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Performance indicators

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Performance indicators

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... The factors that make a paradata-based survey performance indicator a "key" performance indicator include operational needs, management goals, client priorities, logical or theoretical justifications for use, and empirical evidence that they work well as performance indicators. The vast array of possible indicators available from paradata (described in other chapters in this volume) warrants a deliberative practice in choosing KPIs for a quality control program (see Doran, 1981;Fitz-Gibbon, 1990), lest the pursuit of quality become a proverbial fishing expedition. This chapter describes and justifies some of the indicators made possible by extensive paradata collection and briefly discusses the processes involved in determining which KPIs to use. ...
... While control charts originally developed as a tool for controlling manufacturing processes, they have been applied in a variety of contexts with repeated operational processes in the past few decades, such as healthcare (Carey and Lloyd, 2001;Benneyan et al., 2003;Chen et al., 2010;Pujar et al., 2010) and education (Fitz-Gibbon, 1990;Jenicke et al., 2008). Medical applications seek to control outcomes such as "adverse reactions to procedures" and education applications try to optimize "student success" or "retention through graduation." ...
Chapter
Abstract for the Book: Survey data and the paradata that describe how they were collected can be thought of as emerging from a system of interdependent processes, each of which includes individual moving parts. There is the recruitment process, during which units are sampled and approached for participation. From those approaches, case dispositions, like " Completed Survey, " or " Doorstep Refusal, " become paradata that describe this phase of the data collection system. There is the process of measuring the participating sample units, which produces paradata in the form of keystroke files and time stamps that yeild measures of question duration and interview pace. Recording, plotting, and monitoring the paradata produced by these operations offers opportunities to control these processes. Using paradata this way to manage survey data collection can lead to more efficient operations that produce higher quality data at lower cost (Groves and Heeringa, 2006). This chapter discusses opportunities and challenges for survey analytics, quality control, and quality assurance using paradata. It covers the role of statistical process and quality control concepts in paradata-based quality control and assurance programs, as well as an overview of key performance indicators (KPIs) derived from paradata (e.g., interviews per hour, daily completion rate, or average interview duration). It focuses on how to develop and use control charts and related Improving Surveys with Paradata: Analytic Uses of Process Information, First Edition. Edited by Frauke Kreuter.
... Hence, it is necessary to design and optimize the organization-level KPI system to support healthy and rapid development of enterprises. KPI is a performance measure tool commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate its performance, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term goals (Gibbon 1990). KPI should be defined objectively to provide quantifiable and measurable indications of the organizations progress towards achieving its goals. ...
... Hence, it is necessary to design and optimize the organization-level KPI system to support healthy and rapid development of enterprises. KPI is a performance measure tool commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate its performance, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term goals (Fitz-Gibbon 1990). KPI should be defined objectively to provide quantifiable and measurable indications of the organizations progress towards achieving its goals. ...
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Material Management is the engine that drives its Supply Chain and Logistics of manufacturing enterprise or any other organization. With the economy development and technical progress, many Logistics are transforming from 1PL and 2PL and 3PL to 4PL and 5PL continuously, and many manufacturers are transforming from Mass Production to Mass Customization, and then to new manufacturing modes all the time, like Cloud Manufacturing, Social Manufacturing etc. So, Material Management should continuously apply the latest ICT & intelligent technologies or systems, like Barcode, RFID, IoT (Internet of Things ), GPS/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Cloud Computing , Big data , Parallel Control and Management , to realize its transformation and upgrade coordinately with its Supply Chain and Logistics.
... Yet, getting a meaningful insight without a distraction is very important. One of the famous quotes "if you can't measure it, you can't manage it" [10] might be understood in a way that lead organizations towards trying to measure everything. Deciding on what to measure depends on what the organization focuses and tries to achieve. ...
Conference Paper
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According to Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV), organizational process performance (OPP) area aims to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of performance of selected processes. Many organizations have started their agile transformation to leverage the capabilities of their software development processes. In order to measure the effects of agile transformation, it is important to understand to what extent agile methods contribute to business objectives. Hoshin Matrix is a tool that provides a rationale for selecting processes identified for process performance analyses. Moreover, this rationale includes traceability from software development execution to business objectives. This study describes the implementation example of an adapted version of Hoshin Matrix at Huawei Turkey Research and Development Center which aims to establish its organizational quantitative quality and process performance objectives based on a set of business objectives. Our preliminary findings suggest that our OPP design may provide a guideline for software development organizations who are willing to adopt agile transformation and for those who would like to improve their software development processes.
