & Carmeli (2016, Stickney & Geddes (2016) and Lebel (2017) propose that experiencing anger can create a beneficial work environment that involves the appreciation of differences, encourages the achievement of goals and supports the desire to change. Frijda et al. (1989) propose that anger may intend to improve a situation by removing the source of obstacles. ...
... Lebel (2017) illustrates that anger strengthens the proactive reactions of employees by activating the intention to be constructive, the desire to act in advance and the determination to make a change and surpass challenges. Gibson et al. (2009), Stephens & Carmeli (2016, Stickney & Geddes (2016) and Lebel (2017) propose that experiencing anger can create a beneficial work environment that involves the appreciation of differences, encourages the achievement of goals and supports the desire to change. Frijda et al. (1989) propose that anger may intend to improve a situation by removing the source of obstacles. ...
Thesis
This research focuses on anger and sunk cost effects as sources of cognitive bias and also portfolio interactions in relation to the retention/termination decisions on projects. Departing from a traditionally narrow and quantitative perspective of traditional project appraisal, this study investigates a wider psychological view of investment project decisions within four project management groups. The thesis emphasises that the role of the specific emotion of anger is influenced by the past sunk cost of projects and the effects of a portfolio of projects across the whole firm. In the sense that project retention is perceived to be a positive outcome of anger, it has arguably been neglected in empirical entrepreneurship and strategic decision-making research, but this study claims that the retention and termination of projects may be analysed using psychological theories of emotions. A case study based on a Palestinian holding company, therefore, investigates the influence of anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations on project retention and termination. The holding company under study operates in an uncertain political context likely to be a rich laboratory eliciting high levels of anger, thus highlighting their role. This study conducts fifteen emotion assessment surveys using a STAXI-2 inventory and content and thematic analyses of fifteen interviews, adopting multi-levels of analysis, and claims to make contributions to the entrepreneurship, strategic decision-making and psychology literatures. The analysis reports that anger has an important emotional influence on decisions. It demonstrates three main findings, i.e. mostly positive associations between anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations and project retention. It also presents four subsidiary findings. Hope emerged as the second most important emotion and is claimed to be associated with project retention. Other emotions also co-exist with anger and may have influenced retention decisions, and findings reveal an association between corporate identity (i.e. a factor emerged from data) and project retention. Finally, in an atypical case, anger is found to encourage project termination.
... Organisational effects include counterproductive work behaviour (Spector, Fox & Domagalski 2006), a decline in work productivity (Fitness 2000), and, in the extreme case, workplace violence (Greenberg & Barling 1999, Dupre & Barling 2003. Others have found gender effects associated with anger (i.e., that the direct expression of anger by females, in contrast to men, is associated with less positive organizational outcomes) (Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister & Gray 2004). The literature on gender socialisation and gender stereotypes is unequivocal in its description of different emotion rules for males and females, particularly for anger (Brody 1997, Maccoby 1998, Brody 2000, Brody & Hall 2000. ...
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Regarding gender and performance there is an extensive bibliography which explicitly accepts that gender diversity does and does not have an impact on team performance. The empirical evidence shows both differences and similarities between male and female performance in companies. However, there has been little research into the potential impact that gender may have on the perception of performance. This study seeks to analyse the differences between men and women in the perception of performance when performance is measured using teamwork variables. The research is a comparative study in multinational companies in Spain and Peru which uses a questionnaire with thirteen teamwork items. The questionnaire presents different components in both samples, which suggest that the role that cultural differences have in the way that people perceive their work performance is significant. The main findings show non significant differences between men and women, which calls for an analysis of gender's real level of importance in implementing diversity awareness or diversity management programmes in companies.
... Expression of anger toward customers is considered unacceptable when deviating from the organizational norms of tolerable emotional displays (Geddes and Callister, 2007). Organizations usually consider even token displays of employees' anger toward customers, entirely unacceptable (Ashkanasy et al., 2002;Gibson et al., 2009;Kramer and Hess, 2002). ...
Article
Purpose Service employees are frequently exposed to moral dilemmas as a result of their boundary role, attending to the interests of both the organization and customers. The purpose of this paper is to explore organizational and personal values that generate moral dilemmas in the service context, as well as emotions related to employees’ moral decisions. Design/methodology/approach Using the critical incidents technique, data were collected from service providers about moral dilemmas in the workplace. The data were analyzed independently by each author, with an agreement rate of 84-88 percent. Findings The results show that service employees confront dilemmas as a result of conflicts between the following organizational and personal values: standardization vs personalization; profit vs integrity; and emotional display rules vs dignity. Moral decision making involves emotions generated by customer distress, negative emotions toward customers, and emotions of guilt, shame, or fear. Originality/value Little research has studied moral conflicts in service encounters from employees’ perspective. Using a qualitative approach, this study explores the role of personal values and moral emotions in such processes.
