ArticlePDF Available

Anti-Obesity and Hypotriglyceridemic Properties of Coffee Bean Extract in SD Rats



Coffee bean extract (CBE) was prepared from raw green coffee beans and contained 10.0% caffeine and 27.0% chlorogenic acid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 1% CBE for 4 weeks. Although there was no difference in food intake between rats fed the control diet without CBE and those fed the CBE-containing diet, body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased in CBE-fed rats than in control rats. The CBE-fed group exerted a significant and extreme reduction in serum and liver triglyceride concentrations compared to the control group. Also, in the CBE-fed group, activities of fatty acid synthetic enzymes in the hepatic cytosol were significantly decreased, while that of fatty acid oxidative enzymes in the hepatic mitochondria was significantly increased. Our results suggest that CBE has potent anti-obesity and hypotriglyceridemic properties, and there is a possibility that these effects are exerted at least in part by the suppression of lipogenesis and the acceleration of lipolysis.
Food Sci. Technol. Res., 15 (2), 147 152, 2009
Anti-Obesity and Hypotriglyceridemic Properties of Coffee Bean Extract in SD Rats
Kazunari TaNaka1*, Shoko NishizoNo1,2, Shizuka TaMaru1, Mihoko koNdo1, Hiroshi shiModa3, Junji TaNaka3 and
Tadashi okada3
1 Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, 1-1-1 Manabino, Nagayo-cho, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki
851-2195, Japan
2 Cooperative Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen, Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-2191, Japan
3 Research & Development Division, Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co., Ltd., 1 Numata Kitagata-cho, Ichinomiya-shi, Aichi 493-8001,
Received September 22, 2008; Accepted December 2, 2008
Coffee bean extract (CBE) was prepared from raw green coffee beans and contained 10.0% caffeine
and 27.0% chlorogenic acid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 1% CBE for 4 weeks.
Although there was no difference in food intake between rats fed the control diet without CBE and those
fed the CBE-containing diet, body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight were significantly de-
creased in CBE-fed rats than in control rats. The CBE-fed group exerted a signicant and extreme reduc-
tion in serum and liver triglyceride concentrations compared to the control group. Also, in the CBE-fed
group, activities of fatty acid synthetic enzymes in the hepatic cytosol were signicantly decreased, while
that of fatty acid oxidative enzymes in the hepatic mitochondria was signicantly increased. Our results
suggest that CBE has potent anti-obesity and hypotriglyceridemic properties, and there is a possibility
that these effects are exerted at least in part by the suppression of lipogenesis and the acceleration of li-
Keywords: coffee bean extract, anti-obesity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, lipogenesis, lipolysis
*To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages
in the world. Raw green coffee beans, which are materi-
als of coffee, are rich in caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and its
related components, such as quinic acid, caffeic acid, and
p-coumaric acid. Caffeine has been reported to promote li-
polysis in adipocytes of experimental animals and humans
(Hasegawa and Mori, 2000; Zheng et al., 2004; Lopez-
Garcia et al., 2006). Kobayashi-Hattori et al. (2005) has ob-
served that caffeine reduced body fat mass and body fat per-
centage in a dose-dependent manner in rats fed high-fat diets.
Chlorogenic acid, another main component of raw coffee
beans, has been found to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride
concentrations in serum and liver (Rodriguez de Sotillo and
Hadley, 2002). Although there are several reports that coffee
intake reduces body fat accumulation (Thom, 2007) and tri-
glyceride levels (Carson et al., 1994), moderate coffee intake
does not seem to easily induce the suppression of obesity
and the improvement of lipid proles (Acheson et al., 1980;
Greenberg et al., 2006). In general, a relatively large amount
of caffeine is required to reduce body fat. While roasting raw
coffee beans develops a mild and desirable aroma, it also re-
duces the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents (del Castillo
et al., 2002). Therefore, to substantially enhance anti-obesity
and lipid-lowering activities, a large intake of roasted coffee
for a long period would be needed to reduce body fat and the
hypolipidemic effect. On the other hand, coffee bean extract
(CBE) is characterized to be rich in caffeine and chlorogenic
acid. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CBE
on body fat and lipid metabolism in rats.
Materials and Methods
Preparation and determination of CBE CBE was ob-
tained by extracting raw green coffee (coffea canephora)
beans with 70% ethanol at 70 for 2 h. The chemical com-
position of CBE preparation was determined. The crude pro-
tein and lipid contents, which were assayed by the Kjeldahl
method and Soxhlet method, were 29.2% and 0.3%, respec-
tively. Moisture, which was determined as the loss in weight
after drying 105 for 24 h, was 2.2%. CBE contained
10.2% ash, as measured by the direct ignition method (540,
overnight). Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and its related com-
ponents were assayed by HPLC with a Capcellpack C18
(4.6 × 250 mm, Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan) and a photodiode
array detector (SPD-10 Avp Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), us-
ing anhydrous caffeine (Kishida Chemical Co., Ltd., Osaka,
Japan) and chlorogenic acid (Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd., St.
Louis, MO, USA) as standards. The solvents included either
2 mM H3PO4 (A) or CH3CN (B), and a linear gradient of
solvent A was changed to solvent B after 35 min. The ow
rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min. The amounts of caffeine
and chlorogenic acid were 10.0% and 27.0%, respectively.
The CBE included chlorogenic acid related components,
3-caffeoylquinic acid, a mixture of feruloylquinic acids, and
4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid accounting for 5.5%, 16.0%, and
5.2%, respectively.