... The invention of goal-oriented requirements engineering brought new capabilities for representing issues at the strategic and tactical level. Our contribution is the proposition of a conceptual model that seamless merges i* [18], Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) [10] and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) [2] as to produce a modeling language that addresses strategic, tactical and operational layers with explicit tracing among the levels. The merge of languages first addresses the lack of notations that support both process and goal modeling; second, maintains a more detailed traceability between the layers by using relationships in places where the languages intercept each other; and third, i* is used as the interconnection of the three layers, departing from the viewpoint of intentional actors. ...
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In the world of business, even small advantages make a difference. As such, establishing strategic goals becomes a very important practice. However, the big challenge is in the designing of processes aligned with the goals. Modeling goals and processes in an integrated way improves the traceability among strategic and operational layers, easing up the alignment problem.
... Appropriate metrics are needed to quantify and help understand the status quo, to become aware of deficits within the organization in order to deduce measures, and finally to evaluate the effects of measures which have been implemented for the improvement of the service organization [4]. Performance indicators, which can be defined as "item[s] of information collected at regular intervals to track the performance of a system" [5], are the basis for evaluating and benchmarking the performance of organizations and processes within organizations. ...
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The effective delivery of industrial services requires systematic approaches for planning and organizing delivery processes and network partners. In order to be able to assess the performance of the service organization, significant key performance indicators are needed. The performance of the service organization is defined by its ability to effectively assign resources such as service technicians, tools and spare parts to service tasks and its ability to implement and deliver the service processes as planned. Thus, important key performance indicators for assessing the delivery and delivery planning of product-related industrial services are presented in this paper. The relevant performance indicators are classified based on their importance for measuring planning performance and delivery performance.
... The Key Performance indicators are the modern tools that help to keep the performance in the production on the high level [9,10]. The possibility to discover and understand the bottlenecks, opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of workers and machines, setting higher goals and achieving them by moving straight forward is possible, when you are following and monitoring in real time the right metrics in your enterprise. ...
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Nowadays, to be able to stay in competitive environment, organizations have come to the understanding, that monitoring of enterprise processes and factory floor is one of the ways to achieve better efficiency, performance and overview. As consequence of several frameworks, the methodologies has been proposed during last years. The companies are dealing with different key performance indicators (KPI), which help to focus on the parameters at that particular enterprise and are powerful tools in management processes. The real time monitoring systems for monitoring the KPIs will help companies to identify progress toward sales, marketing and customer service goals. However, the amount of different available metrics provides difficulties to make right decisions.
... Those measurements identify current performance states of the system and act as indications on how and where the gaps between current and desired Level of Performance (LoP) [41]. Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a unique or a set of performance measurements which is deliberately selected for representing LoP [42]. The selection criteria should ensure that (1) selected KPI can be tied into the overall study purpose and goals; (2) the KPI should directly reflects the LoP changes over time; ...
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Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied “R4” resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR), but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET) and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and intensity. By tackling this conventional problem with emerging concept, our metric provides a systemic alternative approach and enriches the toolbox for congestion assessment. Future work will be conducted on a larger scale with multiplex scenarios in various traffic conditions.
... The researchers also need metrics to measure their research performance. The metric is a type of performance measurement (Fitz-Gibbon, 1990) and it appear as a measurable number that usually used to evaluate success of the organizations or individuals. The researcher reputation is important so that they can be recognized by the other researchers in their research field. ...
... The researchers also need metrics to measure their research performance. The metric is a type of performance measurement (Fitz-Gibbon, 1990) and it appear as a measurable number that usually used to evaluate success of the organizations or individuals. The researcher reputation is important so that they can be recognized by the other researchers in their research field. ...