... Cronbach's alpha was .92. Observer anger intensity (felt) was assessed with an 11-point scale adopted in previous research (0 = I felt no anger at all, 1 = I felt Volume 9, Number 2, Pages 141-157 mild anger, and 10 = I felt extreme anger; Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). Respondent (observer) perception of the actor's anger typicality was assessed with the question: "How characteristic or typical of this individual was the fact that she/he was angry?" ...
Article
Employee anger can be suppressed or quieted so that angry individuals only vent frustrations to supportive colleagues, rather than approach those responsible or in an organizational position to help remedy the problematic situation. The Dual Threshold Model (Geddes & Callister,) argues that although these "muted anger" venting episodes may increase unfavorable organizational outcomes, they also may prompt participants or observers of these displays to engage in advocacy or surrogacy on behalf of an angry colleague. The research reported here empirically tests this proposition and reports that advocating on behalf of one's angry colleague can enhance individual relationships at work as well as organizational functioning. Findings also show that observer felt anger intensity is a primary motivator for prompting anger advocacy and, surprisingly, advocacy is less likely on behalf of close colleagues. © 2016 International Association for Conflict Management and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Being able to express anger through other channels appears to mitigate the need to punish unfair treatment, with individuals significantly less likely to punish when they are able to communicate their feelings to the offender (25). In addition, strategic use of the appearance of anger seems to have substantial influence on the behavior of others, increasing the other party's initial offers in ultimatum bargaining games and concessions in negotiations (26)(27)(28)(29). ...
Article
Significance Emotions play a critical role in social interactions and decision-making. We present evidence that individuals understand the behavioral effects of emotions, particularly anger, and use them strategically in interactions. In our study, individuals competed on a task, and one of them was given the opportunity to anger the other. The first task was strength-based, where we expected anger to improve performance. Other participants competed on a mental task in which we expected anger to impair performance—angering one’s opponent here may benefit the offender. Anger affected behavior in line with our predictions. Importantly, individuals seemed to anticipate this reaction and took the strategic opportunity to anger their counterpart significantly more in the mental task than in the strength task.
... [ Year 29,Issue No. 62 April 2015] 62 did not release anger and in many cases produced greater anger (Berkowitz et al., 1962;Bohart, 1980;Buss, 1966;Geen et al., 1975;Hornberger, 1959;Murray and Feshbach, 1978;Wheeler and Caggiula, 1966;Berkowitz, 1970;Geen and Quanty, 1977) Different types of negative consequences are also proved as follows: revenge (Bushman, 2002;Bushman et al., 1999), lower self-esteem and increased negativity (Litman and Lunsford, 2009), negative impressions of a negotiator (Van Beest et al., 2008), worse organizational, individual, and interpersonal outcomes when expression is intense (Gibson and Callister, 2010;Gibson et al., 2009). ...
... For instance, at the individual level, it may lead to elevated blood pressure, heart disease, and feelings of hostility. At the interpersonal level, it is linked to team conflict, interpersonal revenge, and blame (Gibson et al., 2009). Moreover, in some situations inappropriate AC can be considered rude (Robbins and Vandree, 2009). ...
... Anger is an active, high-energy emotion that signals assertiveness, status, and confidence (Lewis, 2000;Tiedens, 2001). However, expressions of anger can also imply that the angry person is emotionally unstable (Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009) and cold (Knutson, 1996). Importantly, previous research showed that how a display of anger is perceived by others strongly depends on the actor's gender. ...
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Three experimental studies with different participant pools examined the effects of displays of empathic anger – anger that is caused by witnessing or learning of harm done to another person – on perceptions of men and women in leadership positions. In contrast to prior work, which focused on expressions of anger regarding personal failure and found double standards that favour men, the results in this study show that displays of empathic anger were significantly more beneficial for female leaders. In particular, female leaders who expressed anger about a harm done to a subordinate were perceived as possessing more agentic and communal characteristics, and as being more effective in their position, than their male counterparts. Moreover, the results showed that this effect was driven by observers’ tendency to attribute empathic anger expressed by female compared with male leaders more strongly to internal reasons like the leader's personality. Consistent with these findings, the different perceptions of male and female leaders were no longer present when attributions for the displays of empathic anger were clearly internal. Practitioner points • To be effective leaders, female managers need to show qualities like determination and confidence, but unlike male leaders, they often find it difficult to do so without simultaneously been judged as lacking important attributes like warmth and kindness. • The results in this study suggest that female leaders can overcome this problem by expressing anger about a harm done to others, which causes observes to judge them even more positively than male leaders who engage in the same behaviour. • Overall, whereas female leaders should generally avoid expressing anger about a personal harm for which they are judged very negatively, they should not be reluctant to display anger about harm done to other members of organization when they have the opportunity to do so.
