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Depression and Everyday Social Activity, Belonging, and Well-Being

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Abstract

Dysfunctional social behavior has been implicated in the experience of depression. People with greater depressive symptoms report more frequent negative social interactions and react more strongly to them. It remains unknown, however, whether reaction strength differs depending on whether social interactions are positive or negative. Drawing on socio-evolutionary models of depression (N. B. Allen & P. B. T. Badcock, 2003), we proposed that people with greater depressive symptoms should not only react more strongly to negative social interactions but also to positive social interactions and a sense of belonging. Using non-clinical samples, two daily process studies examined the role of depression in people's reactivity to social interactions in natural, ongoing, social contexts. In Study 1, the number of positive and negative social events showed a stronger relation to well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms. Study 2 extended this finding to perceptions of belonging in memorable social interactions, finding a stronger link between belonging and well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms. Together these studies provide the first indication that depressive symptoms may sensitize people to everyday experiences of both social rejection and social acceptance.

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... These results are consistent with findings in surveys: In a survey from April 2020, 24% of Americans responded that their faith had strengthened since the coronavirus, which we would not have expected if people are simply replacing their physical churchgoing with online churching (Pew, 2020a). Again, this is not surprising from a theoretical viewpoint: When faced with adversity, religious individuals do not primarily cope by going to church, akin to depressed individuals in general who rarely use social activity to cope with their situation (e.g., Steger and Kashdan (2009)). Instead, humans tend to turn inward when faced with adversity. ...
... When faced with adversity, people are more likely to use their private beliefs to cope rather than to go to church (Johnson and Spilka, 1991;Pargament, 2001). Likewise, when depressed, we usually do not go out socializing but instead turn inwards (Steger and Kashdan, 2009;Jacobson et al., 2001). The most frequently mentioned coping strategies among 100 older adults dealing with stressful events were faith in God, prayer, and gaining strength from God. ...
Article
In times of crisis, humans have a tendency to turn to religion for comfort and explanation. The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic is no exception. Using daily and weekly data on Google searches for 107 countries, this research demonstrates that the COVID-19 crisis resulted in a massive rise in the intensity of prayer. During the early months of the pandemic, Google searches for prayer relative to all Google searches rose by 30%, reaching the highest level ever recorded. A back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that by April 1 2020, more than half of the world population had prayed to end the coronavirus. Prayer searches remained 10% higher than previously throughout 2020, particularly so in Europe and the Americas. Prayer searches rose more among the more religious, rose on all continents, at all levels of income, inequality, and insecurity, and for all types of religion, except Buddhism. The increase is not merely a substitute for services in the physical churches that closed down to limit the spread of the virus. Instead, the rise is due to an intensified demand for religion: People pray to cope with adversity. The results thus reveal that religiosity has risen globally due to the pandemic with potential direct long-term consequences for various socio-economic outcomes.
... There are many studies conducted on the relationship between anxiety and general health status. For example, Steger and Kashdan [103] claim that when the anxiety levels of smokers increase, their general health is affected negatively. Similarly, de Beurs et al. [104] have found that that anxiety has an obvious negative effect on the movements and well-being of older individuals. ...
... When the results of correlation and regression analyses were examined, it was determined that there was a significant relationship between the employees' perceived COVID-19 anxiety and well-being, and it was revealed that while the COVID-19 anxiety level increased, the well-being level decreased significantly (−0.33). These findings are similar to the findings obtained in the studies conducted by Steger and Kashdan [103], de Beurs et al. [104], and De los Santos and Labrague [121]. ...
Article
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, emerged in China in December 2019, has severely affected many industries across the world and, created a substantial psychological, social and, economic impact on individuals. With the coronavirus outbreak labelled as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, the first measures have been taken for the aviation industry. The crisis environment created by the pandemic had negative impact on aviation personnel. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the mediator role of employee well-being in the effect of COVID-19 anxiety on occupational commitment. The data was collected through a survey from cabin and cockpit staff (n=3862). After the analyses, it was found that the effect of COVID-19 anxiety on well-being, occupational affective and normative commitment was significant. Moreover, it is among the findings that well-being has a partial mediator role in the effect of COVID-19 anxiety on occupational affective and normative commitment.