Animals and diets Male, 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley
rats (Japan SLC, Inc., Hamamatsu, Japan) were housed
individually in stainless-steel cages under a controlled at-
mosphere (temperature, 22 ± 1; humidity, 55 ± 5%; light
cycle, 8:00-20:00). Rats were given a commercial pellet
diet (Type CE-2, Clea, Tokyo, Japan) for 5 days and then
divided into two groups of equal body weight. The control
diet was prepared according to the formula recommended
by the American Institute of Nutrition (Reeves et al., 1993)
(Table 1). Experimental diets contained 0.5% cholesterol and
0.125% sodium cholate and supplemented with 1% CBE,
at the expense of cornstarch as in the control diets. Rats had
free access to the diets and water for 4 weeks. Food intake
and body weight of the rats were recorded daily. After the
rats were fasted for 6 h, their blood was collected with de-
capitation, and perirenal and epididymal white adipose tis-
sues and liver were immediately excised and weighed.
All animal studies were carried out under the guidelines
for animal experiments at University of Nagasaki, Siebold
(Nagasaki, Japan), and under Law No. 105 and Notication
No. 6 of the Government of Japan.
Preparation of hepatic subcellular fractions A sample
of freshly excised liver was homogenized in 6 volumes of
0.25 M sucrose solution containing 1 mM EDTA in a 10
mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). After precipitating the nuclei
fraction, the supernatant was centrifuged at 100,000 × g for
60 min to precipitate microsomes, with the remaining super-
natant being used as the cytosol fraction. The mitochondrial
and microsomal pellets were resuspended in the same 0.25
M sucrose solution.
Serum and liver lipid analyses Serum lipids were as-
sayed enzymatically using commercial kits (Cholesterol
E-Test, Triglyceride E-Test, Phospholipid C-Test, Wako Pure
Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan; and HDL-C, 2-Daiichi,
Daiichi Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan). Lipid peroxide in serum
was measured by a hemoglobin methylene blue assay with
Determiner LPO kits (Kyowa Medex Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Ja-
pan). Liver lipids were extracted by the method of Folch et
al. (1957). The concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride,
and phospholipid were measured by the methods of Sperry
and Webb (1950), Fletcher (1968), and Rouser et al. (1966),
Measurement of hepatic enzyme activities The activities
of cytosolic fatty acid synthase (FAS) (Kelly et al., 1986),
glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) (Kessy and
k. TaNaka et al.
Mineral mixture (AIN-93G-MX) 35 35
Vitamin mixture (AIN-93-VX) 10 10
tert 410.0410.0enoniuqordyhlyhtuB-
Table 1. The composition of experimental diets.
Kletzien, 1984), malic enzyme (Ochoa, 1955), microsomal
phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) (Walton and Pos-
smayer, 1985), and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltrans-
ferase (CPT) (Markwell et al., 1973) were determined in
the liver. Protein was assayed by the method of Lowry et al.
(1951), using bovine serum albumin as a standard.
Statistical analysis Data are reported as means ± SEM.
Data were inspected by the Student’s t-test. Values of p < 0.05
were considered statistically signicant.
Although there was no difference in food intake between
rats fed the control diet and in those fed the CBE diet, body
weight gain was signicantly lower in CBE-fed rats than in
control rats (Table 2). Relative liver weight was comparable
between the two groups, but perirenal and epididymal white
adipose tissue weights were significantly low in the CBE
The serum triglyceride level was extremely low in the
CBE group, compared with the control group (Table 3).
Feeding on the CBE diet induced the mild, but not signi-
cant, increase of the serum cholesterol concentration com-
pared to feeding on the control diet, but it did not modulate
the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentra-
tion, consequently resulting in a lower HDL-cholesterol/total
cholesterol ratio. The level of phospholipids in the serum
was identical between both diets. The lipid peroxide concen-
tration in the serum was signicantly low in the CBE group.
Anti-Obese Effect of Coffee Bean Extract
Body weight (g)
Tissue weight (g / 100g of body weight)
White adipose tissue
Perirenal + epididymal 3.03 ± 0.30 1.47 ± 0.13*
Each value is the mean ± SEM of 6 rats.
*Significantly different from the control group at p< 0.05.
Serum lipids
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 2.04 ± 0.36 0.75 ± 0.13*
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.35 ± 0.37 6.50 ± 0.51
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.67 ± 0.07 0.62 ± 0.04
HDL-cholesterol/ Total cholesterol ratio (%)
Phospholipid (mmol/L) 2.36 ± 0.16 2.49 ± 0.11
Lipid peroxide (nmol/mL) 15.6 ± 1.0 10.5 ± 1.2*
Liver lipids (µ )g/lom
Triglyceride 85.4 ± 7.5 49.7 ± 3.6*
Phospholipid 35.7 ± 0.7 40.2 ± 1.3*
Each value is the mean ± SEM of 6 rats.
*Significantly different from the control group at p< 0.05.
Table 2. Effects of dietary coffee bean extract on growth parameters in rats.
Table 3. Effects of dietary coffee bean extract on serum and liver lipid concentrations in rats.
The level of triglyceride in the liver was significantly
lower in the CBE group than in the control group, whereas
that of cholesterol was comparable between both groups
(Table 3). Moreover, the hepatic phospholipid concentration
increased in the CBE group compared to the control.
The activities of enzymes related to fatty acid synthesis,
such as FAS, G6PDH, and malic enzyme, in the hepatic cy-
tosol were signicantly lower in the CBE group than in the
control group (Table 4). There was no difference in the activ-
ity of PAP, the rate-limiting enzyme of triglyceride synthesis,
in the hepatic microsomes between the control and CBE
groups. The activity of hepatic mitochondrial CPT, the rate-
limiting enzyme of mitochondrial β-oxidation, was signifi-
cantly higher in rats fed the CBE diet than in those fed the
control diet.