... Moreover, the tendency to retaliate when angry is mitigated by the perceived procedural justice of an organization (Aquino, Tripp, & Bies, 2001). Anger expressions are also more likely to be functional when anger is low in intensity, expressed verbally (as opposed to physically), and is done so in settings in which anger is considered appropriate (Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). ...
... Other times, this anger was projected onto another group or member, avoiding responsibility for one's feelings, or was displaced toward a less threatening target, such as the capacity-building facilitators. If anger was expressed openly, it could have proved helpful both for group goals and outcome, as Gibson et al. (2009) postulate. Confrontation was necessary for exploring possibilities and developing a vision to which actors could commit, but the primary condition for generative confrontation was, as Hovelynck et al. (2020) would claim, to maintain connection, both in a substantive and in a relational sense. ...
... Other times, this anger was projected onto another group or member, avoiding responsibility for one's feelings, or was displaced toward a less threatening target, such as the capacity-building facilitators. If anger was expressed openly, it could have proved helpful both for group goals and outcome, as Gibson et al. (2009) postulate. Confrontation was necessary for exploring possibilities and developing a vision to which actors could commit, but the primary condition for generative confrontation was, as Hovelynck et al. (2020) would claim, to maintain connection, both in a substantive and in a relational sense. ...
... In the same vein, gender dynamics might also influence voice effectiveness when prosocial emotions are involved; managers might be more or less receptive to voice expressions depending on whether employees are male or female. In particular, given that women who express anger are typically perceived more negatively than men who express anger (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008;Gibson et al., 2009), managers might be more receptive when women express empathic concern or guilt rather than empathic anger. However, we know of no research that has examined perceptions of empathic anger. ...
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Employees often notice issues as they go about their work, but they are more likely to remain silent than to voice about those issues. This means that organizations miss out on critical opportunities for improvement. We deepen understanding of why and when employees do speak up by theorizing about voice episodes that arise when organizational issues (e.g., policies, actions) cause others to suffer. We suggest that when employees feel prosocial emotions—empathic concern, empathic anger, and/or guilt—in response to another’s suffering, they are more likely to voice about the issues creating that suffering. Specifically, we propose that these other-oriented emotions make it more likely that employees will see an opportunity for voice, feel sufficiently motivated to voice, and assess the potential benefits of speaking up as greater than the possible costs. We also posit that three contextual factors—relationship to sufferer, relational scripts, and emotional culture—influence whether (and how intensely) employees experience prosocial emotions in response to suffering triggered by an organizational issue, and thus affect the likelihood of voice. By theorizing the mechanisms through which prosocial emotions animate a specific episode of voice, we provide a foundation for understanding how employees can be moved to speak up.
... In the studies that did not use such designs (22 studies), there were few attempts to measure behavior of the expresser. Studies measured observer reports of anger (Geddes & Stickney, 2011) or examined archival records of a dispute resolution process in which anger could be observed (Friedman et al., 2004) or described the detrimental effects of expressing anger (Gibson et al., 2009). We hasten to stress that this observation should not be considered a failing. ...
Article
Presenting programmed angry messages to a negotiator has increased concession rates in a series of recent experiments. But observing responses to a computer or confederate counterpart cannot yield insight into the perceptions, reactions, and negotiation outcomes experienced by those who actually deploy anger as a tactic. We report five studies examining the anger expression decision using a range of different methods. In the fully interactive two-person integrative negotiation in Study 1, expressed anger generally degraded trust while damaging implementation of deals. That ultimately diminished value actually claimed by anger expressers. In the discrete choice experiment of Study 2, sending angry messages proved costly for expressers, who registered very high levels of measured disutility from using this tactic. In Study 3, survey respondents reported widespread unwillingness to misrepresent anger during negotiation. Recalling a past negotiation, anger correlated negatively with experienced success, indicating that disutility from expressing anger generalizes widely across different contexts. Study 4 revealed that negotiators generally consider the tactic to be unethical. More than just specific beliefs about the lack of efficacy, Study 5 revealed that the source of tactical disutility lies in generalized discomfort with the misrepresentation of anger. Implications for research, practice, and training are considered.
... Although the above reasoning, and a great deal of existing research (e.g. Deffenbacher et al., 1996;Gibson et al., 2009;van Kleef & Côté, 2007;Wang et al., 2012) suggests that expressing anger and/or aggression generally leads to negative repercussions, it also highlights a subtle double standard regarding expectations and expressions of anger. That is, although low status groups are expected to be more frustrated and therefore angrier, they are also constrained from expressing said anger. ...