... Second, integrating lab culture into remote lab environments can help mitigate anxiety and depression, two common mental conditions that have also recently risen in the competitive world of academia, and that consistently affect all researchers at different career stages (Evans et al., 2018;Woolston, 2018). Previous works have observed that people who had the closest relationships felt a sense of social belonging, and suffered fewer symptoms of depression (Steger & Kashdan, 2009;Waldinger & Schulz, 2010). Thus, building a stronger lab culture by stimulating within-group members' relationships and social belonging and by fostering extra-group relationships and collaborations can help researchers to prevent, detect earlier, and cope with mental health problems, even in cases where social distance prevails. ...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has heavily impacted academics’ professional and personal lives, forcing many research groups (labs) to shift from an academic system primarily based on in‐person work to an almost full‐time remote workforce during lockdowns. Labs are generally characterized by a strong lab culture that underpins all research and social activities of its members. Lab culture traditionally builds on the pillars of in‐person communication, knowledge sharing, and all social and professional activities that promote collaboration, team building, scientific productivity, and well‐being. Here, we use the experience of our research group facing the COVID‐19 pandemic to illustrate how proactively reinforcing lab culture and its positive outcomes have been essential to our lab when transitioning from an in‐person to a remote lab environment, and through its ongoing evolution toward a hybrid remote/in‐person model. We argue that the proactive promotion of lab culture in research groups can foster academic resilience during crises, helping research groups to maintain their capacity to conduct scientific activities while preserving a sustainable life/work balance and a healthy mental condition. The Covid‐19 pandemic crisis has forced many research groups to move from an academic system based on in‐person work and characterized by a strong lab culture to a fully remote workforce. We illustrate how reinforcing lab culture has been essential for our research group when transitioning from an in‐person to a remote lab. We argue that proactively promoting lab culture is essential for supporting academic resilience during crises and to help research groups maintain scientific activity and preserve a sustainable life/work balance.
... The effects of socialization seeking on the bulk purchase intention were significant only in the depression and indifference groups, indicating that the motivation for socialization seeking is satisfied for those who are depressed through the purchase of goods on a large scale regardless of product price. Depressed people are reluctant to socialize with others (Steger and Kashdan, 2009). However, the results of the current study revealed that individuals depressed by COVID-19 still desired to socialize and buy large quantities of goods. ...
People tend to alleviate their negative emotions by shopping. Considering the change of shopping behavior during COVID-19 outbreak, negative emotions are the key contributors to this change. In this light, this study aims to investigate how negative emotions caused by COVID-19 affect shopping behaviors. This study classified consumer groups based on their perceived negative emotions (i.e., anxiety, fear, depression, anger, and boredom). By clustering analysis, four groups (i.e., group of anxiety, depression, anger, and indifference) were derived. Then, this study examined how each of the emotional groups differently affect the shopping-related motivations (i.e., mood alleviation, shopping enjoyment, socialization seeking, and self-control seeking) and shopping behaviors (i.e., shopping for high-priced goods and buying of bulk goods). Results revealed all emotional groups affect socialization seeking and influence high-priced shopping intentions. However, depression and indifference are positively associated with socialization seeking and influence bulk shopping intentions. In addition, other emotions except for anxiety affect mood alleviation and influence high-priced shopping intentions. Finally, anger is associated with self-control seeking and affects bulk shopping intentions. This study enables practitioners and researchers to better understand how people control negative emotions by shopping in pandemic situations such as the current COVID-19 crisis.
... Importantly, the relationship between social interactions and emotional distress is likely bidirectional [6]. That is, heightened emotional distress may exacerbate cardinal symptoms of anxiety and depression, such as irritability, avoidance of social interactions, social withdrawal, anhedonia, and negative cognitive biases, which can lead to reduced or unsatisfying social interactions [18]. In turn, heightened sensitivity to social rejection as a result of poor social functioning could also maintain symptoms of anxiety and depression [5,19,20]. ...
Article
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Background Increasing both the frequency and quality of social interactions within treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in older adults may improve their mental health outcomes and quality of life. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost utility of an enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus social participation program in a sample of older adults with depression and/or anxiety. Methods A total of 172 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older with an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomly allocated to either an enhanced CBT plus social participation program (n = 86) or standard CBT (n = 86). Both treatments will be delivered during 12 weekly individual sessions utilising structured manuals and workbooks. Participants will be assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome evaluates mean change in clinician-rated diagnostic severity of anxiety and depressive disorders from baseline to post-treatment (primary endpoint) based on a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Secondary outcomes evaluate changes in symptomatology on self-report anxiety and depression measures, as well as changes in social/community participation, social network, and perceived social support, loneliness, quality of life, and use of health services. Economic benefits will be evaluated using a cost-utility analysis to derive the incremental cost utility ratios for the enhanced CBT program. Discussion Outcomes from this study will provide support for the establishment of improved psychosocial treatment for older adults with anxiety and/or depression. Study outcomes will also provide health systems with a clear means to reduce the impact of poor emotional health in older age and its associated economic burden. In addition to the empirical validation of a novel treatment, the current study will contribute to the current understanding of the role of social participation in older adult wellbeing. Trial registration Prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ID: ACTRN12619000242123 ; registered 19 th February 2019) and the ISRCTN registry (ID: ISRCTN78951376 ; registered 10 th July 2019).
