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INFLUENCE OF YEAST AND YEAST DERIVATIVES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE PRAWN Macrobrachium amazonicum INFLUÊNCIA DA LEVEDURA E DERIVADOS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE JUVENIS DO CAMARÃO Macrobrachium amazonicum

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span> Avaliaram-se a suplementação de levedura íntegra Saccharomyces cerevisiae e derivados do seu processamento (levedura autolisada, mananoligossacarídeo e β-glucano), desidratadas pelo método de spray dry , em rações para juvenis de camarão amazônico. Indivíduos com peso inicial (1,27 ± 0,07 g) e comprimento inicial (5,49 ± 0,09 cm) foram alojados em aquários de 200 L (10 camarões/aquário) dotados de recirculação de água com temperatura controlada, durante o período de sessenta dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Formularam-se as rações para serem isoproteícas (35 % PB) e isoenergéticas (3.500kcal/kg EB), suplementadas com 2,0 %, de levedura íntegra, 2,0 % de levedura autolisada, 0,2 % de mananoligosacarídeo e 0,2 % de β-glucano. A ração-controle se caracterizou pela não-suplementação dos diferentes aditivos alimentares. Os juvenis de camarão alimentados com mananoligossacarídeo<sup> </sup>apresentaram ganho de peso superior (P<0,05) aos alimentados com outras rações. Os resultados indicam que a suplementação de 0,2 % de mananoligossacarídeo proporciona melhores resultados de desempenho aos juvenis de M. amazonicum . PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aqüicultura, camarão amazônico, glucano, manano. Supplements of whole yeast spray dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae and yeast derivatives (autolyzed yeast, mannanoligosaccharide and β-glucan) in to diets fed to juvenile Amazon River prawn were evaluated. Prawns with initial weight (1.27 ± 0.07 g) and initial length (5.49 ± 0.09 cm) were stocked in to 200 L aquaria (10 prawns/aquarium), in flow-through water system with controlled temperature, during 60 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replicates. The diets were formulated to be isoproteic (35.0% CP) and isoenergetic (3500 kcal/kg GE) supplemented with no yeast and yeast derivatives - control, whole yeast - 2.0%, autolyzed yeast - 2.0%, mannanoligosaccharide - 0.2% and β-glucan - 0.2%. Weight gain of prawns fed diet containing mannanoligosaccharide yeast derivative was significantly (P<0.05) higher than prawns fed the others diets. The results indicate that 0.2% of mannanoligosaccharide supplementation provided better growth responses of juvenile M. amazonicum . KEYWORDS: aquaculture, Amazon River prawn, glucan, mannan. </span
Inuence of yeast and yeast derivatives on growth performance and survival ... 657
Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 9, n. 3, p. 657-662, jul./set. 2008
INFLUENCE OF YEAST AND YEAST DERIVATIVES ON GROWTH
PERFORMANCE AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE PRAWN
Macrobrachium amazonicum
Ha m i l t o n Hi s a n o 1, Da r i o ro c H a Fa l c o n 2, ma r g a r i D a ma r i a Ba r r o s 3 e lu i z eD i v a l D o Pe z z at o 3
1. Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Rod. BR 163, km 253,6, Caixa Postal 661, CEP 79804-970, Dourados, MS. E-mail: hhisano@cpao.embrapa.br
2. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada – UFRPE/UAST
3. Departamento de Melhoramento e Nutrição Animal, UNESP-FMVZ, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.
ABSTRACT
Supplements of whole yeast spray dried
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and yeast derivatives (autolyzed
yeast, mannanoligosaccharide and β-glucan) in to diets fed
to juvenile Amazon River prawn were evaluated. Prawns
with initial weight (1.27 ± 0.07 g) and initial length (5.49
± 0.09 cm) were stocked in to 200 L aquaria (10 prawns/
aquarium), in ow-through water system with controlled
temperature, during 60 days. The experimental design
was completely randomized with ve treatments and four
replicates. The diets were formulated to be isoproteic (35.0%
CP) and isoenergetic (3500 kcal/kg GE) supplemented with
no yeast and yeast derivatives - control, whole yeast - 2.0%,
autolyzed yeast - 2.0%, mannanoligosaccharide - 0.2% and
β-glucan - 0.2%. Weight gain of prawns fed diet containing
mannanoligosaccharide yeast derivative was signicantly
(P<0.05) higher than prawns fed the others diets. The
results indicate that 0.2% of mannanoligosaccharide
supplementation provided better growth responses of
juvenile M. amazonicum.
