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All content in this area was uploaded by Khaled Elleithy

Content may be subject to copyright.

Content uploaded by Khaled Elleithy

Author content

All content in this area was uploaded by Khaled Elleithy

Content may be subject to copyright.

A

bstract

Null message algorithm (NMA) is one of the efficient

conservative time management algorithms that use null

messages to provide synchronization between the

logical processes (LPs) in a parallel discrete event

simulation (PDES) system. However, the performance

of a PDES system could be severely degraded if a

large number of null messages need to be generated by

LPs to avoid deadlock. In this paper, we present a

mathematical model based on the quantitative criteria

specified in [12] to optimize the performance of NMA

by reducing the null message traffic. Moreover, the

proposed mathematical model can be used to

approximate the optimal values of some critical

parameters such as frequency of transmission,

Lookahead (L) values, and the variance of null

message elimination. In addition, the performance

analysis of the proposed mathematical model

incorporates both uniform and non-uniform

distribution of L values across multiple output lines of

an LP. Our simulation and numerical analysis suggest

that an optimal NMA offers better scalability in PDES

system if it is used with the proper selection of critical

parameters.

Keywords— Conservative distributed simulation, discrete

event, null messages, parallel and distributed systems.

1. Introduction

While there has been much research evaluating the

performance of conservative NMA in terms of message

transmission overhead and processor idle time, there

has been comparatively little work devoted to

suggesting any potential optimization for the NMA.

This paper presents a mathematical model based on the

quantitative criteria specified in [12] to optimize the

performance of NMA by minimizing the null message

transmission across each LP.

In PDES systems, the distributed discrete events

need to be tightly synchronized with each other in order

to produce the correct results. However, if these

discrete events are not properly synchronized, the

performance of a PDES environment may degrade

significantly [2]. Time management algorithms are,

therefore, required to ensure that the execution of a

PDES is properly synchronized. Two main classes of

time management algorithms are optimistic and

conservative. In optimistic time management

algorithm, errors are detected and recovered at run

time. However, the performance of optimistic

synchronization protocols is mainly dependent on the

transmission delay [13]. On the other hand, in

conservative PDES, each LP processes events strictly

in time stamp order. Since all LPs do not have a

consistent view of the state of the entire system, LPs

must exchange information to determine when events

are safe to process [1, 3].

Although, much research has been done to evaluate

the performance of conservative NMA for

inefficiencies and overhead [3, 12], none of them

suggest any potential optimization for the NMA.

Reference [12] proposed a quantitative criterion that

incorporates many critical parameters relevant to the

performance of NMA. It has been shown that the

selection of values for several critical parameters such

as the values for Lookahead (L), null message ratio

(NMR), and frequency of transmission plays an

important role in the generation of null messages [12].

If these values are not properly chosen by a simulation

designer, the result will be an excessive number of null

messages across each LP. This situation gets more

severe when the NMA needs to run to perform a

detailed logistics simulation in a distributed

environment to simulate a huge amount of data [9].

This paper presents a mathematical model based on

the quantitative criteria specified in [12] to optimize

the performance of NMA by reducing the null message

Reducing Null Message Traffic in Large Parallel and Distributed Systems

Syed S. Rizvi and Khaled M. Elleithy

Computer Science and Engineering Department

University of Bridgeport,

B

ridgeport, CT 06601

{srizvi, elleithy}@bridgeport.edu

A

asia Riasat

De

partment of Computer Science

Institute of Business Management

Karachi, Pakistan 78100

aasia.riasat@iobm.edu.pk

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978-1-4244-2703-1/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

t

raffic. The reduction in the null message traffic

significantly improves the performance of a PDES

system by both minimizing the transmission overhead

and maintaining a consistent parallelization. Moreover,

the proposed mathematical model can be used to

approximate the optimal values of some critical

parameters such as frequency of transmission, L values,

and the variance of null message elimination. These

optimal values can be further used to eliminate

unnecessary generation of null messages across the

LPs. In addition, the performance analysis of the

proposed mathematical model incorporates both

uniform and non-uniform distribution of L values

across multiple output lines of an LP. Our simulation

and numerical analysis suggest that an optimal NMA

offers better scalability in PDES system if it is used

with the proper selection of critical parameters

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section

2 provides an overview of the conservative

synchronization protocols. Section 3 presents the

proposed mathematical model based on the quantitative

criteria specified in [12]. Section 4 discusses the

potential optimizations in the NMA based on the

proposed mathematical model. Section 5 presents a

performance analysis for both the proposed

mathematical model and the optimizations for NMA.

Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper.

2. Related work

Event synchronization is an essential part of parallel

simulation. In general, synchronization protocols can

be categorized into two different families: conservative

and optimistic. Conservative protocols fundamentally

maintain causality in event execution by strictly

disallowing the processing of events out of timestamp

order. The main problems faced in conservative

algorithms are overcoming deadlock and guaranteeing

the steady progress of simulation time. Examples of

conservative mechanisms include Chandy, Misra and

Byrant's NMP [6], and Peacock, Manning, and Wong

[11] avoided deadlock through null messages. The

primary problem associated with null messages is that

if their timestamps are chosen inappropriately, the

simulation becomes choked with null messages and

performance suffers. Some intelligent approaches to

null message generation include generation on demand

[8], and generation after a time-out [5]. Some earlier

research on discrete event simulation has focused on

variants of null message protocol (NMP, with the

objective of reducing the high null message overhead.

For instance, Bain and Scott [4] attempt to simplify the

communication topology to resolve the problem of

transmitting redundant null messages due to low

Lookahead cycles. Other recent developments [10]

have focused on incorporating knowledge about the LP

into the synchronization algorithms. Cota and Sargent

[7] focused on the skew in simulation time between

different LPs by exploiting knowledge about the LPs

and the topology of the interconnections.

Although earlier work has aimed to optimize the

performance of the NMA by proposing the variants of

the NMP [3, 4, 8, 10, 12], it has not addressed reducing

the exchange of null messages that is caused by

improper selection of the parameters.

The principal problem with the NMA is that it uses

only the current simulation time of each LP and the L

value to predict the minimum time stamp of messages it

can generate in the future [12]. These messages with

the minimum time stamp are then used to avoid

deadlock. As a result, if one of the important

parameters such as the L value is chosen poorly, the

performance will degrade significantly due to an

excessive number of null messages. However, the

prediction of minimum time stamps of messages can be

improved by understanding the relationship between

the time stamp and the L value [12].

3. Mathematical model for NMA

A PDES environment involves synchronization

overhead which is added due to the distributed nature

of simulation. With NMA, this overhead is mainly

associated with the transmission of null messages.

Therefore, when comparing the performance of a

PDES environment that uses NMA with the

performance of sequential execution, the message

overhead can make a significant performance

difference between the two approaches. Before

presenting a proposed mathematical model, it is worth

mentioning some of our key assumptions.

• We assume that the value of L may change during

the execution of a Lookahead period. However, the

values of L can not instantaneously be reduced.

• Initially, a constant event arrival or job intensity rate

is assumed for each participating LP in the

simulation. However, for the sake of experimental

verifications, we also consider the non-uniform

distribution of L values across multiple output lines

of an LP.

• For the frequency of message transmission, we

assume that all messages are equally distributed

among the LPs. For the proposed mathematical

model, we assume that we have n number of LPs in

the simulation where all LPs are connected with each

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o

ther by means of highly reliable mesh networks

topology. Also, each LP maintains n-1 input and

output links for both input and output neighboring

LPs, respectively.

3.1. Definition of system parameters

All model variables, along with their definition, are

listed in Table 1. Based on the concept of NMA, we

assume that each LP maintains two clock times, one for

each of its input and output neighbors as shown in

Figure 1. One is the minimum receiving time (MRT) for

the input neighbor LP whereas the second is the

minimum sending time (MST) for the output neighbor

LP. The MRT represents an earliest time when an LP

can receive an event message from one of its input

neighboring LPs, where as the MST represents an

earliest time by which an LP can send a message to one

of its neighboring LP. The performance (P) of a

conservative distributed simulation environment mainly

depends on the amount of computation required for

processing an event per second. In addition, the event

arrival rate (

ρ

) represents the number of events that

o

ccur per second (in practice, events occur per

simulation second). Unlike performance, the

parameter

ρ

mainly depends on the model. Lookahead

(L)

is measured in seconds. Frequency of transmission

(

T

F

) is the frequency of sending a message from one

L

P to another. In addition, T

Null

represents the

timestamp of a null message sent from one LP to other

LPs.

In order to measure the performance, it is

imperative to consider one parameter that can compute

simulation time advancement (STA). The STA can be

defined as a ratio of performance to event arrival rate.