... Importantly, depressive symptoms are associated with impaired social functioning (e.g., Hirschfeld et al., 2000;Kamper-DeMarco et al., 2020;Segrin, 2000), negative perceptions about one's social skills (Lee et al., 2010;Steger & Kashdan, 2009), and diminished social support (Gotlib & Lee, 1989;Joiner & Timmons, 2009). One line of research has investigated specific interpersonal behaviours that are characteristic of depressed individuals, including excessive reassurance seeking (e.g., Evraire & Dozois, 2011;Joiner et al., 1999;Starr & Davila, 2008), negative feedback seeking (e.g., Borelli & Prinstein, 2006;Joiner & Metalsky, 1995), and conversational self-focus (e.g., Schwartz-Mette & Rose, 2009. ...
Article
Coyne’s interpersonal theory of depression posits that those with depressive symptoms engage in maladaptive interpersonal behaviours that, although intended to assuage distress, push away social supports and increase depressive symptoms (Coyne, 1976). Excessive reassurance seeking, negative feedback seeking, and conversational self-focus are three behaviours implicated in Coyne’s theory, yet their correlates- apart from depressive symptoms- are poorly understood. The current study considered the potential role of intrapersonal emotion regulation deficits as an additional vulnerability factor for these behaviours. Mediation models further tested whether linkages between emotion regulation deficits and maladaptive interpersonal behaviours helped to explain short-term increases in depressive symptoms, as further suggested by theory. Older adolescents (N = 291, M age = 18.9) completed self-report measures of emotion regulation deficits, depressive symptoms, and the three maladaptive interpersonal behaviours during an initial lab visit and again four weeks later. A series of multiple regression models suggested that emotion regulation difficulties are uniquely associated with each of the behaviours over and above the impact of depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses suggested that only excessive reassurance seeking mediated the association between initial emotion regulation deficits and increased depressive symptoms over time. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
... The presence of depressed mood, abulia or other lack of motivation, fluctuating anxiety, or a generalized sense of unwellness can impact the patient's subjective daily experience through many ways. This includes everything from a potential impact on sleep, motivation to exercise as well as playing a part in daily choices on social and emotionally stimulating activities [11]. ...
Article
Objective Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a neurological condition characterized by emotional lability and a discrepancy between the patient's emotional expression and emotional experience. These uncontrollable episodes cause distress in social situations resulting in embarrassment and social withdrawal. The most comprehensive study to date estimated that 26% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients screened positive for PBA symptoms via the validated Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS) screening tool. We hypothesize that the prevalence of this disabling syndrome is higher than reported, often being labeled as depression. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled in the study and screened with a CNS-LS tool, all of whom were diagnosed with PD by a fellowship-trained movement disorder specialist. Patients were also asked about previous diagnosis of depression, current antidepressant medication use, and history of PBA diagnosis and treatment. Results The percentage of PD patients (n = 100) with PBA symptoms as defined by a CNS-LS score ≥13 was 41% (n = 41) and by a CNS-LS score ≥17 was 21.0% (n = 21). In our sample, 38.0% of patients (n = 38) had a previous clinical diagnosis of depression and 25.0% (n = 25) were currently undergoing treatment for their depression. There was a significant association between previous depression diagnosis, current antidepressant use, and higher CNS-LS scores (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using either of the CNS-LS score cutoffs, a significant proportion of the PD population in our sample displayed symptoms of PBA. We also found an association between previous diagnosis of depression and higher CNS-LS scores as well as between antidepressant use and higher CNS-LS scores. This suggests both a higher prevalence than prior studies showed as well as frequent misdiagnosis or co-diagnosis with depression.
... Interestingly, we also found that some individuals who had depressive symptoms before social isolation, indicated that their depressive symptoms decreased, which could have been influenced by the activities that individuals carry out day by day. Some hypotheses talk about how individuals with depression can react in both negative and positive ways when faced to social distancing (28)(29)(30)(31). Which opens a study area on the effects of social distancing and how it could influence individuals who already had depression. ...
Article
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Introduction: Social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a risk factor of several mental disorders. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the effect of social isolation experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of a Mexican population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in individuals of 18 years of age and over. The questioner was structured to identify onset or worsening of psychiatric symptoms due to social isolation by COVID-19. The survey included changes in eating habits, changes in personal hygiene habits, the starting the use or increased the use of psychoactive substances, symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress. Results: A total of 1,011 individuals were included in the analysis. The majority were women (68.84%). Changes in eating habits were reported in 38.51% of the participants, 67.80% reported having their physical self-perception distorted or having started a low-calorie diet. Regarding symptoms of depression, 46.10% participants indicated to have at least one depressive symptom, and 4.46% reported suicidal ideation during social isolation. Interestingly, 6.09% of individuals reported that they used to have depressive symptoms prior the COVID-19 pandemic and those symptoms decreased due to social isolation. Additionally, 2.27%of individuals presented symptoms of post-traumatic stress due to the possibility of getting COVID-19. Conclusions: In this work we identified how social isolation has impacted the mental health of the Mexican population. We observed that practically all the symptoms evaluated were affected during isolation, such as personal hygiene and eating habits. Depression and suicidal ideation were the ones that increased the most in the general population, while in individuals who had symptoms of depression before isolation, these symptoms decreased during social isolation.