Thesis
This thesis proposes the existence of a ‘hunchback heuristic’ (HBH): a tendency to associate members of low status social groups with anger and related behaviours, and members of high status social groups with calmness. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the existence, boundary conditions, effects and interactions of this novel construct. Chapter 3 presents three experiments aimed at demonstrating the existence of the HBH, using both direct and indirect measures. The results of this series of experiments provide strong evidence of the expression of the HBH on both the explicit and implicit levels. The second experiment (Chapter 3, Study 1) further demonstrates that the HBH occurs at both inter-group and intra-group levels, and the third (Chapter 3, Study 2) highlights the cumulative effect of multiple co-occurring status hierarchies on the HBH's expression. Chapter 4 reports two experiments which explore the effect of social identity motives and system legitimacy on the HBH, using a novel minimal groups paradigm through which participants are assigned positions in a constructed status hierarchy. The findings of these two experiments (Chapter 4, Studies 1-2) show that social identity motives have only a limited effect on the HBH, which is further constrained by system legitimacy. Both experiments also demonstrate the independence of the HBH from other biases with clear evidence of its expression under minimal conditions. Chapter 5 describes a single cross-cultural experiment (Chapter 5, Study 1) which examines the possibilities of a) a cultural component to the HBH and b) frustration playing a role in mediating its activation and expression. The results of this study indicate that the HBH is not affected by cultural differences, and also showcases preliminary evidence that frustration may mediate the relationship(s) between status, anger, and calmness in the HBH. The overall findings of this thesis point to a real and robust HBH effect, such that low status social groups are consistently associated with anger, and high status social groups with calmness, on both explicit and implicit levels of association. The HBH holds true across intergroup and intragroup status hierarchies, as well as across cultures; however, it appears constrained by system legitimacy, following Spears et al.’s (2001) social reality constraint model. The findings also indicate that the HBH may be mediated by frustration.
... Another work we found in negotiation literature is a study by Brown and Curhan (2013) which considers the polarizing impact of arousal, in general, on negotiation outcomes. A related work is an interview-based study across organizations, confirming a hypothesis that high intensity anger expressions will lead to less positively perceived outcomes as compared to low intensity anger expressions (Gibson et al. 2009). ...
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The role of emotion, particularly anger, has been explored as a valence in management and negotiation literatures. Studies on the impact of the strength of such emotions, however, are just beginning to emerge, even though this has been identified in recent literature as an important topic for investigation. In this article, we fill this gap by investigating the behavior of angry negotiators under varying levels of anger. We conduct a multi-round distributive electronic negotiation, with both quantitative outcome and subjective value. We discuss the implications of our findings for electronic negotiation. Our work contributes to negotiation literature by extending our understanding of the impact of a less explored aspect of anger on electronic negotiations.
... Another aspect that has been largely overlooked so far is the intensity of emotional expressions. It seems intuitively plausible that emotional expressions have different effects depending on the intensity of the expression (Gibson et al., 2009), but it is currently unknown exactly how intensity moderates the effects of emotional expressions. There might be a linear relationship between the intensity of emotional expressions and the magnitude of their effects. ...
... At high levels of intensity, unpleasant displays by leaders may cross the second threshold, where their behavior may be seen as inappropriate or as displaying too extreme a reaction to the underlying problem (Geddes & Callister, 2007). When this occurs, the unpleasant affective display can divert attention away from a problem and its resolution and instead direct attention toward the individual displaying the emotion (Friedman et al., 2004;Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009). As a result, team members observing leaders' highly intense unpleasant affective displays (relative to observing moderately intense ones) will be less likely to interpret the affective display as a signal warranting improvement. ...
Article
Research has documented conflicting evidence about the relationship between a leader's unpleasant affective displays and team performance. Drawing on the dual threshold model of anger, we propose a novel explanation for this paradox such that the positive relationship between leaders' unpleasant affect and team performance turns negative at high levels of intensity. We examined our hypothesis in a multilevel field study of 304 halftime locker room speeches involving 23 high school and college basketball teams and a follow-up experiment. Our results show support for the prediction and suggest that the curvilinear effect of leaders' unpleasant affective displays may be explained by team members' redirection of attention and approach, which is positively associated with team members' effort at moderate levels of leader unpleasantness but leads to lower effort at high and low levels of leader unpleasantness. We discuss the theoretical contributions for scholarship on leadership, emotions as social information theory, and practical implications of the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Furthermore, because the expression of anger is generally unwelcome in organizational contexts (Gibson, Schweitzer, Callister, & Gray, 2009), an ethical champion who risks displaying anger even signals more strongly the ethical nature of the issue. Thus, compared with sympathy, anger brings more attention to the ethical concerns, raising ethical awareness and driving changes to address the situation (de Vos, van Zomeren, Gordijn, & Postmes, 2013;Fischer & Roseman, 2007;Geddes, Callister, & Gibson, 2018;Hutcherson & Gross, 2011). ...
