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... The self-directed program relied on parents being able to read a parenting text and a companion workbook. Although considerable effort was made to ensure that the reading level of the material did not require high parental literacy, the effects of this program may be enhanced through the use of videotape demonstrations of skills (e.g., Bigelow & Lutzker, 1998; Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 1996). In a further attempt to improve the accessibility of the program, core information from the parenting text and workbook have recently been combined into a single resource, resulting in less reading for parents (). ...
... In a further attempt to improve the accessibility of the program, core information from the parenting text and workbook have recently been combined into a single resource, resulting in less reading for parents (). A videotape demonstrating core parenting skills is also now available (Sanders et al., 1996). The present findings show that telephone-assisted interventions appear to be useful interventions, particularly to families in rural and remote areas for whom access to face-to-face services is limited. ...
Few studies have examined the impact of parenting interventions for families in rural and isolated areas who have children with conduct problems, where access to professional services can be difficult. The present investigation compared the effects of three conditions, two levels of self-directed behavioral family intervention: an enhanced self-directed program that combined a self-help program using written materials and a weekly telephone consultation (ESD), a self-help program (SD) and a waitlist control group (WL). At postintervention the ESD group reported significantly lower levels of disruptive behaviour, and lower levels of dysfunctional parenting than the SD and WL controls, and higher levels of consumer satisfaction. At 6 months follow-up the main effects for the ESD group had been maintained. The SD group continued to evidence improvement from postintervention to follow-up such that 65% of children in the ESD condition and 57% of children in the SD condition showed clinical reliable change on measures of disruptive behaviour. Implications of findings and directions for future research are discussed.
... After beginning their association with the Parenting and Family Support Centre as a producer of the Families TV series in New Zealand and various Triple P video programs, such as the Every Parent's Survival Guide (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 2005), Triple P International Proprietary Limited (TPI) was formally licensed in 2001 to undertake publishing and global dissemination of the Triple P system on behalf of The University of Queensland. It has evolved from a small start-up company with a handful of staff to an organization with operations in several countries (Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States) and has formed alliances with third parties to disseminate Triple P in other countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, Costa Rica, Japan, and Turkey). ...
Innovation has characterized the whole field of behavioral family intervention since its inception. This chapter reflects on the innovative developments that have occurred over the past four decades as the field of evidence-based parenting support has evolved in response to cumulating evidence relating to effectiveness. Despite these advances, it is argued that new approaches are needed to improve outcomes in many areas of unmet need and to address contemporary issues for new generations of parents. The challenge is to deliver evidence-based parenting support on a global scale and thereby substantially enhance the well-being of all children, families, and communities. The organizational contexts and research environments that are likely to nurture a thriving culture of program innovation while training the next generation of parenting researchers and program developers are discussed.
... The Primary Care version of Triple P involves three or four brief (30-min) individual family consultations, typically conducted weekly, with a 2–3 week break before the final session. Advice on managing problem behavior is provided, assisted by the selective use of parenting tip sheets (e.g., Turner et al. 1996) and audiovisual resources covering positive parenting strategies and common developmental and behavioral problems (e.g., Sanders et al. 1996). Program sessions include (a) intake assessment and baseline monitoring of the presenting problem; (b) feedback of assessment findings, discussion of the etiology of the problem, goal setting, introduction of parenting strategies and negotiating a parenting plan, with active skills training; (c) optional extra practice through progress review and trouble-shooting if required; and (d) final progress review and discussion of strategies for maintenance of change. ...
This study examines factors affecting the implementation by primary care practitioners (nursing, education, allied health, and medical) of a brief parenting and family support intervention (the Primary Care Triple P-Positive Parenting Program) following professional training. It assesses the impact of prior experience, self-efficacy, program supports, program barriers, satisfaction with training, and workplace characteristics on reported extent of program use. The majority of practitioners (97%) reported using Triple P following training. Implementation was assessed as the proportion of cases seen who received the full program. Program supports (quality of format and materials) and barriers (management difficulties and lack of fit) impacted on practitioner self-efficacy, and higher self-efficacy was positively associated with implementation. Prior professional experience, satisfaction with training, and workplace factors were not significant predictors. These results highlight the importance of promoting practitioners' sense of competence or mastery of a program for facilitating the implementation of evidence-based programs in primary care settings.