... Depressive symptoms and loneliness increased following COVID-19 lockdown 14,15 and both have previously been shown to influence how individuals respond to social interactions 16,17 . Moreover, both lonely and more depressed individuals have consistently been shown to be more vulnerable to the effects of lockdown in terms of their psychological wellbeing 18 . ...
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BACKGROUND: Social interactions are vital for our wellbeing, particularly during times of stress. PURPOSE: We investigated the real-time effect of social interactions on changes in stress and mood using an ecological momentary assessment approach in 732 participants during COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 and in a subsample of these participants (n= 281) during a further lockdown in winter 2020. METHODS: Participants reported their stress and mood in a smartphone app five times per day for seven days and indicated the nature and frequency of their recent social interactions. RESULTS: Overall, social interactions and their frequency were associated with enhanced momentary mood. In person interactions, but not those that were not in person (e.g., via audio, video, or text), were linked to lower stress, especially if they were with closer others. Individuals scoring high on trait loneliness benefited least from social interactions in terms of their momentary mood, whereas those scoring high on trait depressive symptoms benefited the most. Our key findings replicated across both lockdowns. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the benefits and limits of social interactions for improving momentary mood and stress during psychologically demanding periods and highlight how clinically relevant individual differences can modulate these effects.
... Fourth, apart from the number of times that children quarrel with their parents and the number of times that parents quarrel with each other, other variables and measurements relevant to parent-child conflict and interparental conflict could be considered in future studies. In addition, previous research has shown that depressive symptoms may sensitize people to both negative and positive social interactions (Steger & Kashdan, 2009). Although the CFPS provided a definition of quarreling in the questionnaire to make this variable more objective, it is still possible that some people are more likely to notice negative interactions than others. ...
Article
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There is a growing interest in whether and how parents’ experiences of discrimination may affect their children’s health and well-being. Considering that the intergenerational influence of discrimination on child well-being is still underexplored in China, there is an urgent need to determine whether children become depressed as a result of their parents’ discrimination experiences and to identify the pathways leading to their depressive symptoms. This study examined whether and how parents’ experiences of discrimination may lead to child (aged 10–15 years) depressive symptoms using data from the 2016 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). The analytic sample included 1554 triads comprising children and both parents. Generalized structural equation modeling (GSEM) was employed to examine whether parents’ experiences of discrimination were related to child depressive symptoms through more serious parents’ depressive symptoms and greater tension between the two parents and between parents and their children. The analysis indicated that both mothers’ and fathers’ experiences of discrimination were indirectly related to children’s depressive symptoms through fathers’ and mothers’ depressive symptoms, parent–child quarreling, and interparental quarreling. The study also showed a crossover effect from fathers’ discrimination experiences to mothers’ depressive symptoms and indicated that fathers’ experiences of discrimination could influence children’s depressive symptoms through mothers’ depressive symptoms. The findings suggested that children whose parents were likely to suffer from discrimination, from either the father’s or mother’s side, could become vulnerable. Policies and practices targeting adult discrimination need to be extended to children to enhance parents’ awareness and improve their strategies for coping with discrimination.
... Prior work has repeatedly shown positive social connectedness as a resource to manage depression and anxiety (e.g. Baltes and Lang, 1997;Cacioppo et al., 2010;Steger and Kashdan, 2009). Social connectedness can also be pursued using ICTs and research shows that these technologies are a feasible tool to enhance social connectedness (Barbosa Neves et al., 2019). ...
Article
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As opportunities for social interactions proliferate online, questions arise as to how engagement in such activities may relate to mental health. Given older adults’ shrinking networks and increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), online interactions could offer alternatives for connections that could ultimately benefit older users’ mental health. This article examines associations between older adults’ online social engagement and their mental health. Using data from an online survey of older adults ages 60+, we find positive and negative associations between different forms of online social engagement and anxiety. In terms of depression, two forms of online social engagement showed positive associations with this mental health indicator. Our results can help explain inconclusive findings of previous research on ICT use and mental health by looking at how specific online social activities relate to mental health.
... As our intervention consisted of five home visits by a clinical nutritionist and of weekly deliveries of food items for six months, it can be assumed that improved outcomes cannot be entirely attributed to the increase in dietary intake in the intervention group. Home visits and deliveries likely increased social interactions of participants which have been related to increased quality of life [65], better cognitive function [66], and reduced depression [67] in previous studies. However, we observed that improvements in three of four outcome variables were related to changes in body weight, which indicates that the increase in dietary intake and the associated physiological changes might have contributed to the improved outcomes. ...