KEYWORDS: aquaculture, Amazon River prawn, glucan, mannan.
RESUMO
INFLUÊNCIA DA LEVEDURA E DERIVADOS SOBRE O DESEMPENHO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE JUVENIS DO
CAMARÃO Macrobrachium amazonicum
Avaliaram-se a suplementação de levedura ínte-
gra Saccharomyces cerevisiae e derivados do seu proces-
samento (levedura autolisada, mananoligossacarídeo e
β-glucano), desidratadas pelo método de spray dry, em ra-
ções para juvenis de camarão amazônico. Indivíduos com
peso inicial (1,27 ± 0,07 g) e comprimento inicial (5,49 ±
0,09 cm) foram alojados em aquários de 200 L (10 cama-
rões/aquário) dotados de recirculação de água com tempe-
ratura controlada, durante o período de sessenta dias. O de-
lineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com
cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Formularam-se as
rações para serem isoproteícas (35 % PB) e isoenergéticas
(3.500kcal/kg EB), suplementadas com 2,0 %, de levedura
íntegra, 2,0 % de levedura autolisada, 0,2 % de mananoli-
gosacarídeo e 0,2 % de β-glucano. A ração-controle se ca-
racterizou pela não-suplementação dos diferentes aditivos
alimentares. Os juvenis de camarão alimentados com ma-
nanoligossacarídeo apresentaram ganho de peso superior
(P<0,05) aos alimentados com outras rações. Os resultados
indicam que a suplementação de 0,2 % de mananoligossa-
carídeo proporciona melhores resultados de desempenho
aos juvenis de M. amazonicum.
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aqüicultura, camarão amazônico, glucano, manano.
658 HISANO, H. et al.
Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 9, n. 3, p. 657-662, jul./set. 2008
INTRODUCTION
The improvement of prawn culture
has focused on the development of intensive
management techniques to maximize productivity
and consequently optimize nancial returns.
Animals kept in these conditions generally
experience stress at some time or another, and
thereby become more susceptible to diseases
and potentially pathogenic organisms will cause
diseases or infestation problems in weak and
stressed animals (LEE & WICKINS, 1992).
To minimize susceptibility to disease
antibiotics and chemotherapeutics are routinely
used for therapeutic, prophylactic or growth
promoting purposes, however the supplementation
of subtherapeutic levels can cause microorganism
to develop resistance and a part of the original gut
microbiota can be damaged (MULDER, 1993).
TEUBER (2001) reported antibiotics resistance
to aquaculture system with oxytetracycline and
tetracycline and proposed considerable changes
in the management of farming animals that are
cultured in intensive systems.
The great adverse impact of some diseases that
recently occurred in shrimp culture has stimulated
studies to nd alternatives to replace antibiotics and
chemotherapeutics in aquaculture diets. Natural
ingredients, like yeast and yeast derivatives, may
be effective substitutes. Pre vious studies conducted
with shes and shrimps have shown that yeast and
yeast derivatives are effective growth enhancers
and immunostimulants (SCHOLZ et al., 1999; LI
& GATLIN, 2003, 2004).
Additionally, other strategies are attractive,
such as the production of native species that could
minimize diseases, and the Amazon River prawn
M. amazonicum has been studied and considered
a potential candidate species for aquaculture in
Brazil (VALENTI, 2002). Currently this species
is principally exploited by artisan sheries and
extensively consumed by populations in the
Amazon region (MORAES-RIODADES &
VALENTI, 2001) and in the Brazilian Northwest
(NEW et al., 2000).