This relationship can be expressed as:

STA P

ρ

=

(1)

The value of MRT is updated by the time stamp of a

null message coming from other neighboring LPs on

one of the input links of a receiving LP. Any event

scheduled by an LP must have a timestamp at least as

large as the LP’s simulation time clock [1]. This

requirement is also referred as the local causality

constraint requirement. To strictly follow this

requirement, a large number of null messages can be

transmitted by LPs before the non null-messages can be

processed. This large message overhead may degrade

the performance of a conservative distributed

simulation. It is, therefore, worth computing the ratio of

null messages to the total messages transmitted among

LPs. The NMR can be simply defined as the ratio of

total number of null messages to total messages where

total messages include both null and event messages.

Mathematically, it can be expressed as follows:

Total Number of Null Messages

NMR

T

otal Messages

=

(2)

3.2. The proposed mathematical model

First, we present a mathematical model based on the

quantitative criteria specified in [12]. In addition, the

proposed mathematical model is also based on the

internal architecture of an LP as shown in Fig. 1. The

architecture for m number of LPs is shown in Fig. 2.

Using the quantitative criteria defined in [12], we can

approximate the advancement in the simulation time as

a ratio of performance to event arrival rate. This leads

us to the following mathematical expression of the

relative speed for simulation advancement:

( )

{

}

Msg

P T E

s

(3)

Taking this into account, we can give the following

hypothesis for approximating the number of null

messages transmitted per LP: “If we assume that we

have an average value of L which associates with one

of the output lines of an LP, then P can be

approximated as”:

(

)

1

M

sg

P E L

≅

(4)

Combining (3) and (4) yields the estimated number

of null messages transmitted per LP that has only one

output line as shown in (5).

( )

( )

(

)

( )

1 1

Msg S Msg S

LP

Null E L T E T L

(5)

Furthermore, if we assume that we have O number of

output lines attached with each LP with the uniform

distribution of L value on each output line, then (5) can

Table 1

S

ystem parameter definition

Parameter Definition

P

C

omputation required for processing an event

per second

ρ

E

vent arrival rate (events per second)

MRT

M

inimum receiving time

MST

M

inimum sending time

L

L

ookahead

STA

S

imulation time advancement

F

T

F

requency of transmission

T

Null

T

imestamp of a null message

T

S

C

urrent simulation of a LP

T

Total

T

otal simulation time in seconds

1117

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b

e further generalized for O number of output lines per

LP as follows:

( )

( )

(

)

( )

Msg S Msg S

LP

Null E O L T E T O L

(6)

It should be noted that (6) represents total number of

null messages transmitted per LP via O number of

output lines to the neighboring LPs. If we assume that

we have m number of total LPs present in a system

where each LP has O number of output lines, then this

allows us to extend (6) and generalize it for m number

of LPs present in a distributed simulation as shown in

(7). It can be seen that (7) gives total number of null

messages exchange among all LPs.

( )

( )

(

)

( )

Msg S Msg S

m LP

Null E O L m T E T O L m

−

(7)

where the term

O L

in (7) shows a uniform distribution

o

f L value for O number of output lines.

The assumption of uniform distribution of

Lookahead among O output lines of an LP simplifies

the procedure for computing the number of null

messages transmitted per LP to other neighboring LPs.

However, the values for L may change during the

execution of a Lookahead period that makes the

uniform distribution assumption of Lookahead a little

unrealistic. This argument leads us to the fact that we

should also account a non-uniform distribution method

for Lookahead where each output line of an LP can

have a different value of L. We can rewrite (6) as:

( )

( )( )

( )

1 1

1

O O

Msg i S Msg S i

LP

i i

Null E L T E T L

= =

∑ ∑

(8)

It should be noted that (8) represents the total

number of null messages transmitted per LP to other

neighboring LPs.. If we assume that the model is

partitioned into m number of total LPs where each LP

can have at most O number of output lines, this allows

us to extend (8) for m number of LPs.

( )

( )( )

( )

1 1 1 1

1

m O m O

Msg hi S Msg S hi

m LP

h

i h i

Null E L T E T L

−

=

= = =

∑∑ ∑∑

(9)

It can be evident that (9) gives the total number of

null messages exchange among all LPs.

4. Performance optimization of NMA

In this section, we introduce two different ways to

optimize the performance of NMA. We first implement

the concept of frequency of transmission described in

[12] to minimize the exchange of null messages across

the LP. Secondly, we present the new concept of

variance that works with the frequency of transmission

to avoid the unnecessary generation of null messages

and consequently minimize the overall synchronization

overhead. For both concepts, we derive a closed form

mathematical expression that can be used to evaluate

the performance of NMA in the presence of deadlock

situation.