Article
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Background and aims Malnutrition is common among older adults and is related to quality of life, cognitive function, and depression. To what extent nutrition interventions can improve these outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutrition therapy on health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), self-rated health, cognitive function, and depression in community dwelling older adults recently discharged from hospital. Methods Participants (>65 years) were randomised into an intervention (n=53) and a control group (n=53). The intervention group received individualised nutrition therapy based on the nutrition care process including 5 home visits and 3 phone calls, in combination with freely delivered energy- and protein-rich foods and oral nutrition supplements for six months after hospital discharge. EQ-5D, self-rated health, Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE), and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression – IOWA (CES-D) scale were measured at baseline and at endpoint. Results Two subjects dropped out, one from each arm. The control group experienced an increase in depressive symptoms and a decrease in self-rated health during the study period, while the intervention group experienced increases in cognitive function, self-rated health, and EQ-5D resulting in significant endpoint differences between the groups: EQ-5D (0.102, P = 0.001); self-rated health: 15.876, (P < 0.001); MMSE: 1.701, (P < 0.001); depressive symptoms: - 3.072, (P <0.001); all in favour of the intervention group. Improvements during the intervention in MMSE, self-rated health, and CES-D were significantly related to body weight gain in a linear way. Conclusion Cognitive function and mental well-being worsen or stagnate in older adults who receive standard care after hospital discharge. However, a six-month nutrition therapy improves these outcomes leading to statistically and clinically significant endpoint differences between the groups. As improvements were related to body weight gain after hospital discharge, we conclude that the increase in dietary intake, with focus on energy and protein density, and changes in body weight might have contributed to better cognitive function and mental well-being in older adults after the intervention.
... Conversely, when our need to belong is unfulfilled, our well-being is impacted in many ways. It is well-documented that social exclusion and isolation are associated with poor self-regulation, negative affect, self-doubt, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and suicide (Baumeister and Leary 1995;Cacioppo and Hawkley 2003;Baumeister 2005;Steger and Kashdan 2009;. This is the social and emotional weight of relationships. ...
Article
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As Canada’s schools reopen, attention to healing the school community is essential. Given the considerable stressors of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is unsurprising that recent studies find Canadian children’s mental health in decline. As social connection is tightly entwined with children’s mental health, supporting school-based spaces for quality social interactions and play will be an important postpandemic recovery strategy. Children will need opportunities to re-establish positive social connections at school, and informal spaces such as recess and lunch are an ideal time to afford these opportunities. Yet many schoolyards have long been challenged by social conflict that can interfere with children’s need to connect with peers. Therefore, efforts should be directed not only at mitigating the effects of social harm, but also toward ensuring social and physical landscapes that are meaningful, inclusive, and engaging for children and adolescents of all ages. Recommendations for postpandemic recovery are provided.
... MDD is known to interfere with people's dayto-day activities such as going to work, and these patients report more negative social interactions [1]. In addition, depressive symptoms might make patients more sensitive in everyday experiences of both social acceptance and rejec-tion [2]. Therefore, MDD affects patients' daily life and social interactions. ...
Article
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Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine that has been linked to energy homeostasis and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and cognitive impairment. We previously revealed that deficiency in IL-18 led to hippocampal abnormalities and resulted in depression-like symptoms. However, the impact of IL-18 deficiency on other brain regions remains to be clarified. In this study, we first sought to confirm that IL-18 expression in neural cells can be found in human brain tissue. Subsequently, we examined the expression of genes in the prefrontal cortex of Il18−/− mice and compared it with gene expression in mice subjected to a chronic mild stress model of depression. Extracted genes were further analyzed using Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis, in which 18 genes common to both the chronic mild stressed model and Il18−/− mice were identified. Of those, 16 were significantly differentially expressed between Il18+/+ and Il18−/− mice. We additionally measured protein expression of α-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) and transthyretin (TTR) in serum and the brain. In the prefrontal cortex of Il18−/− mice, TTR but not AHSG was significantly decreased. Conversely, in the serum of Il18−/− mice, AHSG was significantly increased but not TTR. Therefore, our results suggest that in IL-18-deficit conditions, TTR in the brain is one of the mediators causally related to depression, and AHSG in peripheral organs is one of the regulators inducing energy imbalance. Moreover, this study suggests a possible “signpost” to clarify the molecular mechanisms commonly underlying the immune system, energy metabolism, neural function, and depressive disorders.
... Today, depression is one of the major medical and social issues, which ruined labor, economic and social empowerment of the individual [9,10]. Workplace stress, depression and anxiety cause lack of confidence and frequent absenteeism. ...