Obesity is one of the risk factors for several lifestyle-
related diseases, including coronary heart diseases, diabetes
mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and is characterized by fat stor-
age in the adipose tissues. The intake of certain beverages
and functional foods has been shown to be effective at the
suppression or reduction of body fat accumulation (Maki et
al., 2002; Nosaka et al., 2003; Ikeda et al., 2005). Rats who
were fed CBE, which contains 10.0% caffeine and 27.0%
chlorogenic acid as the principal constituents, showed sup-
pressed body weight gain irrespective of food and energy
intake compared to those fed the control diet not containing
CBE (CBE group: 82.3 ± 3.6 kcal/day; control group: 86.8
± 2.0 kcal/day). The perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue
weights in CBE-fed rats were markedly lower than control
rats, strongly suggesting that slower body weight gain in the
CBE group is exerted by the suppression of visceral fat ac-
Caffeine has been demonstrated to reduce the weight
of adipose tissues in experimental animals (Hasegawa and
Mori, 2000; Zheng et al., 2004). Kobayashi-Hattori et al.
(2005) have shown that the intake of caffeine elevated the
serum level of catecholamine in rats fed a high fat diet, and
they presumed that the enhancement of the production of
catecholamine accelerated lipolysis. Caffeine of CBE is
thought to encourage the degradation of fat in adipose tissues
by stimulating catecholamine secretion. The portion of fatty
acids that released from adipose tissues is transferred to the
liver and is then oxidized. Therefore, the decreasing deposi-
tion of visceral fat may be in part related to the enhanced
oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. In the present study, CBE
increased the activity of mitochondrial CPT in the liver. This
enhanced activity is considered to be responsible for the re-
duction of adipose tissue weight and the suppression of body
weight gain.
Another reason for the anti-obesity activity of CBE may
be the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.
Han et al. (1999, 2001) have pointed out that slower absorp-
tion of dietary fat decreased the deposition of visceral fat.
Shimoda et al. (2006) have shown that CBE and caffeine,
but not chlorogenic acid, suppress the elevation of the serum
triglyceride level after oral oil administration to mice. Thus,
the caffeine in CBE might suppress body fat accumulation
via suppressing postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Since
we did not measure fecal fat excretion, it is unclear whether
CBE suppressed dietary fat absorption in the intestine. How-
ever, CBE intake effectively decreased both liver and serum
triglyceride concentrations. If CBE induces the inhibition of
intestinal fat absorption, the activities of hepatic lipogenic
enzymes may increase to compensate for the reduction in the
k. TaNaka et al.
Lipogenic enzymes
Fatty acid synthase 5.29 ± 0.90 1.90 ± 0.78*
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase 17.2 ± 2.2 11.0 ± 1.0*
Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 4.46 ± 0.19 5.29 ± 0.40
Lipolytic enzyme
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 3.93 ± 0.38 5.05 ± 0.31*
Each value is the mean ± SEM of 6 rats.
*Significantly different from the control group at p< 0.05.
Table 4. Effects of dietary coffee bean extract on hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic enzyme activities in rats.
triglyceride level in the body. In the present study, these en-
zyme activities were signicantly suppressed by CBE intake,
indicating that dietary fat absorption in the intestine was
not suppressed. More detailed experiments are necessary to
clarify this effect.
CBE effectively lowered serum and hepatic triglyceride
concentrations. The activities of cytosolic FAS, malic en-
zyme, and G6PDH in the liver were decreased, whereas that
of mitochondrial CPT in the liver was increased in CBE-
fed rats. The reduction in the serum and hepatic triglyceride
levels in CBE-fed rats is thought to be induced by both the
suppression of fatty acid synthesis in hepatic cytosol and the
acceleration of fatty acid oxidation in hepatic mitochondria.
Chlorogenic acid has been shown to inhibit FAS activity (Li
et al., 2006), while there are few reports that caffeine affects
the activities of fatty acid synthetic enzymes. Therefore,
chlorogenic acid in CBE may be responsible for the suppres-
sion of fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Shimoda et al. (2006)
have observed that caffeine and chlorogenic acid alone have
no effect on CPT activity in the liver mitochondria of mice.
The combination of caffeine and chlorogenic acid or other
components of CBE may induce the enhancement of CPT
activity. Kobayashi-Hattori et al. (2005) has reported that
caffeine intake elevates the activity of acyl-CoA oxidase in
the liver. Caffeine in CBE may therefore accelerate hepatic
lipolysis by increasing acyl-CoA oxidase activity but not
CPT activity.
The serum lipid peroxide level in the CBE group was
two-thirds of that in the control group. Since chlorogenic
acid has an antioxidant property (Rodriguez de Sotillo et al.,
2002), it is presumed to contribute to the reduction in the
lipid peroxide level. The antioxidant activity of CBE is ex-
pected to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by sup-
pressing oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and
total cholesterol.
Raw green coffee bean contains cafestol, which is a di-
terpene, and potently increases serum cholesterol level in
humans and experimental animals (Urgert and Katan, 1997;
Post et al., 2000). CBE prepared from raw green coffee
beans contains cafestol. However, CBE-fed rats showed no
signicant increases in the serum cholesterol concentration
compared to a control diet. Also, the level in the liver was
the same between the control and CBE groups. Since CBE
contains a relatively large amount of chlorogenic acid, which
decreases low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cho-
lesterol concentrations (Rodriguez de Sotillo and Hadley,
2002), it might not increase the serum cholesterol level.