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Research has offered a pessimistic (although limited) view regarding the effectiveness of ethical champions in teams and the social consequences they are likely to experience. To challenge this view, we conducted two multimethod (quantitative/qualitative) experimental studies in the context of entrepreneurial team decision-making to examine whether and how an ethical champion can shape team decision ethicality and whether ethical champions experience interpersonal costs. In Study 1, we found that confederate ethical champions influenced team decisions to be more ethical by increasing team ethical awareness. Focusing on the emotional expressions of ethical champions, we found that sympathetic and angry ethical champions both increased team decision ethicality but that angry ethical champions were more disliked. Analysis of team interaction videos further revealed moral disengagement in team discussions and the emergence of nonconfederate ethical champions who used business frames to argue for the ethical decision. Those emergent phenomena shifted our focus, in Study 2, to how ethical champions framed the issues and the mediating processes involved. We found that ethical champions using ethical frames not only increased team ethical awareness but also consequently reduced team moral disengagement, resulting in more ethical team decisions. Ethical champions using business frames also improved team decision ethicality, but by increasing the perceived business utility of the ethical decision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Can anger expressions be functional in the context of ongoing relationships at work – and if so, how and when? Drawing on insights from the dual threshold model and on the emotions-as-social-information theory, we develop and test the theoretical proposition that the strategic expression of both anger and positive emotions in the context of ongoing relationships at work yields benefits for individuals. Across four field studies and using multi-wave and multi-source data, we found that, when paired with the strategic expression of positive emotions, strategically expressing anger enhanced both peer- and self-perceptions of cooperation, which in turn contributed to ratings of work effectiveness. The results highlight the importance of studying patterns of strategic emotional expression involving more than one emotion and advance current knowledge of how, when, and why it is beneficial to express anger at work. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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When does expressing anger in negotiations lead to concessions? Although research has begun to address this question, it has not yet examined the influence of the negotiation context. We propose that the effect of expressing anger depends on the competitiveness of the negotiation situation. Specifically, when the negotiation situation balances cooperative and competitive elements, expressing anger elicits larger concessions than no anger, and responses are driven by cooperation-inducing strategic inferences (e.g., a perception that the anger expresser is tough and threatening). However, when the negotiation context is predominantly cooperative or predominantly competitive, expressing anger does not elicit larger concessions than no anger, and responses are driven by cooperation-inhibiting affective reactions (e.g., reciprocal anger and a desire to retaliate against the anger expresser). Results from two computer-mediated negotiation experiments using different negotiation scenarios, different manipulations of the competitiveness of the situation, and different subject populations supported our hypotheses.
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In this study, we conducted a study based on the possibility that expressing anger in organization could lead to positive effects as well as negative effects, and compared when expressing anger and receiving other’s anger. This study is divided into Study 1 and Study 2. and the purpose of Study 1 was to construct questionnires on the ways of anger expression and the effects of anger expression in organizational settings. As a result, the ways of anger expression were divided into linguistic anger expression and behavioral anger expression. The effect of anger expression was divided into a positive level and a negative level. The purpose of Study 2 was to examine the relation between the ways of anger expression and the effects of anger expression and the moderating effect of self-consciousness through the items constructed in Study 1. Results of analysis of the data from 271 organizational members are as follows. First, expressing anger was positively related to both positive and negative effects of anger expression, and receiving anger was positively related to the negative effects of anger expression. Second, Self-consciousness significantly moderated the relationship between the receiving anger and the effect of anger expression. Second, Self-consciousness had a moderating effect on receiving anger on the effect of anger expression. Specifically, the moderating effect of private-public self consciousness was statistically significant in the effects of receiving anger on the positive effect of anger expression.
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There is general consensus among conflict scholars that cognitive conflict's impact within the organization is functional, whereas affective conflict's impact is dysfunctional. Inconsistent findings in the literature suggest that additional factors impact these relationships. In this study, we integrate theories of conflict, affect, and attribution within the domain of decision‐making to gain a greater understanding of how and why organizational conflicts are at times positive, negative, or neutral. Specifically, we posit that the conclusions individuals reach as a result of their attributions, and their subsequent emotions and behavioral responses, play a significant role in determining conflict's effects. We apply theories of team‐level emotional convergence to propose how the individual emotional responses of team members may converge into a collective emotional response at the team level. Finally, we propose that the team‐level emotional responses initiated by the attribution process are significant moderators of the relationship between conflict type and decision outcomes.