... Performance indicators can be defined as items of information collected at regular intervals to track the performance of a system and convey to policy makers important insights and directions (Fitz-Gibbon 1990). In addition to the universal sanitation indicator, various agencies and organizations worldwide have developed indicators to measure wastewater systems performance (Van Den Berg and Danilenko 2011;US EPA 2009;Alegre et al. 2006;Bagheri et al. 2006;Ashley and Hopkinson 2002;UN-ESCWA 2013a, b). ...
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The sustainable access to basic sanitation services is one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000. A monitoring and reporting program on progress made on access to improved sanitation services has been pursued by the global community using the universal indicator 'proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility'. However, monitoring and reporting progress using this indicator does not reflect the effective wastewater management and pollution control. This paper presents a methodological approach for quantitative assessment of the effective waste-water management based on non-additive aggregation methodology which accounts for the interactions among indicators. Firstly, a set of indicators are identified and calculation methods are presented. Secondly, the use of 2-order Choquet integral to aggregate indicators into an Effective Wastewater Management index (EWM) is proposed. At the practical level, results of evaluation of the EWM of the Wastewater Collection Systems in Lebanon are then presented and discussed. Finally, the conclusions and further developments are presented.
... A performance indicator is a type of performance measurement, a measurable value that demonstrates the efficiency of a performance for business or other activities [13]. Performance indicators are quantitative tools and are usually expressed as a rate, ratio or percentage [14]. ...
Conference Paper
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The sustainable management of closed landfills requires approaches and tools for the optimisation of the aftercare activities in order to obtain the optimal environmental and social benefit with reduced cost. As the aftercare cost of a landfill could usually occur several decades while the landfill is not obtaining fees for deposited waste anymore the legislation usually requires to build respective financial reserves for the aftercare of the landfill. Often this is combined with valorisation activities of the closed landfill site such as landfill gas valorisation or solar power generation. The study proposes the Shewhart Cycle OPDCA as framework for the optimisation approach of the aftercare of a landfill. The application of the OPDCA cycle as frame work for the design and optimisation of aftercare programs for landfills allows for a systematic approach with continuous improvement. Further each phase of the OPDCA framed aftercare system can be supported by the use of feasible tools. Quality control and their evaluation criteria are elementary components of each systems analysis. The collection of criteria and tools for quality control mentioned above can be summarized as criteria of “Good Landfill Aftercare Practice” (GLAP).
... So can a driver be a measuring attribute? According to Fitz-Gibbon (1990), a driver is a mere input and not an attribute for measurement. Earlier, Trochim (1989a, 1989b ) had articulated that there are only three valid measuring attributes – measure, metric and indicator, and each has distinctive characteristics, and plays different roles. ...
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This paper uses a systematic review to answer two research questions: (1) has this large number of performance measurement systems (PMS) publications contributed to a better understanding of performance measurement? and (2) what would a better understanding of PMS lead us to? This paper found that the field has not evolved substantially for the past 30 years. While various PMS are discussed and proposed, there are many instances of a common ground on what were discussed but in a few instances, there is little to no agreement concerning the activities and characteristics used to describe them, and there is also a great deal of overlap in the meaning of definitions and terms. Nevertheless, the synthesis review revealed that many of the discussions of the fundamental characteristics useful and in certain cases, interesting and insightful. Research gaps were identified and narrowed by synthesising instances of a common ground, and if a common ground is not forthcoming, references to non-PMS articles were made in order to ascertain the ‘true’ meaning of terms, purposes and applications of PMS. This improves our understanding of PMS, and thus we can use the result of the review to conceptualise and present coherent arguments in the pursuance of a good PMS. This research has important implications for both practitioners and academics in the area of performance measurement within an organisation, and shall provide a basis on which ongoing and future research efforts on this field can be built upon.
... The underlying idea is to estimate input and output data before and after performance, and compare the ratio Output/Input of the targeted KPI against the actual KPI. A full description of the methodology can be found in [21]. ...