Information derived from comparative
studies of growth and survival response to yeast
and yeast derivatives in diets for freshwater
prawns is limited. The purpose of this study was to
evaluate the growth performance and survival of
M. amazonicum fed pelleted diets containing spray
dried whole yeast and yeast derivatives (autolyzed
yeast, mannanoligosaccharide and β-glucan).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Diets
The experimental diets were formulated
to provide all known nutrient requirements for
prawns and shrimps (ZIMMERMAN, 1998;
D`ABRAMO & NEW, 2000; PEZZATO et al.,
2004) and based in the chemical-bromatological
feedstuffs composition (NRC, 1993; ROSTAGNO,
2000). Diets with primary ingredients of soybean
meal, sh meal, wheat middlings and corn were
formulated to be isoproteic (35.0% CP) and
isoenergetic (3500 kcal/kg GE) containing no yeast
control (C) or supplemented with yeast derivatives
whole yeast 2.0% (WY), autolyzed yeast 2.0% (AY)
mannanoligosaccharide 0.2% (MOS) and β-glucan
0.2% (G) (Table 1). Whole yeast and autolyzed
yeast were obtained from sugar cane fermentation
and then spray dried. Mannanoligosaccharide
and glucan sources utilized were BioMOS and
Mycosorb respectively. Technical specication
of Alltech Company described BioMOS as
based on yeast cell wall (S. cerevisiae strain
1026) phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide
and Mycosorb based on β-glucan from the
same strain. All ingredients were grounded to 0.5
mm, mechanically mixed, moistened with water
(55.0°C) and pressured pelleted through a meat
grinder (Ação Cientíca, Piracicaba-SP, Brasil).
The pellets were dried in a forced-draft oven for
24-h (55.0°C) and processed to obtain 1.0 mm
diameter pellets. Juveniles were fed ad libitum
four times a day at 8:00, 12:00, 14:00 and 18:00-h
and weekly faeces were removed by siphon.
Feeding trial
Juveniles of M. amazonicum provided from
the spawn of one female (Crustacean Laboratory
Inuence of yeast and yeast derivatives on growth performance and survival ... 659
Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 9, n. 3, p. 657-662, jul./set. 2008
of the Aquaculture Center, CAUNESP, São Paulo
State University, Jaboticabal, SP) were transported
to Aquanutri (Laboratory of Aquaculture
Nutrition, São Paulo State University, Botucatu,
SP), where they were adapted for one week
in a 1000-l circular aquarium equipped with
recirculating system, controlled temperature,
and fed ad libitum with control diet. After this
pre-experimental period, 50 individuals were
selected for measurement of initial weight and
initial length, with previous 24 h fasting (1.27 ±
0.07 g and 5.49 ± 0.09 cm). Groups of 10 prawns
were stocked in to 200 L aquaria in ow-through
recirculating system, with controlled temperature
and photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h dark) and
equipped with mechanical and biological lters.
The duration of the feeding trial was 60 days.
Ammonia and pH were measured weekly and
temperature twice a day at 8:00 and 14:00 h.