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Research has documented the important influence of anger expressions on negotiation processes and outcomes. Surprisingly, however, it remains an open question if this influence depends on a core characteristic of anger displays—the intensity with which anger is expressed. Results from two negotiation studies (N = 396) using different operationalizations of anger intensity, different negotiation procedures, and different subject populations demonstrated a curvilinear relationship between the intensity of the anger expression and the negotiation counterpart's concessions. In particular, moderate-intensity anger led to larger concessions than no anger because the anger expresser was perceived as tough, and high-intensity anger led to smaller concessions than moderate-intensity anger because the anger expression was perceived as inappropriate. Furthermore, expressing anger, and, in particular, high-intensity anger, reduced anger perceivers' subjective value outcomes in the form of negative feelings about the relationship. Theoretical contributions to research on anger, emotion, and negotiation are discussed.
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This article introduces the concept of adverse leadership. Adverse leadership arises when followers (1) perceive their leader to violate leadership prototypes or to concur with antiprototypes, and (2) attribute this violation to internal stable conditions within the leader (i.e., actor-observer bias), even though (3) the leader had no intention to cause harm. Adverse leadership goes above and beyond earlier leadership concepts because it focuses on (a) the role of followers’ implicit leadership theories and attributions in negative leadership, and on (b) leader behavior that is not intended to be harmful by the leader; it is conceptualized on (c) multiple levels of analysis, and posited to have (d) differential negative and positive effects on outcomes in organizations. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recognition of the role played by emotions in negotiation is growing. This article synthesizes current research around four broad themes: moves and exchanges, information processing, social interaction, and context. The authors' review reveals that much of the research on this topic has focused on two key emotions, anger and happiness. More recently, negotiators have turned to other emotions such as guilt and disappointment, demonstrating that not all negative emotions have the same consequences, or activate the same regions of the brain. Focusing on social interaction, the authors note that negotiators may influence each others' emotions: whether negotiators converge to anger or happiness has different consequences for agreement. Researchers have broadened their examination of emotion by considering how external factors such as power, the number of negotiators, culture, and gender influence the impact of emotional expression. The authors also consider the function and impact of expressing authentic emotions, or choosing to use emotions strategically to gain an advantage — an issue that raises important ethical questions for negotiators. The article concludes with some practical implications of the research.
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In two studies, we examine the relationship of positive and negative trait affectivity (PA/NA), organizational commitment, and emotional exhaustion with organizational member anger. Utilizing the dual threshold model (DTM) constructs of expressed and suppressed anger (Geddes & Callister, 2007), we find employees with high organizational commitment express anger to relevant others, that is, to management or to those responsible for the anger-provoking situation. In contrast, emotionally exhausted employees and those with high NA tend to suppress their anger, venting only to uninvolved parties or remaining silent. Findings also indicate a positive relationship with PA and anger expression—a connection rarely considered or examined in anger research. Further, expressed anger was predictive of perceived improvement with problematic situations, while suppressed anger forms led to perceptions that the situation at work deteriorated.
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Excessive anger at work has a negative impact on the worker expressing anger and on those around them. The aim of our study is to identify anger triggers, reactions, and strategies for workers referred to an anger management intervention program. We interviewed 20 participants prior to the start of that program. Main causes of anger reported were unfair treatment, workplace incompetence, disregard by others, and concern for the bottom line. Anger reactions were aggressive acts and anger suppression. The two main strategies reported for dealing with anger were "no identifiable strategy" and distancing. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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This article reviews the literature on the emotion of anger in the negotiation context. I discuss the known antecedents of anger in negotiation, as well as its positive and negative inter- and intrapersonal effects. I pay particular attention to the apparent disagreements within the literature concerning the benefits and drawbacks of using anger to gain advantage in negotiations and employ Attribution Theory as a unifying mechanism to help explain these diverse findings. I call attention to the weaknesses evident in current research questions and methodologies and end with suggestions for future research in this important area.
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Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) are individualized employment arrangements negotiated between organizations and particular employees (“i-dealers”). Most prior research has focused on the two parties to the i-deal, but in the current work, we focus on the co-workers of i-dealers who are often affected by the i-deals of others in ways that have additional and sometimes unexpected implications for organizations. We present a theoretically grounded framework that integrates cognitive, affective, and contextual processes to better understand when and why co-workers develop positive, neutral, or negative reactions to such arrangements. We predict that a range of reactions can occur, and may vary in valence (positive, neutral, or no reaction, or negative), degree of activation (active or passive), and target of the reaction (the organization, the i-dealer, or self). The nature of the reaction mirrors the emotions of the co-worker in response to self- and other-oriented cognitive appraisals of the i-deal by the co-worker. The nature of the reaction is also shaped by the consistency of the i-deal with the organization’s norms for differential treatment of employees. In the concluding section, we discuss future extensions and research implications of our model, and a number of potential managerial considerations that derive from our theorizing.