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Introduction: Working in healthcare jobs and the health sector, where one has to face human communication and health-related issues every day, can cause a lot of stress. Nurses are important members of the healthcare system of a country; they play a crucial role in improving the quality of healthcare. Burnout as the main characteristic of job stress refers to a delayed reaction to chronic stressors at work. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between burnout dimensions and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety and stress) among nurses. Material and Methods: This present study was a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, which was conducted on 270 nurses working in educational hospitals in Rasht (Iran), using stratified random sampling. The research instruments included demographic questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and depression, anxiety and stress questionnaire {Depresion Anxiety, Stress, Scale (DASS21)}. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and regression). Results: The findings showed that there is a significantly positive correlation between burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment) and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety and stress) in nurses (P<0.001). Burnout also significantly predicted 42%, 25% and 32% of variance in nurses’ depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: Considering the fact that mental health can positively affect the nursing profession and given the positive relationship between burnout dimensions and psychological symptoms, it is recommended that we must the reduce burnout rate by holding emotion regulation-training classes and promote it.
... Similarly, one study found that SAD significantly reduces individuals' positive facial affect during interactions with others (Pearlstein et al., 2019). In both cases, affected individuals tend to be more sensitive to positive (e.g., being accepted/included by others) and negative (e.g., being judged/excluded by others) social interactions (Lin et al., 2017;Steger and Kashdan, 2009). It is easy to understand how characteristics of insecure attachment and alexithymia can emerge as biproducts of depression and social anxiety. ...
Article
Background : Major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are commonly occurring conditions, either alone or together (MDD-SAD). Recent research linked insecure attachment and alexithymia to MDD and/or SAD, indicating that the way affected individuals relate interpersonally and their ability to identify and communicate emotions are pertinent issues. The current study investigated the mediating role of alexithymia in the relationship between insecure attachment and severity of MDD and SAD symptoms. Method : Using the SCID-I, participants (N=159) were identified as MDD-only (n=43), MDD-SAD (n=56), or a healthy control (n=60). Participants completed measures of adult attachment, depression, social anxiety and alexithymia (defined as difficulty identifying and describing feelings). A two-step mediation analysis approach recommended by Shrout and Bolger determined if alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment-depression and attachment-social anxiety. Results : While alexithymia was high in MDD-only and MDD-SAD groups, individuals with MDD-SAD had significantly greater difficulty describing feelings. Alexithymia was a full mediator between attachment avoidance and depression, but only a partial mediator between attachment anxiety and depression. Meanwhile, alexithymia was a partial mediator for both attachment dimensions and social anxiety. Limitations : Causal inferences regarding insecure attachment, alexithymia, and MDD and SAD cannot be assumed given the cross-sectional data. The ‘externally oriented thinking’ component in alexithymia was also excluded from analyses due to low reliability. Conclusion : The results suggest emotional awareness and expression play a role in the illness severity for MDD and SAD—particularly in those with high attachment avoidance, offering a possible target for treatment and prevention strategies.
... For example, there may be value in providing psychoeducation for young adults on the interactive nature of worry related to the pandemic and the loneliness that may exacerbate such worry. Along with psychoeducation, clinicians may seek to provide young adults with strategies to lower levels of worry (e.g., structuring worry time, cognitive restructuring) and promote activities that combat loneliness (e.g., outdoor activities, virtual or socially distant interactions with friends, peer support and disclosure; Steger & Kashdan, 2009). However, it is important to consider elevated levels of loneliness and worry may encompass a relatively "normal" response to a pandemic and the restrictions that accompany the pandemic. ...
Article
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Background Young adults are overrepresented in terms of adverse mental health problems related to COVID-19. Emerging work has identified worry about the consequences and trajectory of COVID-19 and loneliness as important factors in mental health during the pandemic. However, the main and interactive effects of worry about COVID-19 and loneliness have not been explored in one overarching model in relation to mental health problems among young adults.Methods The present study therefore evaluated loneliness and COVID-19 related worry in terms of anxiety, stress, and depression among young adults (209 college students, 76.1% female, Mage = 22.99 years, SD = 5.25) recruited to participate in an online survey study.ResultsResults indicated a significant interaction between COVID-19 worry and loneliness for each criterion variable (depression: b = .01, SE = .003, t = 2.86, p = .01; anxiety: b = .01, SE = .002, t = 2.36, p = .02; stress: b = .01, SE = .003, t = 2.54, p = .01), such that worry was more strongly related to each mental health outcome among those that endorsed higher levels of loneliness.Conclusion The current findings suggest loneliness is related to negative mental health symptoms among young adults experiencing COVID-19 related worry. The current findings provide initial empirical evidence for the impact of COVID-19 worry on mental health among young adults experiencing loneliness. Future research may benefit from exploring how COVID-19 worry and loneliness interplay over time.