In conclusion, CBE appears to effectively suppress body
fat and serum triglyceride levels through at least in part the
decrease in fatty acid synthesis and the acceleration of fatty
acid oxidation, showing that CBE may be a novel functional
food material for suppressing fat deposition.
Bukoweicki, L.J., Lupien, J., Folles, N. and Jahjah, L. (1983). Ef-
fects of sucrose, caffeine, and cola beverages on obesity, cold
resistance, and adipose tissue cellularity. Am. J. Physiol., 244,
Carson, C.A., Caggiula, A.W., Meilahn, E.N., Matthews, K.A. and
Kuller, L.H. (1994). Coffee consumption: relationship to blood
lipids in middle-aged women. Int. J. Epidemiol., 24, 243-244.
Chen, M.D., Lin, W.H., Song, Y.M., Lin, P.Y. and Ho, L.T. (1994).
Effect of caffeine on the levels of brain serotonin and catechol-
amine in the genetically obese mice. Chin. Med. J., 53, 257-261.
del Castillo, M.D., Ames, J.M. and Gordon, M.H. (2002). Effect
of roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. J. Agric.
Food Chem., 50, 3698-3703.
Fletcher, M.J. (1968). A colorimetric method for estimating serum
triglycerides. Clin. Chim. Acta, 22, 393-397.
Folch, J., Lees, M. and Slone-Stanley, G.H. (1957). A simple meth-
od for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal
tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 226, 497-506.
Han, L.-K., Takaku, T., Kimura, Y. and Okuda, H. (1999). Anti-
obesity action of oolong tea. Int. J.Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord.,
23, 98-105.
Han, L.-K., Kimura, Y., Kawashima, M., Takaku, T., Taniyama, T.,
Hayashi, T., Zheng, Y.-N. and Okuda, H. (2001). Anti-obesity
effects in rodents of dietary teasaponin, a lipase inhibitor. Int. J.
Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 25, 1459-1464.
Hasegawa, N. and Mori, M. (2000). Effect of powdered green tea
and its caffeine content on lipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1
cell. J. Health Sci., 46, 153-155.
Ikeda, I., Hamamoto, R., Uzu, K., Imaizumi, K., Nagao, K., Yanag-
ita, T., Suzuki, Y., Kobayashi, M. and Kakuda, T. (2005). Dietary
gallate esters of tea catechins reduce deposition of visceral fat,
hepatic triacylglycerol, and activities of hepatic enzymes related
to fatty acid synthesis in rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 69,
Kelley, D.S. and Kletzien, R.F. (1984). Ethanol modulation of the
hormonal and nutritional regulation of glucose 6-phosphate de-
hydrogenase activity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Bio-
chem. J., 217, 543-549.
Kelley, D.S., Nelson, G.J. and Hunt, J.E. (1986). Effect of prior
nutritional status on the activity of lipogenic enzymes in primary
monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes. Biochem. J., 235, 87-90.
Kobayashi-Hattori, K., Mogi, A., Matsumoto, Y. and Takita, T.
(2005). Effect of caffeine on the body fat and lipid metabolism
of rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 69,
Li, B.H., Ma, X.F., Wu, X.D. and Tian, W.X. (2006). Inhibitory
Anti-Obese Effect of Coffee Bean Extract 151
activity of chlorogenic acid on enzymes involved in the fatty acid
synthesis in animals and bacteria. IUBMB Life, 58, 39-46.
Lopez-Garcia, E., van Dam, R.M., Rajpathak, S., Willett, W.C.,
Manson, J.E. and Hu, F.B. (2006). Changes in caffeine intake and
long-term weight change in men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.,
83, 674-680.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951).
Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem.,
193, 265-275.
Maki, K.C., Davidson, M.H., Tsushima, R., Matsuo, N., Tokimitsu,
I., Umporowicz, D.M., Dicklin, M.R., Foster, G.S., Ingram, K.A.,
Anderson, B.D., Frost, S.D. and Bell, M. (2002). Composition of
diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss
of body weight and fat in comparison with composition of triac-
ylglycerol control oil. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 1230-1236.
Markwell, M.A.K., McGroarty, E.J., Bieber, L.L. and Tolbert, N.E.
(1973). The subcellular distribution of carnitine acyltransferases
in mammalian liver and kidney. J. Biol. Chem., 248, 3426-3432.
Michna, L., Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Wagner, G.C. and Conney, A.H.
(2003). Stimulatory effect of oral administration of green tea
and caffeine on locomotor activity in SKH-1 mice. Life Sci., 73,
Nosaka, N., Maki, H., Suzuki, Y., Haruna, H., Ohara, A., Kasai,
M., Tsuji, H., Aoyama, T., Okazaki, M., Igarashi, O. and Kondo,
K. (2003). Effects of margarine containing medium-chain tria-
cylglycerols on body fat reduction in humans. J. Atheroscler.
Thromb., 10, 290-298.
Ochoa, S. (1955). Malic enzyme. In “Methods in Enzymology,” ed.
by S.P. Colowick, and N.O. Kaplan. Vol. 1, Academic Press, New
York, pp. 739-753.
Post, S.M., de Roos, B., Vermeulen, M., Afman, L., Jong, M.C.,
Dahlmans, V.E.H., Havekes, L.M., Stellaard, F., Katan, M.B. and
Princen, H.M.G. (2000). Cafestol increases serum cholesterol
levels in apolipoprotein E*3-leiden transgenic mice by suppres-
sion of bile acid synthesis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 20,
Reeves, P.G., Nielsen, F.H. and Fahey, G.C. (1993). AIN-93 puried
diets for laboratory rodents: nal report of the American Institute
of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the reformulation of
the AIN-76A rodent diet. J. Nutr., 123, 1939-1951.
