The Relationship between Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement in the Teaching of English as A Foreign Language
Research on second and foreign language learning suggests that the expectations that teachers form for their students can often have an impact on students’ behavior and achievement. Some teachers tend to convey differential expectations to students, which appear to have self-fulfilling prophecy effects on them. The self-fulfilling prophecy effects of teacher expectations are an important, yet not adequately appreciated affective variable in second and foreign language learning. In this article we present the theoretical background on teacher’s expectations for their students. We also describe the sources of teachers’ expectations and the ways through which teachers communicate expectations to students. We finally deal with the pedagogical implications, offering suggestions about how teachers might become more successful in communicating high expectations. Keywords: self-fulfilling prophecy, teacher expectations
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ABSTRACT: Spatial thinking skills are vital for success in everyday living and work, not to mention the centrality of spatial reasoning in scientific discoveries, design-based disciplines, medicine, geosciences and mathematics to name a few. This case study describes a course in spatial thinking and communicating designed and delivered by an interdisciplinary team over a three-year period to first-year university students. Four major elements provide a framework for the sequencing of instruction and acquisition of 2D and 3D spatial thinking and reasoning skills in a computational design context. We describe the process of introducing students to computational design environments beginning with a fun and familiar tool in preparation for a more complex, industry-standard system (SolidWorks). A design project provides diverse student teams an opportunity to integrate and apply foundational spatial concepts and skills including sketching, 2D and 3D representations, as well as digital and physical modeling. Samples of student work illustrate the scaffolding necessary for students to successfully draw upon the spatial thinking and communication skills required to complete their team projects beginning with applying sketching techniques; modeling individual 3D parts; creating digital assemblies; and finally building the equivalent 3D physical model. Key instructional principles provide a framework for the analysis of what worked and what didn’t in relation to spatial skills development in students. The lessons learned are identified along with potential future directions for teaching and learning scholarship in spatial thinking development within a computational design context. KeywordsSpatial thinking–Computational design–Design process–Project-based learning–First-year interdisciplinary program–Principles of instruction