... Families in the SD-BFI program received program materials along with instructions for completion. The materials included Every Parent's Self-Help Workbook (Markie-Dadds, Sanders, & Turner, 1999), as well as tip sheets on various toddler behaviors (Turner, Markie- Dadds, & Sanders, 1996) and the video Every Parent's Survival Guide (Sanders, Markie- Dadds, & Turner, 1996). Each week for a period of 10 weeks, parents were expected to read material for that week and complete a series of workbook tasks. ...
This study examined the efficacy of a self-administered behavioral family intervention for 126 parents of toddlers. The effects of 2 different levels of intensity of the self-administered intervention were contrasted (self-administered alone or self-administered plus brief therapist telephone assistance). The results provide support for the efficacy of the self-administered form of behavioral family intervention. There were significant short-term reductions in reported child behavior problems and improvements in maternal parenting style, parenting confidence, and anger. Families who received minimal therapist assistance made more clinically significant gains compared with families who completed the program with no therapist assistance. The intervention effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. The implications of the findings for the population-level delivery of behavioral family interventions are discussed.
... Each family receives both the Every Parent's Workbook (Markie- Dadds, Turner, & Sanders, 1997), and the Parenting Gifted and Talented Children Group Workbook (Morawska & Sanders, 2006), while the Every Parent's Survival Guide video (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 1996) is used to supplement written materials. The program involves teaching parents core child management skills falling into three areas: (1) promoting children's development; (2) managing misbehaviour; and (3) planned activities and routines. ...
Parents of gifted children identify a need for tailored parenting support, and gifted children have unique requirements and vulnerabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a tailored behavioural parenting intervention, for enhancing the parenting skills of parents of gifted children and to assess the effect of these changes on the behavioural and emotional adjustment of their gifted child. A randomised controlled trial of tailored Group Triple P - Positive Parenting Program was conducted with 75 parents of children identified as gifted. Results indicated significant intervention effects for the number and frequency of parent reported child behaviour problems, as well as hyperactivity in the intervention group, relative to a waitlist control. Parents also reported significant improvements in their own parenting style, including less permissiveness, harshness, and verbosity when disciplining their child. No intervention effects were evident for teacher reports, except for a trend in relation to hyperactivity. This study demonstrated that a tailored behavioural parenting intervention is effective and acceptable for parents of gifted children, and thus has clinical implications for the delivery of parenting interventions for this population.
... Group Triple P is described extensively (Turner, Markie-Dadds, & Sanders, 2000), consisting of four weekly, 2-hour group sessions, followed by three weekly, 15-minute telephone consultations, and a final 2-hour group session. Each family receives Every Parent's Workbook (Markie-Dadds, Turner, & Sanders, 1997), and the Every Parent's Survival Guide video (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 1996) is used to supplement written materials. ...
There is a paucity of research focusing on the needs of gifted children and their families, in particular, there is a lack of empirically supported parenting strategies to help parents in parenting their gifted child. This article provides an overview of the literature on difficulties experienced by parents of gifted and talented children, followed by a description of the development of a parenting program designed specifically for this population. Qualitative data from a survey of parents of gifted and talented children are presented to identify key themes for supporting and assisting parents. Gifted and Talented Triple P is a customized version of Triple P—Positive Parenting Program, consisting of nine sessions, specifically tailored for the needs of parents of gifted and talented children. The program is described and the clinical implications and future research directions in assisting parents in parenting their gifted and talented child are discussed.
Putting the Research to Use: The results of this study provide some key insights into the specific aspects of raising a gifted and talented child which parents struggle with, and the sorts of information they would like to receive to assist them in their role. The findings have led to the development and tailoring of a parenting intervention for parents of gifted and talented children, and have the potential to inform further research to support parents.
... A range of training videos have been prepared for use with Standard and Group Triple P (Sanders, Markie-Dadds & Turner, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 2004a, 2004bSanders, Turner & Markie-Dadds, 1996;Turner, Markie-Dadds & Sanders, 2000a, 2000b, with Stepping Stones Triple P (Sanders, Mazzucchelli & Studman, 2003c), with Enhanced Triple P (Markie- Dadds, Sanders & Turner, 2000b, 2000c and with Teen Triple P . ...
This is the second in a series of reports prepared by the Advisory Group on Conduct Problems (AGCP) on the prevention, treatment and management of conduct problems in young people. For the purpose of this and all reports prepared by the AGCP conduct problems are defined as: Childhood conduct problems include a spectrum of anti-social, aggressive, dishonest, delinquent, defiant and disruptive behaviours. These behaviours may vary from none to severe, and may have the following consequences for the child/young person and those around him/her - stress, distress and concern to adult caregivers and authority figures, threats to the physical safety of the young people involved and their peers, disruption of home, school or other environments, and involvement of the criminal justice system. The focus of this report is on the identification, implementation and evaluation of programmes and interventions for children aged 3-7.