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Sabah is at a crossroads. The State still retains approximately 50% of its original forest, but most of these forests are found in the interior parts of the State and most of them are logged over and devoid of significant timber resources. Around this forested area is a rapidly developing landscape with secondary regrowth, plantations, mines, and the fields and villages where the rural population makes a living. Use of its natural capital has allowed the state to develop quickly, benefiting many of its people. Unfortunately, there are costs to this development. Loss and degradation of forests has led to high species extinction risks and increasingly negative effects on human populations, for example from flooding, freshwater pollution, landslides, and declining fisheries. Unless remaining natural resources, such as forests are managed more sustainably, Sabah could lose an important and internationally recognized asset, and a significant source of income. The choice that the people of Sabah have is to continue along the present path of unsustainable environmental use and cope with the development costs, or to seek some level of stabilization in which development aspirations are balanced with environmental and social sustainability. Sabah’s state government institutions have expressed a desire to reduce the environmental impacts of the current economic development and to seek more sustainable ways to develop and use the land, waters, and natural resources of the island. At the same time, these governments are targeting an expansion of agricultural production, an improved and expanded infrastructural network, hydro-electrical projects, and other developments that potentially clash with the stated goals to maintain forest cover and its environmental services. As a result, Sabah is in urgent need for a holistic and practical development plan that takes ecological concepts into consideration and determines optimal use of resources and minimization of trade-off costs. Sabah is moving in the right direction with regard to such sustainability goals. In fact, Sabah appears to be ahead compared to other parts of Borneo Island or even in broader South East Asia. The State has the opportunity to be a model for a “Green Economy” throughout the island, as well as in the developing world - a green economy which would results in improved human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. What is needed is a development plan for the state, supported by all main government organizations in which any proposed developments are carefully considered in terms of their long-term economic, environmental and social impacts. The Heart of Borneo Initiative (HoB) has provided Sabah with a framework for state-wide sustainable development plans. HoB is a transboundary collaboration between Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia to effectively manage and conserve equatorial rainforests included within its boundaries for the benefit of people and nature. The first Strategic Plan of Action (SPA) was produced in 2008, designed to be a roadmap for each country’s participation to accomplish the overall HoB vision. Since then, HoB in Sabah has had many successes, including an increase in protected area from about 939,000 ha in 2008 (or about 12.7% of the total land mass of the state) to a staggering 1,300,000 ha in 2013 (19.0% of the land mass). These new protected areas have increased the overall connectivity in Sabah’s networks of forests and thus increased the survival chances of endangered wildlife. Other successes include reforestation and restoration efforts that aim to restore forest functionality in over 150,000 ha; the application of reduced- Impact Logging practices in all commercial forest reserves; the development of new funding mechanisms to protect the rich biodiversity of the state; and the development of State Action Plans (SAPs) for three iconic totally protected species: orangutan, Bornean elephant and Sumatran rhino. In the spirit of refreshing and recommitting to the common HoB tri-lateral vision, a revised Strategic Plan of Action for the period 2014-2020 was commissioned by the Sabah State Committee, and this document is the result. This document: • Presents the HoB and green development objectives in the light of national policies, and points out potential for synergy and conflict; • It presents the major issues and challenges identified during the HoB consultation process that led to the development of this document; • It provides insight into factors that enable green development in Sabah; • It provides specific recommendations for follow up action.
... A performance indicator is a measure of performance (Fitz-Gibbon, 1990). KPIs are general indicators of performance that focus on critical aspects of outputs or outcomes (Chan and Chan, 2004). ...
... The objective of this article is to analyze how KPIs can be enhanced and used as part of an automated (computerized) algorithm to interact with the business directly. The definition of these indicators, whether it is a lead, lag, RI, PI, KRI, KPI, etc. [1,2,3], is not relevant because this article will demonstrate how attributes can be attached to indicators to give a machine a holistic view into the business process. Therefore, all indicators become no key performance indicators and will be evaluated in real-time and are part of a new reality. ...
Article
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KPIs (key performance indicators) are currently widely used in the industries at management level and in the toolkit of the consulting companies. However, they are interpreted by humans, and humans act on the results based on the experience of an individual. What is good,bad or underperforming is determined by fixed setpoints based on recognised industry benchmarks. Dynamic setpoints that are based on individual company or market circumstances are not common or even unheard of. KPIs are not automatically fed back into the control cycle of managing a company or an operational plant by a computerized business model. In general, they are high level in nature and do not go down to the nucleolus of the production process and operating plant equipment. Therefore, simplifications and reduction of data are necessary to make it manageable for decision-makers. However, in the time of cloud computing, deep learning, and AI science, it is possible to analyse the performance of infinitly small parts/equipment of a processing plant. The resulting data can be amalgamated from the bottom up to give precise results, the possibility to act instantaneously and the ability to identify the root cause of any issues. This article intends to offer potential solutions to how KPIs can be utilized for the digital transformation of any industryfor improving processes and business opportunities.