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Three studies examined the relationship between psychological entitlement and anger in the context of bad luck. Anger is often described as an emotion that arises when a person experiences a negative outcome for which someone else was responsible. Simple bad luck, without an intentional agent clearly responsible for one's misfortune, should therefore not usually engender anger. However, we predicted that individuals higher in psychological entitlement, with their high expectations for personal outcomes and tendency to moralize them, would be more likely to experience anger after bad luck as compared to individuals lower in psychological entitlement. We found that psychological entitlement was, indeed, positively correlated with anger after bad luck, and with perceptions of injustice (Study 1). The relationship between entitlement and anger was specific to personally-experienced bad luck; entitlement was not correlated with anger when people recalled an unfair event (Study 2), or when they imagined that bad luck happened to someone else (Study 3).
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Across six studies, we find that both incidental anger and integral anger reduce perspective-taking. In Study 1, participants who felt incidental anger were less likely to take others’ perspectives than those who felt neutral emotion. In Study 2, we demonstrate that arousal mediates the relationship between anger and diminished perspective-taking. In Studies 3 and 4, we show that anger reduces perspective-taking compared to neutral emotion, sadness, and disgust. In Study 5, we find that integral anger impairs perspective-taking compared to neutral emotion. In Study 6, prompting individuals to correctly attribute their feelings of incidental anger moderates the relationship between anger and perspective-taking. Taken together, across different anger inductions and perspective taking measures, we identify a robust relationship between anger and diminished perspective-taking. Our findings have particularly important implications for conflict, which is often characterized by feelings of anger and exacerbated by poor perspective-taking.
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Trial advocacy education often stresses the importance of attorneys expressing arguments with emotion to signal conviction. Yet, female attorneys must approach this advice with caution given potential backlash for expressing emotions traditionally considered masculine, like anger. Two experiments (Study 1, N = 220; Study 2, N = 273) demonstrated that people most likely to endorse traditional gender roles exhibited bias against female attorneys expressing anger in court. Participants were recruited nationally and randomly assigned to view an attorney delivering a closing statement in court who either (1) was a man or a woman, and (2) used a neutral or angry tone. They reported how hirable and effective they perceived the attorneys to be and completed measures of several individual difference factors that are established predictors of endorsement of traditional gender roles: ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, and age. Participants who were more likely to hold traditional gender values (i.e., more benevolently sexist, more politically conservative, and older) were more likely to favor attorneys who conformed to gender norms (i.e., male attorneys who expressed anger relative to no anger) and less likely to favor attorneys who violated gender norms (i.e., female attorneys who expressed anger relative to no anger). Thus, female attorneys are faced with the challenge of walking the line between exhibiting traditionally masculine behaviors that are valued by the legal system—but not so much so that they suffer backlash for violating gender norms.
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A substantial literature asserts that anger expressions boost status. Across seven studies (N = 4027), we demonstrate that this assertion is often wrong. Rather than boosting status, many anger expressions predictably diminish status. We find that the intensity of expressed anger profoundly influences social perceptions and status conferral. Compared to mildly or moderately angry individuals, extremely angry people are perceived to be less competent and warm, and are thus accorded less status. We also contrast expressions of anger with expressions of sadness across different levels of intensity. At low levels of intensity anger expressions boost status conferral compared to sadness expressions and a neutral control condition, but at high levels of intensity anger expressions harm status conferral compared to sadness expressions and a neutral control condition. Taken together, our findings reveal that the relationship between expressed emotion and status is far more nuanced than prior work has assumed, and that the magnitude of an emotion can substantively moderate its effects.