... The facilitator discussed each strategy in the GTP programme with the grandparents in the session providing active demonstrations on how to use each strategy. With respect to the specific parenting strategies discussed in the programme, the Every Parent's Survival Guide (Sanders et al. 2005), which is a DVD that provides an explanation of the parenting strategies utilised by Triple P, was used and shown over the course of the programme. Each of the parenting strategies is presented individually, and the DVD provides a description of how to implement the strategy. ...
Despite the evidence supporting parenting programmes as a pathway to reduce and prevent childhood emotional and behavioural problems, these programmes still have low rates of uptake by families in the community. One way of increasing the participation rates of families in parenting programmes is to adopt a consumer's perspective to programme design and development. This study sought to examine whether grandparents providing regular care to their grandchildren viewed the strategies advocated in a parenting programme developed specifically for them as being acceptable and useful, and whether there were barriers to programme use. Forty-five grandparents, with an average age of 61.4 years (SD = 5.0), participated in the study. Grandparents provided between 11 and 20 h of care per week to their grandchildren, who were on average 4.5 years old (SD = 2.4), with the majority being boys (60 %). Results revealed that grandparents found the strategies promoted in the parenting programme highly acceptable and useful and were likely to use the strategies. Barriers to using specific strategies included time demands and belief that a specific strategy would not work. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of consumer involvement in programme design and development.
... PCTP resource materials included: the Practitioner's Manual and Consultation Flip Chart for Primary Care Triple P [27,28], Positive Parenting booklet , selections from the Tip Sheet Series [30,31] on common problems such as noncompliance and tantrums encountered by parents with infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, and the Every Parent's Survival Guide Video . ...
... In Seminar 1, 'The Power of Positive Parenting', parents are introduced to the five principles that form the basis of the program and strategies that can be implemented to put each principle into practice (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 2005;. In this seminar, parents are encouraged to avoid yelling, threatening or spanking and to: give their child attention, use praise, provide engaging activities, set a good example, use incidental teaching, use prompts to teach new skills, reward appropriate behaviour, establish ground rules, use directed discussion, watch and supervise, use planned ignoring for minor misbehaviour, give clear and calm instructions, and use consequences, quiet time and/or time out . ...
Physical punishment of children is linked to negative developmental outcomes. The widely used Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) promotes alternative responses to physical punishment. Data on the effectiveness of the Triple P Seminar Series is limited. In this study, Canadian parents’ reports of physical punishment, non-physical punishment, and non-punitive responses were compared before and after they attended the Triple P Seminar Series. Twenty-seven parents of children aged 2 to 6 years attended the Seminar Series and completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires measuring the number of times they used various physical punishments, non-physical punishments, and non-punitive responses in the past month. Hypotheses were tested using univariate descriptive analyses, paired samples t tests, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests. Parents’ reports of physical punishment decreased on only one of the four physical punishment items (shaking/grabbing) from pre- to post-intervention. Over the course of the Seminar Series, parents became more likely to emphasise rules and to punish their children by taking things away from them. The findings suggest that the Seminar Series has limited effectiveness in reducing physical punishments or increasing non-punitive responses. Further research on this question is needed.
... The Triple P Every Parent's Survival Guide DVD (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 2005), which describes the 17 parenting strategies used by Triple P, as well as four Triple P tip-sheets, were used. The tip-sheets provide information on positive ways of handling various situations that parents may face with their children (Morawska et al. 2011), and we used those dealing with tantrums, lying, tidying up, and mealtime problems. ...
Objective: This study investigated the opinions of mothers living in battered women’s shelters about the acceptability of programme materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Positive Parenting Programme (Triple P).
Method: Thirty-two mothers of three- to eight-year-olds were recruited from three shelters in Cape Town, South Africa. These mothers received Triple P tip-sheets and watched a Triple P DVD which described the strategies used by the programme. Thereafter, they completed a questionnaire and participated in a focus group discussion. Basic descriptive statistics were obtained from the questionnaire data while qualitative data were analysed using template analysis.
Results: Participants typically viewed the Triple P strategies, materials and delivery methods as acceptable. Time constraints and living within a shelter were emphasised as the greatest barriers to implementing strategies; no Internet access and financial cost were considered the most significant barriers to programme access. Participants liked both self-directed and group-based formats. Conclusions: Mothers in shelters are eager for parenting support and shelters provide an ideal opportunity for delivering such support to this high-risk population. This study shows that the strategies taught in such programmes, and the delivery methods used, are acceptable to mothers living in these settings.