... This framework emphasis on the stakeholder in a group before determining on the other components, which are the strategies, process, capabilities, and the satisfaction and contribution of the stakeholders. [1] Differs with other existing performance management framework, such as Balance Scorecard [2] and Team Performance Management (TPM) [3] , emphasis on process and evaluation, or Key Performance Indicators [4] , which emphasis on the outcome. Performance Prism looks into the performance from the perspective of a stakeholder. ...
... The evaluation is performed using a method based on key performance indicators [53] . Performance indicators are a measure of performance which are commonly used in organizations to evaluate the progress and success of a project [20]. An approach for defining the measure of performance and their evaluation consists of the following activities: The first step consists in the definition of success indicators, which are the aspects to be measured in order to evaluate the long-term goals of project. ...
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Requirements engineering has been recognized as a fundamental phase of the software engineering process. Nevertheless, the elicitation and analysis of requirements are often left aside in favor of architecture-driven software development. This tendency, however, can lead to issues that may affect the success of a project. This paper presents our experience gained in the elicitation and analysis of requirements in a large-scale security-oriented European research project, which was originally conceived as an architecture-driven project. In particular, we illustrate the challenges that can be faced in large-scale research projects and consider the applicability of existing best practices and off-the-shelf methodologies with respect to the needs of such projects. We then discuss how those practices and methods can be integrated into the requirements engineering process and possibly improved to address the identified challenges. Finally, we summarize the lessons learned from our experience and the benefits that a proper requirements analysis can bring to a project.
... A performance indicator is a measurement survey to evaluate progress toward periodic achievement of the efficiency or productivity of a process that reflects the outcome or results of the process activities. (Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon 1990). Performance indicators may be considered as providing key information needed to define the efficiency and performance of a facility or a system (Deb & Cesario 1997). ...
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The purpose of the study was to apply performance indicators on wastewater reuse in the Palestinian Territories (Gaza) to assess on the impact of waste water and grey water projects on the ambient environment, labor costs and consumers in terms of technical, socio-economic and environmental aspects leading to safe and productive use of wastewater for crop production systems at the farm level and similar use of grey water at the household level. The study was conducted in Gaza in the period of 1 November 2012 to 1 August 2013. A field survey covered the main groups of interest for using treated wastewater, and questionnaires were designed for the target group. The questionnaires were distributed to 30 beneficiaries from Al-Zaitoun District and Khan Younis Governorate, filled, collected, sorted, and documented. Descriptive statistics were calculated from the collected data. Interesting result of data analysis that addressed key factors are discussed in this paper. Most farmers were willing to use treated wastewater in principle, and so need to be more educated and trained in the reuse of reclaimed water in terms of social, economic, environmental issues Keywords: performance indicators, agriculture, wastewater, Palestinian territories (Gaza)
Article
University departments of education in England and Wales plan and deliver their courses according to externally imposed criteria, with gender issues included in education for equal opportunities. This paper presents student and tutor responses to an evaluation of a 1 week compulsory unit on gender in a secondary postgraduate certificate in education course. The reactions to different components of the week are analysed in terms of the contrasting situations and power relations within them. Strong negative responses indicate that staff trying to keep, or even put, gender issues on the agenda face an uphill struggle. This may be made more difficult by the radical reforms proposed for teacher education courses in the near future.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the major performance measurement models, hereafter called performance models, and investigate their application in the context of facility management (FM), based on which it aims to identify the effectiveness of these models and recommend the most important performance indicators. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of literature review, expert interview and questionnaire survey is adopted in this study. A literature review and a series of expert interviews help to identify the performance models spread in general and applied to FM in particular. Based on the literature review and expert interviews, a questionnaire survey is carried out in the UK and Ireland to investigate the application of performance models in FM practice. Findings – The review of relevant literature shows that in recent years various models have been developed to measure and improve the performance of organisations. The application of such models within FM organisations is evaluated in this study. It is found that key performance indicators (KPI), the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), and the Business Excellence Model (BEM) are more widely accepted and more effective than others. This is similar to the findings by a previous construction study. FM organisations benefit from effective performance measurement. When measuring performance, it is important for them to select the appropriate models and indicators. Originality/value – The existing studies contribute to the establishment of various performance models and the introduction of their concepts into the FM discipline. However, whether the application of these models in reality is effective or not needs to be justified. This research aims at analysing the real effect of existing models in the FM sector. Comparison is made between FM and construction. It helps to identify the major benefits from performance measurement for FM organisations. It provides FM practitioners with an insight into the appropriate use of performance models and indicators.