Rodriguez de Sotillo, D.V. and Hadley, S.M. (2002). Chlorogenic
acid modifies plasma and liver concentrations of: cholesterol,
triacylglycerol, and minerals in (fa/fa) Zucker rats. J. Nutr. Bio-
chem., 13, 717-726.
Rouser, G., Siakotos, A.N. and Fleischer, S. (1966). Quantitative
analysis of phospholipids by thin-layer chromatography and
phosphorus analysis of spots. Lipids, 1, 85-86.
Shimoda, H., Seki, E. and Aitani, M. (2006). Inhibitory effect of
green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight
gain in mice. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 6, 1-9.
Sperry, W.M. and Webb, M.A. (1950). A revision of the Shoen-
heimer-Sperry method for cholesterol determination. J. Biol.
Chem., 187, 97-106.
Thom, E. (2007). The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on
glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body
mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. J.
Int. Med. Res., 35, 900-908.
Urgert, R. and Katan, M.B. (1997). The cholesterol-raising factor
from coffee beans. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 17, 305-324.
Walton, P.A. and Possmayer, F. (1985). Mg2+-dependent phosphati-
date phosphohydrolase of rat lung: Development of an assay em-
ploying a dened chemical substrate which reects the phospho-
hydrolase activity measured using membrane-bound substrate.
Anal. Biochem., 151, 479-486.
Zheng, G., Sayama, K., Okubo, T., Juneja, L.R. and Oguni, I. (2004).
Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, cat-
echins, caffeine and theanine, in mice. In Vivo, 18, 55-62.
k. TaNaka et al.152
... Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages around the world (Bohn et al., 2012). It originated in the Ethiopian region in Africa by Ethiopian goat herd when his herd dancing from one coffee shrub to another then it was taken to Arabia and then to Europe and is known as kaffa in Ethiopian (Butler, 1999;Caprioli et al., 2015;Khojah, 2016;Tanaka et al., 2009). It can be prepared by several methods, but the most two popular methods are brew and espresso. ...
... Coffee Arabica has been grown for several centuries and represents threequarters of the world country production. It includes different cultivars based on origin, climatic requirement tree size, yield pattern quality of end product, berry size, and disease resistance (Butler, 1999;Caprioli et al., 2015;Khojah, 2016;Tanaka et al., 2009). On the other hand, Robusta seeds have two times more caffeine content than Arabica (Hulya & Piner, 2018). ...
... Coffee Robusta was discovered in Congo in 1898 in Africa, Asia, and Indonesia it can grow to more than 12 m in height and is more resistant to pests. Usually, it's blended with another type due to its high content of caffeine (Butler, 1999, Caprioli et al., 2015, Khojah, 2016, Tanaka et al. 2009). Coffee intake has a positive or negative effect on human health (La Vecchia, 2005) according to the type and amount of coffee consumed (Işıksoluğu, 2001). ...
Full-text available
Coffee is a popular drink that is considered one of the most consumed beverages around the world. It contains more than 1000 biologically active compounds such as caffeine, diterpene alcohols, and chlorogenic acid. The effect of coffee on health is controversial depending on the type and the amount consumed of coffee. This review was prepared to clarify the effect of different preparation methods on coffee lipids content, as well as to study the effect of consumption of coffee prepared by different methods on body lipids profile. Coffee can be prepared by several methods, but the most two popular methods are brew and espresso. Coffee lipids which are called diterpenoid alcohols (cafestol and kahweol) can influence the body’s cholesterol level. The content of coffee lipids can be altered due to the methods of coffee preparation. Cafestol remains in the beverage of coffee when hot water is directly poured onto powdered coffee, when well-milled coffee is boiled in water a few times or when the metal filter is used instead of a paper filter, like in French Press. However, to good fortune, most of them are retained by the paper filter, which substantially reduces the cholesterol-raising effects potentially associated with coffee through consuming filtered coffee. Diterpenoids in unfiltered coffee cause an elevation of total cholesterol TC and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol levels, whereas lowering the high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol levels in the body. However, consumption of filtered coffee slightly affects serum cholesterol levels. Also, the results of other studies revealed that the roasting degree of coffee is not related to an increase in the total cholesterol and the LDL cholesterol concentrations, but can be related to an increase in HDL cholesterol level after consumption of medium roasting MR coffee.
... Tanaka et al [53] tried to study the effect of high-cholesterol food supplemented by 1% of green coffee extract for a group of rats for a month. The study showed that the extract significantly reduced the level of triglycerides in the serum and liver with increased oxidation of fatty acids, and reduced lipid synthesis by reducing the activity of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) (p≤0.05), ...
... The results of this study differ with St-Onge et al. [51] stating that fortification with green coffee extract results in reduced dietary intake combined with reduced weight. This finding also differs from that reported by Song et al.(2014), which stated that fortification of food with multiple proportions of green coffee extract-up to 0.9% of food weight-did not affect food intake, and is consistent with Tanaka et al.(2009) that the supplementing food with 1% green coffee extract does not affect food intake. These differences may be due to the different type of coffee used or the method of fortification, or dosing, as this study relied on the administration of fixed daily dose while the previous two studies relied on the fortification of food only, Therefore, the amount of extract consumed per day may vary based on the food intake. ...
... The effects of coffee extract are generally consistent with some previous studies that reported that it improves blood lipid levels and leads to a reduction in TAG levels [4,48,49,53], Total cholesterol levels [58,49,43,31,4] and lowers LDL-C levels [58,31]. ...
... Background Coffee is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the worldwide and its beneficial effects on human health have become a subject matter of several scientific studies [1]. There are hundreds of variety species of coffee, however, commercially two species are mostly available: Coffea arabica, about 70% and Coffea canephora [2]. ...