This study evaluated the effects of a brief 3- to 4-session behavioral family intervention program for parents of preschool-aged children in a primary care setting, compared to parents in a wait-list control condition. Parents receiving the Primary Care Triple P-Positive Parenting Program intervention reported significantly lower levels of targeted child behavior problems, dysfunctional parenting, and reduced parental anxiety and stress in comparison to wait-listed parents at postassessment. These short-term effects were largely maintained at 6-month follow-up assessment of the intervention group. Implications of these findings for the prevention of behavioral and emotional problems in children are discussed.
This study examined the effectiveness of a self-administered behavioural family intervention (BFI) for parents of toddlers, within the context of a regular telephone counselling service provider. Telephone counsellors were trained in the delivery of BFI, and 110 mothers of toddlers completed the intervention. There were significant short-term effects of intervention in terms of child behaviour problems and parenting style, parenting confidence and anger. In addition, there were improvements in mother's personal adjustment, and lower levels of parenting conflict. The intervention effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. The results provide support for the effectiveness of self-administered BFI, and have implications for the population level delivery of behavioural family interventions.
This paper describes the theoretical and empirical basis of a unique multilevel system of parenting and family support known as the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. The program incorporates five levels of intervention on a tiered continuum of increasing strength and narrowing population reach. The self-regulation framework of the program is discussed and an ecological or systems-contextual approach to dissemination of the program to service providers is highlighted. Implementation issues to consider in effective program dissemination are discussed including managing the "politics" of family support, strategies for coping with changes in government, maintaining quality, balancing cost and sustainability, and remaining data responsive. Future research directions are identified.
Conflict of interest:
The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). The University through its main technology transfer company UniQuest Pty Limited has licensed Triple P International Pty Ltd to disseminate the program worldwide. Royalties stemming from this dissemination activity are distributed to the Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, UQ; Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at UQ; and contributory authors. No author has any share or ownership in Triple P International Pty Ltd. Matthew Sanders is the founder and an author on various Triple P programs and a consultant to Triple P International. Karen Turner is an author of various Triple P programs. Ronald Prinz is a consultant to Triple P International. Cheri Shapiro is a consultant to Triple P America.
A self-directed variant of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) was evaluated using 63 preschool-age children at-risk of developing conduct problems. Families were randomly assigned to either Self-directed Triple P (SD), a self-administered behavioural family intervention program, or a waitlist group (WL). The 10-unit SD program teaches parents 17 parenting skills to increase pro-social child behaviours and decrease problem behaviours in home and community settings. Using mothers’ reports of child behaviour and parenting practices, mothers in the SDgroup reported significantly less child behaviour problems, less use of dysfunctional discipline strategies, and greater parenting competence than mothers in the WL group. On measures of parental adjustment, there was no significant difference in conditions at post-intervention based on mothers’ reports of depression, anxiety, stress and conflict with partners over parenting issues. Mothers’ reports at 6-month follow-up indicated that gains in child behaviour and parenting practices achieved at post-intervention were maintained.
This paper draws on learnings from dissemination and diffusion research to discuss predictors of dissemination outcomes, obstacles to effective dissemination, and phases of dissemination failure. A model is presented of effective dissemination of a multilevel system of intervention known as the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program (Triple P). This model takes a systems-contextual approach, addressing program design, skills training, practitioner confidence and self-regulation, and workplace support. Recommendations are made for agencies adopting evidence-based programs, particularly in relation to the selection, establishment and maintenance of new programs as well as guiding ongoing program development. Future directions for research into the dissemination of evidence-based practice are also discussed.
Thirty-seven (37) couples experiencing child behavior problems and concurrent marital conflict were randomly assigned to one of two variants of a group parent training program, either Standard Group Triple P (SGTP; n = 19) or Enhanced Group Triple P (EGTP; n = 18). SGTP incorporated 8 sessions (4 group sessions and 4 telephone consultations) and taught parents to identify the causes of child behaviour problems, promote children’s development, manage misbehavior and plan ahead to prevent child behavior problems in ‘‘high risk’’ parenting situations. Families in the EGTP condition received SGTP plus 2 additional group sessions of partner support training that taught partners to support one another to parent as a team. These additional sessions included information and active skills training in communication skills; giving and receiving constructive feedback; holding casual conversations; supporting each other when problems occur; holding problem solving discussions; and improving relationship happiness. There were significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention for both conditions, on measures of disruptive child behavior, dysfunctional parenting style, conflict over parenting, relationship satisfaction and communication. No differences, however, were found between the two conditions, with both the EGTP and the SGTP programs resulting in similar outcomes. In the main, initial treatment effects for both mothers and fathers were maintained at 3-month follow-up.