... This is important since preexisting psychological distress may lead to life experiences that contribute to a sense of loneliness. For example, people with depression are more likely to perceive interpersonal interactions as negative, 56 less enjoyable, and less intimate even though they have the same level of social interactions as people without depression. 57 Consequently, loneliness could also begin a downward cycle of psychological distress leading to more loneliness and thus extending the feelings of psychological distress. ...
Article
Objective: Changes in surroundings and social relationships may heighten feelings of loneliness, suggesting the need to measure as a state. This study tested whether loneliness fluctuates within and across days and the resultant associations with psychological distress. Further it tested familism as a moderator as endorsing this cultural value may buffer the negative effects of state loneliness. Participants: Participants (n = 220) were Latinx undergraduate students. Methods: Students reported their loneliness levels and psychological distress twice a day for two weeks using an ecological momentary assessment approach. Results: Results showed that experiencing a higher than usual level of loneliness predicted greater sadness, stress, and anxiety at both the moment-to-moment and day-to-day level. Familism, measured at baseline, only moderated the relationship between loneliness and sadness. Conclusions: The findings suggest being in a lonely moment may lead to the initiation or amplification of psychological distress immediately and the effects may linger over the day.Supplemental data for this article can be accessed online at https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1927051.
... Depression affects all aspects of life, from impairing social relationships [1], interfering with work functioning [2], and reducing quality of life, to increasing mortality from other medical conditions [3]. Consequently, major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second-leading cause of disability globally [4] and is associated with significant healthcare costs [5]. ...
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Objectives Antidepressants are first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD), but 40–60% of patients will not respond, hence, predicting response would be a major clinical advance. Machine learning algorithms hold promise to predict treatment outcomes based on clinical symptoms and episode features. We sought to independently replicate recent machine learning methodology predicting antidepressant outcomes using the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) dataset, and then externally validate these methods to train models using data from the Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression (CAN-BIND-1) dataset. Methods We replicated methodology from Nie et al (2018) using common algorithms based on linear regressions and decision trees to predict treatment-resistant depression (TRD, defined as failing to respond to 2 or more antidepressants) in the STAR*D dataset. We then trained and externally validated models using the clinical features found in both datasets to predict response (≥50% reduction on the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Rated [QIDS-SR]) and remission (endpoint QIDS-SR score ≤5) in the CAN-BIND-1 dataset. We evaluated additional models to investigate how different outcomes and features may affect prediction performance. Results Our replicated models predicted TRD in the STAR*D dataset with slightly better balanced accuracy than Nie et al (70%-73% versus 64%-71%, respectively). Prediction performance on our external methodology validation on the CAN-BIND-1 dataset varied depending on outcome; performance was worse for response (best balanced accuracy 65%) compared to remission (77%). Using the smaller set of features found in both datasets generally improved prediction performance when evaluated on the STAR*D dataset. Conclusion We successfully replicated prior work predicting antidepressant treatment outcomes using machine learning methods and clinical data. We found similar prediction performance using these methods on an external database, although prediction of remission was better than prediction of response. Future work is needed to improve prediction performance to be clinically useful.
... alleviate) depressive mood in everyday life (Pemberton and Tyszkiewicz, 2016;Steger and Kashdan, 2009). Prior diary studies have also demonstrated the effect of social interactions on mood (Rivera et al., 2020;Vittengl and Holt, 1998). ...
Article
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Eveningness is associated with lower daily positive affect (PA). The relationship between negative affect (NA) and chronotype, however, is less consistent in the literature. Eveningness may be further characterized by increased social isolation, which could explain the associations between chronotype and PA/NA. In the present longitudinal study, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to investigate the associations of chronotype with daily PA, NA, and social contact in individuals with current and remitted major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. As part of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), 279 participants (n = 49 depressed, n = 172 remitted, n = 58 controls) monitored daily PA, NA, and social contact (i.e., being alone vs. with others) for two weeks, five times per day. Overall, eveningness was associated with less social contact. This effect became nonsignificant, however, after accounting for sociodemographics (gender, age, education, living situation). Chronotype was not related to PA or NA. Less social contact was associated with lower PA and higher NA independent of chronotype. In conclusion, we could not replicate the finding of lower PA among evening types, but found social contact to associate with both daily PA and NA.
... Moreover, stressful life events are associated with the loss of presence of meaning in life (Sang et al., 2019). Accordingly, bullying, as a forceful form of social exclusion and ostracism and a negative interpersonal stressful event, is related to less meaning in life (Steger & Kashdan, 2009). Empirical studies have supported the notion that bullying victimization is negatively associated with meaning in life in adolescents (Henry et al., 2014;Zhao et al., 2020). ...