TABLE 1. Ingredient composition of experimental diets
Composition (%)
Treatment
Ingredient (% dry weight) Co WY AY MOS G
Soybean meal 32.00 31.50 31.50 32.00 32.00
Fish meal 28.00 27.15 27.15 28.00 28.00
Corn 6.47 5.70 5.70 6.27 6.27
Wheat middlings 24.40 24.50 24.50 24.40 24.40
Salmon oil 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Soybean oil 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Dicalcium phosphate 2.73 2.73 2.73 2.73 2.73
L - lysine 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66
DL - methionine 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.42 0.42
Whole yeast - 2.00 - - -
Autolyzed yeast - - 2.00 - -
Mannanoligosacharide - - - 0.20 -
β-glucan - - - - 0.20
Lignin sulphonate 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitam. min. premix a0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Soybean lecithin 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Cholesterol 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
BHT 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Analyzed proximate composition (% dry matter)
Dry matter (%) 90.5 91.2 92.0 91.0 91.4
Gross energy (kcal/kg) 3550 3610 3520 3570 3490
Crude protein (%) 35.2 34.8 35.1 35.4 35.7
Crude lipid (%) 5.7 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.8
Crude ber (%) 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.0
a Vit/min premix (kg/premix): Vitamins: A=1.200.000 UI; D3=200.000 UI; E=12.000 mg; K3=2.400 mg; B1=4.800 mg; B2=4.800 mg; B6=4.000
mg; B12=4.800 mg; folic acid=1.200 mg; pantotenate Ca=12.000 mg; C=48.000 mg; biotin=48mg; choline=65.000mg; niacin=24.000mg; Minerals:
Fe=10.000 mg; Cu=600 mg; Mn=4.000 mg; Zn=0 mg; I=20 mg; Co=2 mg e Se=20 mg. Supremais,Valinhos-SP Brasil.
Proximate analysis
Dry matter, gross energy, crude protein,
crude lipid and crude ber composition of the
experimental diets were determined according
to standard procedures of AOAC (1990). Dry
matter was determined after drying in a laboratory
oven at 105.0°C for 24 h until constant weight;
gross energy by direct combustion in adiabatic
bomb calorimeter (PARR model 1260); crude
protein (N x 6.25) by the Kjeldahl method after
acid digestion; crude lipid by petroleum ether
660 HISANO, H. et al.
Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 9, n. 3, p. 657-662, jul./set. 2008
extraction in Soxhlet apparatus, and crude ber as
loss on ignition of dried lipid-free residues after
digestion with 1.25% H2SO4 and 1.25% NaOH.
Statistics
The experimental design was completely
randomized with ve treatments and four replicates.
Weight gain, feed conversion ratio, nal length and
survival were submitted to a one way analysis of
variance followed analyzed by Duncan´s multiple
range test at signicant level of 0.05 was used to
compare growth response between treatments.
Survival data were transformed by equation
y=√arcsin x and the results were expressed as
percentage. All statistical analysis was carried out
using the SAS software package.
RESULTS
During the experimental period, the water
temperature ranged from 27.6±1.4ºC (8:00 h) to
28.6±0.9ºC (14:00 h), dissolved oxygen from 6.7
to 7.2 mg/L, total ammonia was <0.3mg/L and pH
ranged from 6.2 to 7.2, all water quality parameters
were considered acceptable for freshwater prawns
(SIPAÚBA-TAVARES, 1998).
Juveniles fed the diet supplemented with
0.2% of mannanoligosaccharide, had signicantly
(P<0.05) higher weight gain (WG) than each of the
prawns fed the basal diet, and diets containing whole
yeast, autolyzed yeast and β-glucan. Feed conversion
ratio (FCR), nal length (FL) and survival (S) were
not signicantly affected by the supplementation of
yeast and yeast derivatives (Table 2).
TABLE 2. Growth performance of juvenile M. amazonicum fed diets containing yeast and yeast derivatives for 60 days
(mean±s.d)
Parameter Co WY AY MOS G
WG (g) 1.07±0.27 b 0.93±0.12 b 1.08±0.09 b 1.37±0.05 a 1.12±0.08 b
FCR 3.09±0.93 2.93±0.56 2.97±0.20 3.13±0.64 3.12±0.54
FL (cm) 7.16±0.11 7.56±0.47 7.24±0.25 7.42±0.24 7.39±0.18
S (%) 97.50±5.00 95.00±5.77 95.00±10.00 97.50±5.00 92.50±9.57
Means followed by same letters are not signicantly different by Duncan´s multiple range test.
