Mechanical Dissociation of Swine Liver to Produce Organoid Units for Tissue Engineering and In Vitro Disease Modeling
Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.Artificial Organs (Impact Factor: 2.05). 01/2010; 34(1):75-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2009.00784.x
The complex intricate architecture of the liver is crucial to hepatic function. Standard protocols used for enzymatic digestion to isolate hepatocytes destroy tissue structure and result in significant loss of synthetic, metabolic, and detoxification processes. We describe a process using mechanical dissociation to generate hepatic organoids with preserved intrinsic tissue architecture from swine liver. Oxygen-supplemented perfusion culture better preserved organoid viability, morphology, serum protein synthesis, and urea production, compared with standard and oxygen-supplemented static culture. Hepatic organoids offer an alternative source for hepatic assist devices, engineered liver, disease modeling, and xenobiotic testing.
Article: Liver Tissue Engineering[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of liver support systems has been in intensive investigation for over 40 years. The main driving force is the shortage of donor organs for orthotopic liver transplantation. Liver cell transplantation and extracorporeal bioartificial livers (BAL) may bridge patients with end-stage liver diseases to successful orthotopic liver transplantation, support patients with acute liver failure to recover, and provide a curing method to patients with certain liver metabolic diseases. Another frontier of current liver tissue engineering is to construct many functional liver units in vitro for drug toxicity and metabolism screening. Much progress has been made, with several artificial liver dialysis devices on the market, a few BAL systems in clinical trials, and other in vitro micro-liver models in development. On the other hand, many lessons have been learned as well. In this chapter, we will focus on the review of advancement, challenges and the critical issues that have to be solved in the development of BAL systems and hepatic cell transplantation as well as in vitro micro-liver models from a tissue engineering perspective.
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ABSTRACT: In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.
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ABSTRACT: Nano-and microscale technologies have made a marked impact on the development of drug delivery systems. The loading efficiency and particle size of nano/micro particles can be better controlled with these new technologies than conventional methods. Moreover, drug delivery systems are moving from simple particles to smart particles and devices with programmable functions. These technologies are also contributing to in vitro and in vivo drug testing, which are important to evaluate drug delivery systems. For in vitro tests, lab-on-a-chip models are potentially useful as alternatives to animal models. For in vivo test, nano/micro-biosensors are developed for testing chemicals and biologics with high sensitivity and selectivity. Here, we review the recent development of nanoscale and microscale technologies in drug delivery including drug delivery systems, in vitro and in vivo tests.
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