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The university plays a critical role in the transformation of society, and therefore excellence in teaching, research, and transfer of knowledge are required. In this sense, the University of the Basque Country (UPV / EHU) has developed the IKD concept attached to the teaching-learning process. This concept also connects with institutional policies that encourage cooperation between those involved in teaching, in a climate of confidence and dynamism through the promotion of educational material. In fact, the IKD concept is related to the curriculum development, and one of its key points is the encouragement of the self-learning process. With this aim, the design of new tools promoting this process is crucial, in order to enhance the acquisition of both specific and transversal competences, as long as to assimilate and use the body of knowledge of a particular subject. The work herein presented corresponds to an innovation project in education that has been granted by the University of the Basque Country (UPV / EHU), and it is linked to the Inorganic Chemistry field. In fact, the scope is the subject "Crystalline Solids", where the skills are a good chemical background, an adequate spatial vision, and firm mathematical and geometric concepts, specially, those related to symmetry. The scope of action before us is the teaching and learning of the subject "Crystalline Solids" traditionally linked to the knowledge area of Inorganic Chemistry. In this sense, one of the major difficulties is that we have been detecting related to the acquisition of both specific and transversal competences, as long as the assimilation and use of the body of knowledge in this field requires not only a knowledge base but adequate chemical a spatial vision also well developed and a firm base on which to mathematical and geometric concepts relates symmetry. In order to promote the later skills, the whole teaching team involved in that subject at the Pharmacy Faculty has prepared a guide for students where the use of several web pages is recommended and analysed. The guide leads the student through the concepts of ionic radius, prediction of crystalline structures, and lattice energy to encourage the self-learning. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this guide, the project also includes the comparison of the students marks in previous years, where this material was not available, and after the implementation of this project. This comparison is also analysed in the present work.
Conference Paper
This paper mainly focuses on the study about the improvement of materials performance management in power group enterprise based on the methodology of KPI (Key Performance Indicator). Firstly, a typical KPI approach is described from the perspectives of definitions, basic principles, design procedures and relevant researches. Next, a case study on KPI system design of “G” power group is done. The KPI system of power materials management and its corresponding information system are described and analyzed, and the existing problems are found out. Ultimately, the effective methods and suggestions are proposed to solve those problems, to improve the materials performance management, and to help the decision -making for “G” power group.
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Institutional policies encourage cooperation between those involved in teaching, in a climate of confidence and dynamism through the promotion of educational material. Self-learning, in particular, is taking in information, processing it, and retaining it without the need of another individual to be teaching it. Simply stated, self-learning requires the ability for a student to work independently. Self-taught students are motivated by the sense of a well-done job. They are self-motivated because they have the confidence that if they don't know an answer to a question, they know how to use the resources available to find out the answer. Self-taught students often can complete course work in a fraction of the time it would take to finish in a teacher-directed setting. Self-teaching should be ingraining in the student a concept of continual success, gradual and steady success that results from diligence and the pursuit of excellence. Taking into account the above mentioned aspects, the design of new tools promoting the self-learning process is crucial, in order to enhance the acquisition of both specific and transversal competences, as long as to assimilate and use the body of knowledge of a particular subject. The work herein presented is linked to the Inorganic Chemistry field. In fact, the scope is the subject "Crystalline Solids", where some of the major difficulties are related to the fact that not only a knowledge background is required but also adequate spatial vision and a firm base on mathematical and geometric concepts, since symmetry concepts are involved. In order to promote the later skills, the whole teaching team involved in the subject at the Pharmacy Faculty prepared a guide for students where the use of several web pages is recommended and analysed. The guide leads the student through the concepts of ionic radius, prediction of crystalline structures, and lattice energy to encourage the self-learning. Self-teaching is comprised of six steps: (a) climate setting, (b) diagnosing learning needs, (c) formulating learning goals, (d) identifying resources for learning, (e) choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and (f) evaluating learning outcomes. In fact, the work herein presented corresponds to the final step of an innovation project in education granted by the University of the Basque Country (UPV / EHU, Spain). After the design and implementation of specific self-learning materials for the topic Crystalline Solids (Inorganic Chemistry), the evaluation of the results has lead to the proposal of some improvement actions that conform an EFQM-based PDCA cycle.