... In comparison with normal control group, fructose control group had statistically significant body weight gain (p = 0.020). This result is in line with Tanaka et al.'s report in which feeding on 20% fructose solution in tap water for 8 weeks had brought statistically significant body weight gain in both sexes of rats [1]. As demonstrated in both short-term and long-term studies, fructose consumption results in decreased circulating levels of insulin and leptin and increased caloric intake [17]. ...
Full-text available
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide and is assumed to have protective effects against metabolic syndrome. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of coffee on body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels in male albino Wistar rats feeding on high fructose diet. A post-test experimental study was conducted on a total of 30 (9-10 weeks old) male albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups: group I (normal control)-fed on standard chow and plain tap water only; group II (fructose control)-fed on standard chow and 20% of fructose solution; group III-VI (treatment groups)-fed on standard chow, 20% of fructose solution and treated with 71, 142, 213 and 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee respectively for six weeks. At the end, body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels were investigated. Data was entered and cleared by epi-data software version 3.1 and analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS V. 23.00. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The results showed that body weight, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels significantly lowered in rats treated with 213 (p = 0.047; 0.049; 0.026) and 284 (p = 0.035; 0.029; 0.010) mg/kg body weight/day of coffee compared to fructose control group. Fasting serum triglycide (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels showed significant reduction in rats treated with 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee as compared to fructose control group (p = 0.031; 0.046) respectively. In conclusion, treating rats with coffee decreased body weight, fasting serum glucose, uric acid, TC, TG and LDL-C, and increased HDL-C in a dose dependent manner in rats feeding on high fructose diet, suggesting that coffee consumption may be helpful in ameliorating metabolic syndrome.
... Shimoda et al. (2006) give evidence that green coffee bean extract administration reduces weight gain and visceral fat accumulation which may be involved in their active compounds, caffeine and CGA [19]. Coffee bean extract is considered to reduce adipose tissue weight and to attenuate body weight gain by increasing lipogenic enzyme activity of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in the liver and decreasing lipolytic enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthetic (FAS), malic enzyme, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity [20]. Green coffee bean suppresses adipogenesis involved in wingless-type MMTV integration site family 10b (WNT10b) and galanin-mediated adipogenesis cascades by downregulating genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) [21]. ...
Full-text available
Background Supplemental green bean coffee extract (GBCE) with caffeine has been shown to prevent weight gain. There are different dosages of GBCE that contain chlorogenic acid (CGA), and the data for their effectiveness in preventing weight gain (500 mg/day) is currently out of date. To better understand the effects of GBCE containing CGA on body weight, the present study sets out to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies. Methods Using electronic databases, including Scopus, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases, literature was searched up to October 13, 2022. For the meta-analysis examining the impact of GBCE containing CGA (500 mg/day) on body weight with a random-effects model, the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. We calculated weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To gauge study heterogeneity, the Cochran Q statistic and I-squared tests ( I ² ) were employed. Results The meta-analysis includes three RCTs with 103 individuals (case = 51, control = 52). The combined findings of GBCE with CGA at least 500 mg/day result in body weight reduction ( WMD : − 1.30 and 95% CI : − 2.07 to − 0.52, p = 0.001) without study heterogeneity ( I ² = 0%, p = 0.904) and without publication bias estimated using Egger’s and Begger’s test ( p = 0.752 and p = 0.602, respectively). Conclusions According to the meta-analysis, GBCE with CGA 500 mg/day lowers body weight. Nevertheless, despite its limited sample size and short-term study, this study was successful. Long-term research on the effectiveness and safety of GBCE and CGA on body weight require more clinical trials. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42021254916.
... Green coffee became popular for weight loss since few years ago, GCBE may be an effective weight loss aid as it was found that the body fat mass of mice fed with GCBE decreased significantly even with a high dietary fat. Also, rats showed a decrease in weight gain, liver weight and supression in rates of adipogenesis [16]. Another study showed that CCBE taken daily for 8 weeks decreased significantly the body weight and BMI in meta-analysis of randomized clinical trial [17]. ...
Green coffee beans are coffee seeds (beans) of Coffee fruits that have not yet been roasted. The roasting process of coffee beans reduces the amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid together with caffeine in green coffee are thought to have many health benefits including anti-obesity,anti-tumour, antidiabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects.Also green coffee and its active ingradients may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment and prevention of some chronic abnormalities as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review, the health benefits of green coffee and its main components eg. chlorogenic acids will be detailed.
