Article

Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control

Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 08/2010; 52(2):643-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.249
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks versus single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials versus repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n=20; 18-27years) and older adults (n=20; 60-85years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control.

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Available from: Simon W Davis, Sep 16, 2014
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    • "Normal aging is associated with decline in the performance of a variety of cognitive functions, including effects observed in the visual search (Plude and Doussard-Roosevelt, 1989) and in the tasks involving both bottom–up attention and top–down attention, with a more prominent decline in tasks emphasizing top–down attention control (Greenwood et al., 1997; Kok, 2000; Madden et al., 2005; Madden, 2007; Lien et al., 2011; Li et al., 2013). Normal aging is correlated with changes in neural structure, including decline in brain volume (Scahill et al., 2003; Fotenos et al., 2008) connectivity between the task-relevant networks and outside networks by functional imaging studies (Madden et al., 2005, 2010; Dennis et al., 2008; St Jacques et al., 2009; Geerligs et al., 2014), supporting the CRUNCH that older adults use more or new neural circuits to compensate for age-related decline. "
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    • "In this regard, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that similar to younger adults, older adults can efficiently adapt with task demand and do perceptual and higher-order cognitive processing by using different strategies (Madden et al., 2010; Schulte et al., 2011). These strategies may be different for online performance improvement compared to retaining of this improvement after completion of training. "
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    • "In this regard, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that similar to younger adults, older adults can efficiently adapt with task demand and do perceptual and higher-order cognitive processing by using different strategies (Madden et al., 2010; Schulte et al., 2011). These strategies may be different for online performance improvement compared to retaining of this improvement after completion of training. "
    Dataset: Ehsani-B&CN

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