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The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) uses several objective indicators to rank world universities, including the number of alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals, number of highly cited researchers selected by Thomson Scientific, number of articles published in journals of Nature and Science, and number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index. Research groups at universities are responsible of some of those indicators since the knowledge they produce is related to the number of indexed articles, their impact on the scientific community yielding the corresponding cites. On the other hand, doctoral theses are carried out in research groups, their results being the material that will be published. Therefore, doctorate students should be conscious of the relevance of their finds in relation to their influence on the ARWU ranking. In this sense, the research group leaders are supposed to create a publication culture where a good balance between quality and amount is desirable for articles. One of the ways to stimulate that compromise on students consists of measuring the quality of the articles derived from a particular thesis. Thus, the purpose of the work herein presented is the definition of a new indicator providing that information. This indicator can be used by research groups, but also by faculties, universities or other institutions to have quantitative information of their thesis not only after they are finished but also while they are being carried out. This is due to the fact that this new indicator uses the impact of the scientific journals as a basic parameter but considering the differences between distinct research fields. Therefore, it can be used to compare different institutions. Additionally, this new indicator exhibits the advantage of being able to be adaptable as an assessment tool for the individual strategic plans of a particular institution. In addition to the definition of this new indicator, the work herein presented also includes the description of the implementation experience carried out in EIDOS, a research group of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) during the past years.
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Science is like a wall that rises above the bricks below. For this reason, I would like to thank the authors of the resources used in this book and all the contributors to the development of the science. The development of technology and its use in all areas of human life cause transformation. This transformation is effective in many areas such as human life, business processes, ways of doing business, distribution channels, social and cultural values, government processes and etc. This transformation brings both advantages and disadvantages so these affect so many areas. The main purpose in the publication of this book is to draw attention to the effects of the irresistible changes of Digital Transformation. In this book, there are 9 chapters that cover the different aspects of Digital Transformation written by authors from different countries. I think the chapters will contribute to science and humanity. With this book, which we have created as a result of a detailed and meticulous study, academics, employees, students and anyone who is interested in digital transformation in the international arena will learn useful information about the changes and the impacts facing the world.
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The discipline Enterprise Architecture (EA) management aims to align business and IT, foster communication, and support the everlasting transformation of the organization. Thereby, EA management initiatives are driven by respective EA management goals, whose degree of achievement must be measurable. This calls for the definition of corresponding Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) enabling enterprise architects to plan, forecast, benchmark, and assess the goal fulfillment. As recent literature in the field shows, there are only few KPIs dedicated to validate EA management goal achievement. Moreover, existing indicators are differently structured, selective regarding the specific EA management goals, too general and vague with respect to the required data, and do not provide any adoption techniques for the enterprise context. In this paper we present a structure enabling the unified and configurable description of EA management KPIs. While the artifact ensures consistency among documented KPIs, it further provides guidance during their introduction and organization-specific adaptation. As first evaluation results prove, EA management domain experts consider the artifact on the whole as being helpful and applicable while simultaneously confirming the relevance of its constituents.