... Di dalam penelitian ini, lemak sentral turun sebesar -0,92 dan lingkar pinggang sebesar -2.97 cm selama 8 minggu. Kopi hijau dapat mempengaruhi penekanan postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (Tanaka et al., 2009). Han et al. (2001) menunjukkan bahwa penyerapan lemak makanan yang lebih lambat menurunkan deposisi lemak visceral. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to analyze body weight and body fat in obese adult men after administration of green coffee, green tea, and cinnamon (GGC) powder combination drink. This study applied a pre-post experimental design. Fourteen obese male subjects which are chosen by purposive sampling were given 200 mL/day GGC drink for 8 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and food intake data were collected before and after intervention. The instrument used in this study include microtoise, meterline, food recall 2x24 hours, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The result showed that GGC drink significantly decrease body weight (-2.45 kg; p-value=0.001), BMI (-0.89 kg/m2; p-value=0.001), waist circumference (-2.97 cm; p-value=0.001), body fat percentage (-1.75%; p-value=0.004), and visceral fat (-0.92; p-value=0.001). Based on the results of the Wilcoxon Test showed that administering 200 mL/day of GGC drink improve nutritional status in obese adult men. In conclusion, administrating 200 mL/day of GGC drink reduce body weight and body fat of adult men.Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis berat badan dan lemak tubuh pada laki-laki dewasa yang mengalami kegemukan setelah pemberian minuman herbal kombinasi bubuk kopi dan teh hijau serta kayu manis (minuman KTM). Penelitian epidemiologi klinik ini menggunakan desain pre-post experimental. Sebanyak empat belas orang pria dewasa yang dipilih secara purposive diberi 200 mL/hari minuman KTM selama 8 minggu. Data berat badan, lemak tubuh dan asupan makanan dikumpulkan sebelum, selama, dan sesudah intervensi. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini meliputi microtoise, meterline, food recall 2x24 jam, dan bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Berdasarkan hasil Uji Wilcoxon menunjukkan bahwa pemberian minuman KTM selama 8 minggu menurunkan berat badan secara signifikan (-2,45 kg; p-value = 0,001), IMT (-0,89 kg/m2; p-value = 0,001), lingkar pinggang (-2,97 cm; p-value = 0,001), persen lemak tubuh (-1,75%; p-value = 0,004), dan lemak sentral (-0,92; p-value = 0,001). Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah minuman KTM dapat menurunkan berat badan dan lemah tubuh pada laki-laki dewasa.
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of green coffee bioactives in ameliorating the effects of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity through in vitro and in vivo assessments. Methods: Green coffee extract (GCE) was obtained by implementing a novel green extraction technique. The efficacy of GCE to inhibit in vitro pancreatic amylase and lipase was evaluated. Further, in vivo studies were conducted using a C57BL6 mice model grouped as starch-fed diet control, HFD control, HFD + positive control, HFD + GCE (100 mg/kg body weight), and HFD + GCE (200 mg/kg body weight). Animal body weight, diet intake, and fecal fat excretion were measured during the feeding period. On completion of the experiment, blood serum was collected for biochemical analysis, and organs were harvested for assessing the obesity-related biomarkers. Results: The obtained GCE was enriched with polyphenols and alkaloids. GCE led to significant (P < 0.05) in vitro inhibition of pancreatic amylase and lipase. GCE supplementation considerably prevented weight gain in treated groups post-consumption of HFD. It also led to increased fecal fat excretion and regulated the high-fat-mediated blood glucose levels. GCE effectively modulated the blood lipid profile, morphology of adipose and liver tissues, and liver antioxidant defense enzymes and resulted in hepatoprotective effects. It also downregulated the genes associated with lipid biosynthesis. Conclusions: GCE exhibits promising results in suppressing the consequences associated with HFD-induced obesity. It has the potential to be incorporated into food products benefiting consumer health and food industries.
Background: Atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia are the primary cause of heart diseases and death in most developed countries. Herbs have the clinical ability to improve cardiovascular health. Green coffee (Coffee Arabica) and thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) have proved to have lowering effects on cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar levels and anthropometric measurements. Objective(s): The present study was conducted to assess the anti hyperlipidaemic effect of thyme infused green coffee on human subjects. Materials and methods: An oral ingestion of thyme infused green coffee in hot water was given in the form of beverage for 90 days. Different biochemical indices were assessed to check the efficiency of thyme infused green coffee on human subjects. Result: Repeated administration of the combination of thyme and green coffee showed statistically significant decrease in weight, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Conclusion: Marked variations in triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and anthropometric measurements of human subjects are indicative of effectiveness of thyme infused green coffee. Continuous intake of this combination may hence prove to be beneficial to the body.
The anticancer therapeutic leuprorelin was found to have excellent affinity to the carcinogen ochratoxin A (OTA), with an equilibrium constant of 2.2 × 108 M-1 at 273 K (dissociation constant Kd = 4.5 nM) when functionalized into a mesoporous polymer. Binding between the surface-bound leuprorelin and mycotoxin was corroborated with DFT calculations, and it was extended to the extraction of OTA from the heavily fatty matrices of coffee, achieving 95% recovery with improved cyclability as compared with immunoaffinity. This work presents the potential of peptide-mycotoxin interactions for durable non-aqueous extraction.
Coffee is the most extensively consumed drink in the world. However, in the last few years, unroasted coffee seeds, popularly known as green coffee beans (GCB), attracted people due to its health properties. This review covers pharmacological efficacy, mechanism of action and bioactive components of green coffee beans. It contains a unique set of polyphenolic compounds, methylxanthines and diterpenes which are responsible for the astringency, flavour, smell and taste as well as for its health benefits. Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenolic compound, is the major bioactive compound in coffee beans which contributes most to the medicinal activities present in it. The finding reveals the effectiveness of green coffee beans in all parameters of metabolic syndrome by regulating adipokines. It prevents doxorubicin induced cardiomyocyte cell death and also has antimutagenic activity on the HeLa cell line and PA-1 cell line. Neuroprotective effect of GCB in degenerative disease was achieved by reducing neuroinflammatory markers TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-1β (interleukin-1β). Along with these properties, GCB has shown some potential antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and sunscreen effects, as it contains a high sun protection factor. The findings from this study conclude that green coffee beans have shown bizarrely several health benefits, but a large number of trials and intervention are required to establish its medicinal values.