DISCUSSION
The supplemented level of mannano-
ligosaccharide was effective to provide better
responses in weight gain for juvenile Amazon
River prawns. LI & GATLIN (2004) observed
generally enhanced weight gain in hybrid striped
bass fed diets supplemented with 1.0% and
2.0% of autolyzed yeast compared to those fed
a basal diet. In contrast, SCHOLZ et al. (1990)
incorporated different yeast products S. cerevisiae,
Phafa rhodozyma, experimental yeast (HPPR1)
and β-glucan, to diets fed to juvenile Litopenaeus
vannamei diets and the results indicated no
signicant difference in weight gain. However,
there was a statistically signicant difference
between the nal biomass of shrimp fed diets
with P. rhodozyma and β-glucan. BURGENTS
et al. (2004) assessed 1.0% commercial yeast
feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture)
in shrimp diets and after 4 weeks observed no
signicant difference in weight gain in comparison
to that of the control.
In the present research, the addition of
whole yeast and yeast derivatives did not inuence
(P>0.05) feed conversion ratio and nal length.
The results are consistent with those observed by
SCHOLZ et al. (1990) with marine shrimp and in
contrast to those observed by LI & GATLIN (2004),
who found a signicant difference (P<0.05) in
feed efciency among hybrid striped bass fed diets
supplemented with yeast and autolyzed yeast.
Survival was not signicantly inuenced by
the supplementation of experimental ingredients;
Inuence of yeast and yeast derivatives on growth performance and survival ... 661
Ciência Animal Brasileira, v. 9, n. 3, p. 657-662, jul./set. 2008
however studies with other yeast derivatives
demonstrated immunostimulatory effects and a
decrease in mortality by pathogens. The β-glucan
derived from yeast cell wall is most utilized for
its immunostimulant properties that enhance the
innate immune system of shrimp (SUNG et al.,
1994; SONG et al., 1997; CHANG et al., 2000) and
has been supplemented in shrimp diets to decrease
mortality that results from diseases and handling
stress (DUGGER & JORY, 1999). SCHOLZ et
al. (1999) observed that dietary inclusion of S.
cerevisiae, P. rhodozyma and experimental yeast-
HPPR1, especially the Phafa diet improved
survival of shrimp inoculated with pathogenic
Vibrio harveyi (strain BP05). Highest survival
rates of L. vannamei were found by BURGENTS
et al. (2004), when supplement yeast (0.5% or
1.0%) was included in diets. LI & GATLIN (2003,
2004) reported that survival of hybrid striped bass
fed diets supplemented with yeast and partially
autolyzed yeast was signicantly higher than
those fed the control diet after chalenged with
Streptococcus iniae.
The proximate composition of yeast cell
wall is 40.0% of β-glucans, 40.0% α-mannans 8.0
% protein, 7.0% lipid, 3.0% inorganic substances
and 2.0% of hexosamines and chitin (HOUGH,
1990). The polysaccharide balance of BioMOS
may have provided positive prebiotic effects,
enhanced the juvenile health and thereby provided
better weight gain. Numerous human feeding
studies have shown that human gut microbiota
can be modulated with a prebiotic to increase the
number and activity of some probiotics bacteria
(TUOHY et al., 2003). Supplementation of (25 or
50g/kg) of chitin in diets fed to gilthead seabream
Sparus aurata resulted an increase innate
immune system (ESTEBAN et al., 2000). Future
studies (in laboratory conditions and eld trials)
are essential to know how glucans and mannans
or other polysaccharides positively inuence the
gut microbiota and provide immunostimulatory
effects in Amazon River prawns.
Research efforts devoted to the replacement
of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics as well as the
search to develop a responsible and sustainable
aquaculture are increasing and could amplify the
use of yeast and yeast derivatives in aquaculture
diets. Based on results of the present study, it
can be concluded that dietary supplementation
of 0.2% of mannanoligosaccharide resulted in
signicantly higher growth performance for
juvenile M. amazonicum.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank Alltech-Brazil for the
donation of BioMOSand Mycosorb, Usina Santo
Antônio S.A for the whole and autolyzed yeast and
William N. Solarte and Giovani G. Sampaio for the
support in the research carried out.