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Science is like a wall that rises above the bricks below. For this reason, I would like to thank the authors of the resources used in this book and all the contributors to the development of the science. The development of technology and its use in all areas of human life cause transformation. This transformation is effective in many areas such as human life, business processes, ways of doing business, distribution channels, social and cultural values, government processes and etc. This transformation brings both advantages and disadvantages so these affect so many areas. The main purpose in the publication of this book is to draw attention to the effects of the irresistible changes of Digital Transformation. In this book, there are 9 chapters that cover the different aspects of Digital Transformation written by authors from different countries. I think the chapters will contribute to science and humanity. With this book, which we have created as a result of a detailed and meticulous study, academics, employees, students and anyone who is interested in digital transformation in the international arena will learn useful information about the changes and the impacts facing the world.
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The world is at the dawn of a new industrial revolution that will fundamentally change the way we live and work. Many consider this the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). While the First Industrial Revolution (1 IR) mechanized production using water and steam power, the second one brought mass production using electric power, and the third one was characterized by automation and digitization, mainly using electronics and information technology. https://efeakademi.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/THE-IMPACTS-OF-DIGITAL-TRANSFORMATION.pdf
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Key performance indicators (KPIs) are powerful tools that industries can use not only to monitor their activities but also to highlight their unexploited potential. Energy‐based KPIs are nowadays mostly used to evaluate industrial process performances. However, these indicators might present some limitations and might give misleading results in some circumstances. An example is represented by industrial processes that make use of different energy forms (eg, electricity and heat) and of different material inputs, and that are therefore difficult to compare in terms of energy. A further example can be found in the Carnot engine that, despite being ideal, can have quite low energy efficiency (eg, the energy efficiency of a Carnot engine working between 700 and 300 K is 57%), suggesting that its performance can be improved. The use of exergy‐based KPIs allows us to overcome many of the limitations of energy‐based indicators. The exergy efficiency of Carnot engines is 100%, clearly indicating that the system cannot be further improved. Moreover, the use of specific exergy consumption instead of specific energy consumption to monitor the performance of a process allows one to take into account possible differences in quality of material and energy streams. In the present work, exergy‐based KPIs for industrial use are reviewed. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of the reviewed indicators, with the scope of promoting their use in industry. A systematic use of exergy‐based KPIs not only gives a meaningful representation of process performances in terms of resource use but it can also direct efforts to improve the processes. To better understand their meaning under different circumstances, the revised indicators are applied to 3 industrial processes.
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The Semester of Code initiative organised virtual placements for university students around Europe, working on authentic business problems using open source software. The project was welcomed by stakeholders, and many companies and open source foundations became involved. However, the response from students was disappointing. In this paper we examine the reasons for this, discussing the results of the evaluation work carried out. Finally, we consider the implications of our work for student placements and the Knowledge Alliance European Union programme.
Chapter
This chapter considers real-time resource efficiency indicators (REIs), which can also be used for reporting, as the cornerstone of solutions for real-time decision support and optimization to improve the resource efficiency of chemical plants. It defines suitable REIs that can be used for performance assessment over short periods of time as well as for reporting and to provide proper guidance to plant managers and operators. The chapter presents principles for the definition of real-time REIs that reflect the current technical performance of a production plant and can be used to steer the operation in real time. It also presents the RACER analysis as a tool to find out whether the indicators selected for the considered plant are suitable. The chapter describes the indicator aggregation from plant sections to enterprise levels in the hierarchical structural modelling of chemical plants used for contribution analysis and root cause identification.
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The paper focuses on the issue of how to identify appropriate indicators to measure the performance of publicly-funded innovation intermediaries. It argues that indicators need to be closely tied to the policy's objectives, which are usually linked to the remedying of innovation system failures. The case of a policy programme implemented in Tuscany (Italy) is used to illustrate how the choice of performance indicators that are only loosely tied to the policy’s objectives, can lead intermediaries to adopt behaviours that are misaligned with those objectives. The findings are then used to develop some implications for the design of performance indicators that are aligned with the objectives of policy.
Conference Paper
The participation of citizens in governments' decision-making is gaining more and more attention with the emergence and the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, it is still necessary to seek the most effective means to implement this activity in a way and a time that gives the citizens the opportunity to have a real influence on the decisions being made. This paper proposes a multidimensional analysis framework to better understand citizens' participation in a decision-making perspective. The objective of this framework is to provide a methodological approach for the collection, processing and analysis of information provided by citizens during an electronic citizens participation activity.
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Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education) and opportunities (such as site based management).
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