Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: Rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

Article (PDF Available)inBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10(1):14 · April 2010with54 Reads
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-14 · Source: PubMed
Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy). Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36). Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s) by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. ClinicalTrials NCT00492310.


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Available from: Beth C Bock
    • "There is also a need to examine the effect of booster sessions after the end of the intervention (e.g.: via web-based programs, follow-up telephone counselling, mail out printed material, mobile phone SMS) on the long term exercise adherence and cigarette abstinence. Several types of exercise have been tested, for example, resistance training [78], isometric exercise [86], t'ai chi classes [87] and yoga [88] for their effectiveness. According to Daniel, Cropley, Ussher & West [68], even very brief bouts of exercise (5 minutes) may be useful as an aid to smoking cessation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to summarize the more recent research findings regarding the relationship between exercise and smoking behavior. Reviewed studies have been presented according to themes and research design types. Initially cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies have been reviewed in order to map findings regarding the correlations between those two behaviors. Moreover, studies exploring variables that function as mediators or moderators between smoking and exercise relationship have been included. Then studies examining the possible preventive effects of exercise on smoking behavior for adolescents are reviewed and implications for developing effective preventive intervention programs are provided. Finally, experimental studies examining the acute and long term effects of exercise on smokers are reviewed in order to conclude if exercise can act as a treatment for smokers to manage withdrawal symptoms and help them quit smoking. Overall, exercise seems to have a protective effect against smoking as well as a supportive effect on smoking cessation treatments. The investigation of the underlying mechanisms behind this relationship and the systematic synthesis of new knowledge on this topic can improve our understanding and inform the development of more effective health promotion programs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
    • "A rhythmic yoga breathing (Sundarshan Kriya Yoga) decreased use of tobacco in twenty-one percent of individuals after six months of practice [26]. Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death among women in America [27]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The psychological changes associated with yoga practice, allow yoga to be used in therapy and rehabilitation. In the present overview only the psychological aspects of rehabilitation have discussed. Applications have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder as an add-on therapy, particularly towards evening when the effects of medication reduce. Another recent application is in promotion of healthy aging. Healthy older persons who practiced yoga had improved sleep, better gait and balance, and less chance of depression, compared to those who did not practice yoga. In mentally challenged persons yoga showed better motor coordination , general mental ability, social adjustment and improved central neural processing ability. Another application of yoga which has been studied is post-traumatic stress disorder for survivors of natural disasters, with studies cited about benefits observed in survivors of a tsunami and a flood. Apart from this, yoga therapy resulted in improved perceived quality of life in physical and psychological domains as well as improved postural stability in patients with schizophrenia. The evidence showed that yoga plays an important role to overcome drug addiction at both pre and post clinical stages and it helps individuals to decrease drug dependency and other associated problems. More recent studies have made it apparent that there is no evidence that yoga is beneficial for persons who are HIV positive or those with AIDS. Hence it is apparent that there are several diverse applications of yoga in rehabilitation. Considerable research is still required to verify claims made and understand mechanisms underlying benefits seen.
    Article · Jan 2014
    • "In two studies, participants followed an audio guide which instructed participants to focus on their breathing by concentrating attention on the abdominal area which resulted in acute reductions in cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (Cropley et al. 2007;Ussher et al. 2009). Indeed, yoga -a philosophical and cultural system of physical and mental practice that seeks to achieve a very high level of control -has been suggested as complementary treatment for smoking cessation (Bock et al. 2010). Kochupillai and colleagues ( 2005) investigated Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam, two yogic breathing exercises using rhythmic, cyclical or slow and alternate fast inhalation and exhalation which are taught over a 6 day period and involve mediation as well as chanting. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale Breathing exercises have been proposed as a way of combating cigarette cravings, potentially presenting a low-cost, easily scalable smoking cessation aid. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute impact of breathing exercises based on yogic pranayama on cravings in abstaining smokers. Methods Participants visited the laboratory on two occasions 24 h apart and were asked to abstain from smoking12 h prior to the first visit until the end of the second visit. Smokers (N = 96) were randomly allocated to a yogic breathing exercise (YBG) or video control (VCG) group. The former was instructed on breathing exercises, practised these for 10 min and asked to use these when experiencing cravings until the next visit. The latter was shown a breathing exercise video for 10 min and asked to concentrate on their breathing. Strength of urges to smoke, other craving measures and mood and physical symptoms associated with cigarette withdrawal were assessed at the beginning and end of the first visit, and again at the second visit. Results At immediate follow-up, in the laboratory, all craving measures were reduced in YBG compared with VCG (strength of urges: F(1, 96) = 16.1, p < 0.001; cigarette craving: F(1, 96) = 11.3, p = 0.001; desire to smoke: F(1, 96) = 6.6, p = 0.012). There was no effect on mood or physical symptoms. Adherence to the breathing exercise regimen in the following 24 h was low, and at 24 h follow-up, there was no evidence of reduced cravings in YBG compared with VCG. Conclusions Simple yogic-style breathing exercises can reduce cigarette craving acutely in the laboratory. Further research is needed to determine how far this translates into field settings.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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