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... Probiotics can also be considered as microbes to improve the nutritive value of an animal feed [31]. A number of studies have shown that a single probiotic ingredient can improve the growth performance of the freshwater prawns and shrimps [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]. ...
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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT In the present study, commercially available probiotics product, LactoBacil contains a combination of longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum concentrations flour, tapioca flour, egg albumin, Cod liver oil and vitamin B Macrobrachium rosenbergii nutritional indices activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase), concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid) including profiles of protein, amino acids and fa acids were determined. characterization, and The survival, growth, nutritional indices, total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, level of essential amino acids and fatty acids (linoleic and ecosapentanoic acid) were found to be significantly (P<0.05) improved particularly at 4% LBP incorporated diet fed prawns when compared with control. showed increased staining intensity of 36, 29 and 18 kDa protein bands when compared with control. Presence of the gut of control prawns. In the gut of experimental prawns in addition to longum, B. bifidum sp., was prawn guts showed 98% and 93% similarity respectively with study revealed that the identified gut microbes were diff and unidentified bacterial species was present. This needs further clarification. at 4% was found to be beneficial for survival, growth and production of can be recommended to incorporate in aqua feed formulations for the sustainable development of Macrobrachium
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The farming of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has developed rapidly during recent years. Advances in techniques, and the huge expansion of world demand for this species, continue to stimulate the growth of a multi-million dollar industry. This landmark publication is a compendium of information on every aspect of the farming of M. rosenbergii. A comprehensive review of the status of freshwater prawn farming research, development and commercial practice, the book is intended to stimulate further advances in the knowledge and understanding of this important field. An extremely well-known and internationally-respected team of contributing authors have written cutting edge chapters covering all major aspects of the subject. Coverage includes biology, hatchery and grow-out culture systems, feeds and feeding, up-to-date information on the status of freshwater prawn farming around the world, post-harvest handling and processing, markets, and economics and business management. Further chapters are devoted to the culture of other prawn species, prawn capture fisheries and the sustainability of freshwater prawn culture. Contributions to the book have been brought together and edited by Michael New and Wagner Valenti, themselves widely known for their work in this area. The comprehensive information in Freshwater Prawn Culture will give an important commercial edge to anyone involved in the culture and trade of freshwater prawns. Readership should include prawn farm personnel, business managers and researchers, and invertebrate, freshwater and crustacean biologists. Copies of the book should be available on the shelves of all libraries in research establishments and universities where aquaculture and fisheries are studied and taught. Michael Bernard New, OBE is a Past-President of the World Aquaculture Society and President-Elect of the European Aquaculture Society; Wagner Cotroni Valenti is a Professor at the Aquaculture Center, São Paulo State University, Brazil.
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Postlarval tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were immersed in aerated beta-glucan suspensions for 3 h. Enhanced growth was observed in shrimp immersed in glucan at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml, but not at 0.25 mg/ml. Shrimp gill tissue became shrunken immediately after immersion in the 2 mg/ml suspension. On days 10, 18, and 43 after beta-glucan treatment, shrimp were immersed in a bacterial suspension containing Vibrio vulnificus cells at a concentration of 5×107 CFU/ml for 12 h at a density of 25 individuals per liter; deaths were recorded for one month following experimental infection. The protective effect of glucan treatment was observed in those shrimp treated with 0.5 and 1 mg/ml glucan, but not in shrimp treated with 0.25 and 2 mg/ml glucan. The protective effect lasted until day 18 following immersion. In vitro, beta-glucan treatment enhanced the phenoloxidase activity in shrimp hemocytes. It therefore appears that beta-glucan is a short-term immunostimulant for shrimp.
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Statistical informationThe freshwater prawn fisheries of Asia and the PacificThe freshwater prawn fisheries of OceaniaThe freshwater prawn fisheries of AfricaThe freshwater prawn fisheries of the Americas
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