The effects of parental monitoring and leisure boredom on adolescents' Internet addiction

Department of International Business, Yu Da University, Miaoli, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Adolescence (Impact Factor: 0.64). 12/2009; 44(176):993-1004.
Source: PubMed


This study explored the effects of parental monitoring, leisure boredom, and leisure activity on Internet addiction. The sample was 1,289 adolescents from eleven senior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were asked about their perception of being monitored by their parents, leisure boredom, leisure activities, and Internet addiction behavior. Results showed that leisure boredom and involvement in Internet and social activities increase the probability of Internet addiction; however, family and outdoor activities along with participative and supportive parental monitoring decrease these tendencies. Overall evidence suggests that parental monitoring is a major inhibitor of Internet addiction. Thus, adolescents should be supervised in their daily routines and encouraged to participate in family and outdoor activities. In addition, adolescents should develop a positive attitude toward leisure and the skills to prevent overdependence on online relationships with the assistance of parents. These findings suggest the preventive strategies regarding Internet addiction.

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Available from: Chien-Hsin Lin, Jun 08, 2015
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    • "One possible explanation is that adolescents might suffer from conflict or neglect as the separate status was maintained, and related emotional or behavioral problems might occur. Internet addiction might therefore develop due to the lack of parental supervision and adolescent emotional problems, similar to findings in previous studies [2,11,18,21,22,25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young's Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Adjusting for adolescents' ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of "married-but-separated" and family structure of "left-behind adolescents" were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "It also is conceivable that college students with compulsive Internet use may perceive a similar parenting style. The parental monitoring was considered to be a major protective factor for Internet addiction in senior high school students, most of whom lived with their parents [70]; however, maternal protection assessed in our study was more equivalent to authoritarian controls and overprotection [55], which in turn was related to compulsive Internet use in our college students leaving home. While away from home and their parents' watchful eyes, college students utilized their freedom [79]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eveningness and Internet addiction are major concerns in adolescence and young adulthood. We investigated the relationship between morningness-eveningness and compulsive Internet use in young adults and explored the moderating effects of perceived parenting styles and family support on such relationships. The participants consisted of 2731 incoming college students (men, 52.4%; mean age, 19.4±3.6years) from a National University in Taiwan. Each participant completed the questionnaires, which included the Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Internet use (YBOCS-IU), the Parental Bonding Instrument for parenting style, the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve questionnaire (APGAR) for perceived family support, and the Adult Self-Report Inventory-4 (ASRI-4) for psychopathology. The morning (n=459), intermediate (n=1878), and evening (n=394) groups were operationally defined by the MES t scores. The results showed that eveningness was associated with greater weekend sleep compensation, increased compulsive Internet use, more anxiety, poorer parenting styles, and less family support; additionally, the most associated variables for increased compulsive Internet use were the tendency of eveningness, male gender, more anxiety symptoms, less maternal affection/care, and a lower level of perceived family support. The negative association between the morning type and compulsive Internet use severity escalated with increased maternal affection/care and decreased with increased perceived family support. The positive association between the evening type and compulsive Internet use severity declined with increased maternal protection. However, the father's parenting style did not influence the relationship between morningness-eveningness and compulsive Internet use severity. Our findings imply that sleep schedule and the parental and family process should be part of specific measures for prevention and intervention of compulsive Internet use.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Sleep Medicine
    • "Original validity data involved the presentation of significant, negative correlations with variables such as leisure satisfaction, the ability to entertain oneself (self as entertainment), and the frequency of participation in leisure activities (Iso-Ahola & Weissinger, 1990). Other research has reported significant, positive correlations between the LBS and negative affect (Barnett & Klitzing, 2006; Bovornusvakool, Vodanovich, Ariyabuddhiphongs, & Ngamake, 2012), neuroticism (Barnett & Klitzing, 2006 ), loneliness, perfectionism, work-family conflict , and workaholism (e.g., Bovornusvakool et al., 2012; Brady et al., 2008 ), Internet addiction (Lin et al., 2009; Zhou & Leung, 2012), dropout rate (Wegner, Flisher, Chikobvu, Lombard, & King, 2008), aggressive tendencies (Yang & An, 2013), and risky sexual behavior (Miller et al., 2014). Significant negative relationships have also been reported between the LBS and the ability to manage one's free time (Wang et al., 2012), life satisfaction, job satisfaction and positive affect (Bovornusvakool et al., 2012; Brady et al., 2008 ), and personality measures of conscientiousness and extraversion (Barnett & Klitzing, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research presents a review of the psychometric measures on boredom that have been developed over the past 25 years. Specifically, the author examined the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; R. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986), the job boredom scales by E. A. Grubb (1975) and T. W. Lee (1986), a boredom coping measure (J. A. Hamilton, R. J. Haier, & M. S. Buchsbaum, 1984), 2 scales that assess leisure and free-time boredom (S. E. Iso-Ahola & E. Weissinger, 1990; M. G. Ragheb & S. P. Merydith, 2001), the Sexual Boredom Scale (SBS; J. D. Watt & J. E. Ewing, 1996), and the Boredom Susceptibility (BS) subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale (M. Zuckerman, 1979a). Particular attention is devoted to discussing the literature regarding the psychometric properties of the BPS because it is the only full-scale measure on the construct of boredom.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied
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