Full-text available
Liver and kidney organelles from rat and pig were separated by isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation and located by marker enzymes. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase was shown to be exclusively a mitochondrial enzyme. In liver, approximately 52% of carnitine acetyltransferase activity was mitochondrial, 14% peroxisomal, and 34% located in a lipid-rich membranous fraction. Microsomes were a component of this last fraction and, when isolated by differential centrifugation, contained carnitine acetyltransferase activity. This enzyme has not previously been reported to be in peroxisomes. The specific activity of carnitine acetyltransferase in liver peroxisomes was two to three times greater than in the mitochondria or microsomes. Partial fractionation of broken rat liver peroxisomes into core, membranes, and the soluble matrix indicated that carnitine acetyltransferase had a similar distribution to the matrix enzyme, catalase. In gradients of rat and pig kidney, carnitine acetyltransferase was found primarily in the mitochondrial fractions. This enzyme was also not detected in microbodies, mitochondria, or microsomes from plants. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity in liver fractions was confirmed by three separate assays—an 1(-)-carnitine-dependent release of coenzyme A (CoA) from acetyl-CoA, identification of the 14C-labeled reaction product acetylcarnitine, and the 1(-)-acetylcarnitine-dependent formation of acetyl-CoA from CoA. Carnitine acyltransferase activity for octanoyl-CoA in hepatic peroxisomes and microsomes was about equal to activity for acetyl-CoA. In the mitochondria, activity for octanoyl-CoA was six times greater than for acetyl-CoA.
Full-text available
For sixteen years, the American institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets, AIN-76 and AIN-76A, have been used extensively around the world. Because of numerous nutritional and technical problems encountered with the diet during this period, it was revised. Two new formulations were derived: AIN-93G for growth, pregnancy and lactation, and AIN-93M for adult maintenance. Some major differences in the new formulation of AIN-93G compared with AIN-76A are as follows: 7 g soybean oil/100 g diet was substituted for 5 g corn oil/ 100 g diet to increase the amount of linolenic acid; cornstarch was substituted for sucrose; the amount of phosphorus was reduced to help eliminate the problem of kidney calcification in female rats; L-cystine was substituted for DL-methionine as the amino acid supplement for casein, known to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids; manganese concentration was lowered to one-fifth the amount in the old diet; the amounts of vitamin E, vitamin K and vitamin B-12 were increased; and molybdenum, silicon, fluoride, nickel, boron, lithium and vanadium were added to the mineral mix. For the AIN-93M maintenance diet, the amount of fat was lowered to 40 g/kg diet from 70 g/kg diet, and the amount of casein to 140 g/kg from 200 g/kg in the AIN-93G diet. Because of a better balance of essential nutrients, the AIN-93 diets may prove to be a better choice than AIN-76A for long-term as well as short-term studies with laboratory rodents.
We studied the influence of powdered green tea (PGT) and its caffeine content on the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells by insulin and lipolysis of well-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. In the 11 days of culture with insulin, the fat cells exhibited more numerous and larger intracytoplasmic lipid droplets, and the activities of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a marker of adipose conversion, were increased. When PGT and insulin were added simultaneously, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the increase of GPDH were significantly inhibited (p < 0.01). But the caffeine, which has the same concentration as PGT, accelerated adipose conversion. When PGT or caffeine was exposed to mature adipocytes, smaller-sized intracytoplasmic lipid droplets selectively disappeared. These data suggest that PGT inhibited lipogenesis and stimulated lipolysis.
Effect of prior nutritional status of the animal on the activity of lipogenic enzymes and the fatty acid content of cultured hepatocytes was investigated. Hepatocytes were isolated from rats that were starved for 24 h ('starved') or continuously fed ('fed'), or starved for 48 h and then re-fed for 48 h ('re-fed') with a carbohydrate-rich fat-free diet, and maintained as monolayer cultures for 96 h in a serum-free glucose-rich medium (Waymouth's MB752/1) supplemented with insulin, dexamethasone and tri-iodothyronine. The fatty acid content and the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were determined initially at 3 h after plating and then every 24 h. Initially the activities of all the four enzymes were highest in hepatocytes isolated from the re-fed rats and lowest in those from the starved rats. With time in culture, the activity of all these enzymes increased severalfold (2-5, depending on the enzyme under consideration) in hepatocytes isolated from fed and starved rats, whereas there was a severalfold (2-5) decrease in the activity of these enzymes in hepatocytes isolated from re-fed rats. The initial fatty acid content of the hepatocytes from re-fed rats was 2-3 times that in the other two groups of hepatocytes. The fatty acid content seemed to increase in all three groups of hepatocytes during the 96 h in culture, but these apparent increases were not statistically significant.
An assay of pulmonary phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity has been developed that employs a chemically defined liposome substrate of equimolar phosphatidate and phosphatidylcholine. Enzyme assays employing this substrate resolved two distinct activities based upon their requirements for Mg2+. Assays were performed in the presence and absence of 2 mM MgCl2 and the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity calculated by difference. The Mg2+-independent phosphatase activity resembled that found using aqueous dispersions of phosphatidate (PAaq). Approximately 90% of the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity was recovered in the cytosol and the remainder was associated with the microsomal fraction. The Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity has kinetic parameters of Km = 55 microM, Vmax = 1.6 nmol/min/mg protein for the microsomal fraction, and Km = 215 microM, Vmax = 6.8 nmol/min/mg protein for the cytosolic fraction. These parameters resembled those found using the microsomal membrane-bound (PAmb) substrate. In addition, the pH optima and sensitivity to detergents and thermal inactivation are equal to those for the PAmb-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity. In the course of these studies the microsomal and cytosolic activities were qualitatively equal, indicative of a single enzyme in two subcellular locations. In conclusion, the assay of Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity measured using equimolar phosphatidate and phosphatidylcholine liposomes is equivalent to that activity previously described using microsomal membrane-bound substrate. However, the chemically-defined system provides a more simplified starting point for further studies on this important enzyme.