4.1. Frequency of transmission

Transmission of null-messages on each occurrence

of an event results in unnecessary generation of null

messages that causes an increase in the synchronization

overhead. We believe, instead of sending null message

after every one event, it should be transmitted with

respect to a certain frequency of transmission. This

frequency of transmission (F

T

) is a fixed amount of

time and it should be measured in simulation second

per second. Recall (2) and (4), number of events

processed per second per LP can be equated from both

equations. This yields the following approximation for

F

T

in term of L value.

Fi

gure 1. Internal architecture of an LP

Figure 2. m number of LPs with I number of

input queues and O number of output queues

1118

( )

2 1 2

Msg T Msg T

E L F E L L F

≅ ⇒ ≅

(10)

Substituting the value of (10) into (5), we get,

( )

1 1

2 2

S

S

L

P

T T

Msg

Msg

T

Null E T

E

F F

(11)

Equation (11) can be generalized for O number of

output lines per LP when the number of null messages

is assumed to generate with a certain frequency of

transmission as shown in (12).

( )

2 2

S

M

sg S

LP

Msg

T T

TO O

Null E T

E

F F

(12)

Equation (12) gives an estimated number of null

messages transmitted by an LP that has O number of

output lines where each line carry an equal percentage

of the L value in terms of a fixed frequency of

transmission per output line. In addition, if we assume

that the system consists of m number of total LPs where

each LP has a fixed number of output lines, then (12)

can be further extended for m number of LPs.

( )

( )

( ) ( )

%

2 2

S

M

sg T S T

m LP

Msg

T

T

Null E m O F T m O F

E

where F L

−

× ×

→

(13)

where the denominator of (13) (i.e.,

T

F

O )

represents

a uniform rate of null message transmission per output

line. Based on (13), we can conclude that a non

uniformity in null message algorithm results a non

linear generation of null messages. An expression can

be derived for O number of output lines where each

line may carry a different value of F

T

( )

1 1

%

1

2 2

O O

M

sg

S

S

LP

i i

Msg

Ti Ti

Ti i

E

T

Null T

E

F F

where F L

= =

→

∑ ∑

(14)

Furthermore, (14) can be further extended and

generalized for m number of LPs where each LP can

have at most O number of output lines.

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

%

1 1

2

1

2

m O

Msg S Msg

m LP T ki

k i

m O

S

T ki ki

k i

T ki

Null E F T E

T where F L

F

−

= =

= =

→

∑∑

∑∑

(15)

4.2. Variance for null message elimination

Also, in this scenario, it is essential to cancel out the

unnecessary generation of null messages. Variance

represents the probability of cancellation of

unnecessary null messages. The value of variance may

exist between 0 and 1. It should also be subtracted from

1, so that we can show that increase in variance causes

a decrease in the over all null messages where as a

decrease in variance results an increase in null

messages. If we consider variance as 0, then it should

give us the same results that we could achieve with out

using variance. In order to reflect the variance of null

message cancellation, we can rewrite (13) for m

nu

mber of LPs with the uniform distribution of null

message transmission per output:

( )

( )

( )

%

2

(1 )

(1 ) 0 1

2

S

M

sg T

m LP

Msg

S T

T

T

Null E m O F

E

O

T m where F L and

F

σ

σ σ

−

× −

× − → ≤ <

(16)

where

σ

represents probability of null message

c

ancellation.

The same concept of null message cancellation can

be implemented with a simulation model where the L

values are non-uniformly distributed among O number

of output lines. This leads us to the following

modification in (16):

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

1 1

1 1

2 (1 )

1 2 (1 ) 0 1

m O

S

M

sg T

m LP ki

k i

Msg

m O

S T

ki

k i

T

Null E F

E

T F where

σ

σ σ

−

= =

= =

−

− ≤ <

∑∑

∑∑

(17)

5. Performance analysis of NMA

For the sake of performance analysis, we simulate 5

different cases. The system is modeled in C++.

5.1. Multiple output lines per LP

Using (6), Fig.3 shows the null message transmission

with the following simulation parameters: simulation

time (Ts) = 500 sec, L is uniformly distributed per

output line. The number of output line may vary from 0

to 8 for all results as show in Fig.3. Simulation results

of Fig. 3 presents a comparison of null message

transmission per LP versus multiple output lines.