This Evidence Check review examined the effectiveness of specific behaviour change techniques (BCTs) delivered by telephone in two areas: promoting healthy weight; and supporting parents. The review found that telephone-delivered interventions to promote healthy weight can be effectively used to change physical activity levels and improve diet. Interventions designed to support parents have been shown to improve both children’s behaviour and parents’ wellbeing. None of the included studies identified specific tools to determine which BCTs should be employed and when. The authors recommend the systematic use of theory to identify behavioural determinants and select the most effective BCT.
This article proposes that a paradigm shift that has implications for practitioners of parenting interventions is emerging. This shift represents a challenge to the dominant model of parent training. The Triple P Parenting Program is discussed as an example of parent training programme to highlight the relevant issues for practitioners, including common practitioner objections encountered in dissemination as identified, in part, by Mazzucchelli and Sanders. It is argued that apart from these objections, there are more essential concerns in relation to the adoption of parent training programmes by practitioners. Rather, the article argues that parent training is “mind‐blind” and that approaches emerging from the field of interpersonal neurobiology represent developmentally sophisticated alternatives for intervention. The Circle of Security programme is discussed as one example of this emerging paradigm shift that integrates attachment, social neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Contrasts are highlighted between the models, and considerations for future issues in parent intervention conclude the article.
This paper discusses the evidence for parenting skills training and behavioral family intervention (BFI), and the need for early intervention and prevention programs. It presents a conceptual framework for a comprehensive multilevel parenting and family support strategy for reducing the prevalence of parenting difficulties and other family risk factors associated with child maltreatment and the development of behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents. The framework for the system of intervention known as the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) is described. Also discussed are issues in the dissemination of evidence-based psychological interventions. A dissemination approach is presented which is based on a systems-contextual perspective that views practitioner uptake as being influenced by a range of program design, training, quality maintenance, organizational and motivational variables. Our experience in the widespread dissemination and implementation of Triple P at a population-level are shared and recommendations and future directions for dissemination of evidence-based preventive family interventions are noted.
Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these
programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials,
preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. One hundred and thirty seven
parents watched a video outlining the 17 strategies in Triple P and read through a tip sheet before completing a series of
questionnaires. Results revealed that parents found the strategies highly acceptable, highly useful, were very likely to use
the strategies and reported currently using the strategies often. They also rated the program materials as very culturally
appropriate and identified group, seminar, television, and individual as the most preferred delivery methods. Parents identified
location and timing of services, financial cost, and competing work commitments as the most frequently cited barriers to accessing
a parenting intervention. The findings of this study suggest that elements of parenting programs may not be contributing to
the low rates of access among culturally diverse parents. These findings highlight the need for more research addressing variables
that may contribute to increasing culturally diverse parents’ access of behavioural parenting programs.
KeywordsCultural diversity–Parenting–Parenting programs–Child behaviour
Preventive interventions for children and adolescents with conduct problems are designed to forestall the development of subsequent
mental health problems. Mrazek and Haggerty (1994) differentiated among three types of preventive interventions: universal (targeting an entire population irrespective of
risk), selective (targeting individuals or subgroups with elevated risk), and indicated (targeting high-risk individuals who
are identified as having minimal but detectable problems foreshadowing disorder). Prevention programs can include narrowly
targeted programs that focus on vulnerable children or high-risk families, universal programs offered to all families, or
blended models that combine universal and indicated interventions (Prinz & Sanders, 2007; Sanders, 1999, 2008; Sanders & Woolley, 2005).
The study examined the effects of conducting observations as part of a broader assessment of families participating in behavior family intervention (BFI). It was designed to investigate whether the observations improve intervention outcomes. Families were randomly assigned to different levels of BFI or a waitlist control condition and subsequently randomly assigned to either observation or no-observation conditions. This study demonstrated significant intervention and observation effects. Mothers in more intensive BFI reported more improvement in their child's behavior and their own parenting. Observed mothers reported lower intensity of child behavior problems and more effective parenting styles. There was also a trend for less anger among mothers who were observed and evidence of an observation-intervention interaction for parental anger, with observed mothers in more intensive intervention reporting less anger compared to those not observed. Implications for clinical and research intervention contexts are discussed.
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