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Although sociologists have long been interested in the stratification of emotions, the occupational stratification of anger has been investigated in only a few general population studies. Through analyses of data representative of workers in Toronto we evaluate the hypothesis that workplace hierarchical position, defined by supervisory level, has an inverted u-shaped association with the frequency of anger about work. We also evaluate the more specific hypothesis that the difference in work-related anger between front-line supervisors and non-supervisory workers will be larger among workers in the commodified services sector than other sectors. Results are generally consistent with our hypotheses. We find that both front-line supervisors in the commodified services sector, and secondary supervisors in all employment sectors, report more frequent anger about work than do non-supervisory workers. In contrast, higher-level supervisors report anger about work at about the same frequency as non-supervisory workers. These associations are only slightly reduced by controls for work stress and stressors. We discuss how supervisory relations might explain differences in anger about work among workers at different levels in organizational hierarchies. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cars.12152/abstract;jsessionid=633C3B98A587991F9E95E279EC3B2D6E.f02t01
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Expressing distress at work can have negative consequences for employees: observers perceive employees who express distress as less competent than employees who do not. Across five experiments, we explore how reframing a socially inappropriate emotional expression (distress) by publicly attributing it to an appropriate source (passion) can shape perceptions of, and decisions about, the person who expressed emotion. In Studies 1a-c, participants viewed individuals who reframed distress as passion as more competent than those who attributed distress to emotionality or made no attribution. In Studies 2a-b, reframing emotion as passion shifted interpersonal decision-making: participants were more likely to hire job candidates and choose collaborators who reframed their distress as passion compared to those who did not. Expresser gender did not moderate these effects. Results suggest that in cases when distress expressions cannot or should not be suppressed, reframing distress as passion can improve observers’ impressions of the expresser.
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The notion of “corporate culture” has received widespread attention in the past several years. But what is meant by the term and why should managers be concerned with it? Culture can be thought of as a mechanism for social control. As such, culture is important for both the implementation of strategy and as a mechanism for generating commitment among organizational members. Based on a comparison of strong culture organizations, ranging from cults and religious organizations to strong culture firms, this article argues that culture and commitment result from: systems of participation that rely on processes of incremental commitment; management as symbolic action that helps employees interpret their reasons for working; strong and consistent cues from fellow workers that focus attention and shape attitudes and behavior; and comprehensive reward systems that use recognition and approval. These techniques characterize “strong culture” organizations. © 1989, The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
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A model of workplace anger was developed and tested based on Affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Two discrete workplace events, interpersonal incivility and unjust treatment, were predicted to trigger the experience of employee anger which was predicted to subsequently lead to the expression of anger which may be manifested outwardly, suppressed, or controlled. The expression of anger in the presence of different workplace constituencies (supervisor, coworkers, and subordinates) was also examined in the model Employees' dispositional tendency toward anger (trait anger) was examined as a moderator of these relationships and also, as having a direct effect on the outward expression of anger. Support was found for the conceptual linkages among work events, affective reactions and affective expressions as postulated by our model, as was partial support for trait anger having direct and moderating effects on employee anger.
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While many women receive equal education, such equality is nowhere in sight when it comes to women’s and men’s career success: men still earn significantly more than women and are more likely to be promoted. In this book, the authors offer a state of the art review of applied social-psychological research on gender at work, shedding light on all the different ways that work-related perceptions, attributions, outcomes, and the like differ for women and men. Focusing on domains (e.g., engineering) and positions (e.g., leadership) that are marked by women’s underrepresentation, the first part of the book looks at gender at work in terms of stereotypes, attitudes, and social roles, including parenthood, while the second part takes a social identity and communication perspective, exploring the situations in which men and women interact at work. Many chapters focus on applied questions, such as career choice, effects of role models, and sexual harassment at work. Theories and findings are applied to these topics, with conclusions and recommendations drawn throughout the book.
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This cross-level study of 149 employees from 25 groups demonstrates the impact of group social context on individual interpersonal aggression. Extending the work of Robinson and O'Leary-Kelly (1998), results suggest that both being the target of aggression and the mean level of aggression in a work group (absent the target individual) are predictors of employees' reports of engaging in aggression. Effects persisted when individual differences related to aggression, demographics, and situational variables were controlled. Results suggest individual, reciprocal, and group influences.
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Contrary to the impression generated by an increasing number of news reports in the past several years, the occurrence of workplace violencemextreme acts of aggression involving direct physical assault represents a relatively rare event in work settings. However, workplace aggression--efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work or have worked---are much more prevalent and may prove extremely damaging to individuals and organizations. This paper presents empirical evidence on the varied forms of workplace aggression and their relative frequency of occurrence in work settings. We offer a theoretical framework for understanding this phenomenon---one based on contemporary theories of human aggression----and demonstrate how principles associated with this framework may be applied to the management and prevention of all forms of aggression in workplaces.
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The practical implications that have been drawn from this analysis of anger in mergers and acquisitions negotiations are just a few of the many that could be identified and further developed from future research. Future studies of conflict behavior can profitably go beyond the narrow focus on anger used here to consider other emotions and related states, such as fear, resentment, gratitude, guilt, or stress. Scholars and negotiators should be mindful not to ignore emotional factors in negotiation simply because emotions and their causes are complex. As I pointed out earlier, emotions are an integral part of the way human beings approach many conflict situations. Those of us who are interested in resolving disputes can only benefit by gaining a better understanding of emotions, the factors that trigger them, and their consequences.
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