1119

5.2.

Multiple LPs with multiple output lines

per LP

We assume that we have multiple LPs with O output

lines (fixed per LP). Let the output lines per LP is 4

with the (Ts) of 500 sec. Using (7), Fig.4 shows the

null message transmission with the following

simulation parameters: Ts = 500 sec, L is uniformly

distributed per output lines, the output lines are

assumed to be fixed for each LP (O = 4). The numbers

of

LPs are varied from 1 to 10 as show in Fig.4.

5.3. Multiple output lines per LP with non-

uniform distribution of Lookahead

For this simulation, we assume that we have single

LP that has O number of output lines where each

output line of an LP can have different value of L.

Using (8), Fig.5 shows the null message transmission

with the following simulation parameters: Ts = 500 sec,

L is non-uniformly distributed per output lines. The

numbers of output lines may vary from 1 to 10 as show

in Fig.5. Also, it should be noted that the value of L is

chosen randomly within the range of 0 to 1 and

assigned to each output line at run time. This random

selection may control the generation of unnecessary

null messages as long as the value is chosen

appropriately.

5.4. Multiple LPs with multiple fixed output

lines

For this simulation, we assume that we have multiple

LPs that can have fixed number of output lines where

each line of an LP can have different value of L. Using

(9), Fig.6 shows the null message transmission with the

following simulation parameters: Ts = 500 sec, L is

non-uniformly distributed per output lines. The

numbers of LPs are varied from 1 to 20. Also, it should

be noted that the value of m and O are both varying

quantity for this particular scenario. In harmony with

our expectations, the number of null messages

increases due to an increase in number of LPs.

However, this increase in null messages is limited and

controlled due to the random behavior of Lookahead.

This can also be considered as irregular networks due

to the non uniform distribution.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Output lines (O) Per LP

Null Message Transmission Per LP

Null(LP) with L=0.2

Null(LP) with L=0.4

Null(LP) with L=0.6

Null(LP) with L=0.7

Figure 3. Multiple output lines per LP versus

null message transmission per LP

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

Number Of LPs

Null Message Transmission

Null(m-LP) with L=0.2

Null(m-LP) with L=0.3

Null(m-LP) with L=0.4

Null(m-LP) with L=0.6

Null(m-LP) with L=0.7

F

igure 4. Multiple LPs with fixed output lines

per LP versus null message transmission

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Number Of output lines (O) per LP

Null Message Transmission per LP

Null Messages where 0<L<1 (100 Runs)

Null Messages where 0<L<1 (300 Runs)

Null Messages where 0<L<1 (500 Runs)

Null Messages where 0<L<1 (700 Runs)

Figure 5. Multiple output lines per LP with

non-uniform distribution of L value

1120

6. C

onclusion

We have proposed a mathematical model to predict

the optimum values of critical parameters that have

great impact on the performance of NMA. The derived

properties of the proposed mathematical model account

for the cases when the NMA would send too many null

messages. The proposed mathematical model provides

a quick and practical way for simulation designers to

predict whether a simulation model has potential to

perform well under NMA in a given simulation

environment by giving the approximate optimal values

of the critical parameters. We have experimentally

verified that if critical parameters, specifically the L

va

lue, are chosen intelligently, we can limit the

transmission of null messages among the LPs and

consequently improve the performance of NMA in a

distributed simulation environment.

REFERENCES

[1] R. M. Fujimoto, “Distributed Simulation system,”

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th

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[10] D. M. Nicol and P. F. Reynolds, ‘‘Problem Oriented

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39 9-406, Dec. 1979.

[12] Syed S. Rizvi, K. M. Elleithy, Aasia Riasat,

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443-448, Bridgeport CT, December 4-14 2006.

[13] Syed S. Rizvi, Khaled M. Elleithy, and Aasia Riasat,

“Trees and Butterflies Barriers in Distributed

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Latency and the Processor Idle Time”, IEEE

International Conference on Information and Emerging

Technologies (ICIET-2007), pp. 1 – 6, July 06-07,

2007, Karachi, Pakistan.

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

Number Of LPs

Null Message Transmission

4 output lines per LP where 0<L<1 (100 Runs)

6 output lines per LP where 0<L<1 (300 Runs)

8 output lines per LP where 0<L<1 (500 Runs)

10 output lines per LP where 0<L<1 (700 Runs)

Figure 6. Multiple LPs and multiple fixed output

l

ines with non-uniform distribution of L versus

null message transmission

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