Article
Despite widely linking cyberbullying victimization (CV) to some poorer mental health outcomes, CV also negatively impacts the internal strengths that make life worth living, such as meaning in life, which has received less attention. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between CV and presence of meaning in life as well as the mediating roles of fatalism and self-concept clarity in this relationship. Gender differences in the mediation model were also examined. A sample of 766 Chinese junior school students ( M = 13.11 years, SD = 1.19 years) completed questionnaires regarding CV, presence of meaning, self-concept clarity, and fatalism. The results revealed that CV was significantly and positively correlated with presence of meaning. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-concept clarity and fatalism completely mediated the link between CV and presence of meaning in parallel and sequential manners. The multigroup analysis further showed that CV was positively related to fatalism only among girls and had a stronger negative association with self-concept clarity for girls compared with boys. Thus, the indirect link between CV and presence of meaning was stronger for girls (versus boys). Findings suggested that CV was associated with poor self-concept clarity, stronger fatalism, and low levels of presence of meaning in life among adolescents, especially for girls. Increasing self-concept clarity and decreasing fatalistic beliefs are thus necessary to help cyberbullying victims to develop meaning in life.
... Similarly to those with a larger amygdala volume, participants with higher neurotic traits might benefit from more social contacts (Model IV) before Covid-19, thus may catching up on their affective backlog [64]. Interestingly, this pattern was reversed during the lockdown, indicating an expected mood-lifting effect of social interactions only in persons with low to moderate levels of neuroticism. ...
Article
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Background:Social integration is a major resilience factor for staying healthy. However, the COVID-19-pandemic led to unprecedented restrictions in social life. The consequences of these social lockdowns on momentary well-being are yet not fully understood.Method:We investigated the individual affective benefit from social interactions in a longitudinal birth cohort study. We used two real-time, real-life ecological momentary assessments once before and once during the initial lockdown of the pandemic (N~6800 total observations) to determine the protective role of social interactions on well-being. Moreover, we used a multimethod approach combining the ecological assessment data with individual risk and resilience factors to analyze the moderating mechanisms of personality, neurobiology and genes.Results:Social contacts were linked to higher positive affect both during normal times and during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the beneficial role of social embedding. Moreover, this relationship was moderated by amygdala volume, neuroticism and polygenic risk for schizophrenia. In detail, participants with a larger left amygdala volume and higher trait neuroticism exhibited an affective benefit from more social interactions prior to the pandemic. This pattern changed during the pandemic with participants with smaller amygdala volumes and lower neurotic traits showing a social affective gain during the pandemic. Moreover, participants with low genetic risk for schizophrenia showed an affective benefit from social interactions irrespective of the time point.Conclusion:Our results highlight the protective role of social integration on momentary well-being. Thereby, we offer new insights into how this relationship is differently affected by a person’s, neurobiology, personality, and genes under adverse circumstances.
... Poor mental health itself may also isolate individuals from regular interpersonal interactions. Consequently, individuals with poor mental health are likely to report discrimination due to social sensitivity (Steger & Kashdan, 2009). For the latter, the stress-response process can explain the adverse health outcomes associated with perceived discrimination. ...
Article
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This study aims to fill two interrelated knowledge gaps in the extant literature on the association between perceived discrimination and health. First, potential selection bias associated with pre-existing health conditions has rarely been rigorously tested in empirical studies. Second, whether there is a reciprocal relationship between perceived discrimination and health has been underexplored. Using longitudinal data from the Americans’ Changing Lives data, waves 3 to 5 (N = 1058), we test the reciprocity between perceived discrimination and health with a formal mediation analysis technique. We also use the Heckman correction to adjust for the potential selection bias associated with attrition. Our analysis indicates that perceived discrimination is associated with poor self-rated health and depressive symptoms even when previous health conditions are considered. Furthermore, net of other confounders, there is a reciprocal relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. However, this reciprocity does not hold for self-rated health. These findings indicate that there is a vicious circle between perceived discrimination and mental health. That is, poor mental health may lead to perceived discrimination, and heightened perceived discrimination may subsequently increase depressive symptoms. Sensitivity tests suggest that this reciprocity may vary by gender and race.
... Its purpose is to explain the stress individuals endure once the freedom that they have grown accustomed to is suddenly taken away. Humans are naturally social creatures who thrive off daily interactions with other people, such as friends and family (Steger & Kashdan, 2009;Sandstrom & Dunn, 2014;Murray, 2020). COVID-19 forced many socially oriented individuals to remain indoors and away from daily social interactions. ...
Article
This study offers an examination of a sample of 150 homicides in Houston, Texas in 2020 as described by local news sources. The purpose was to understand dynamics that may explain what appears to be an increase in domestic disputes that led to increases in homicides. This mixed method study utilized content analysis that included quantifying the patterns of concepts in the news reports to isolate racial, gender and location factors. Data are displayed in tables and figures to illustrate patterns and regression analyses indicate predictive relations. The study is important given the recent homicide increases during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the substantial impact on families and communities. The data reveal that domestic disputes and access to firearms are evident in the increases. The study offers implications for micro and macro responses involving media coverage, interpersonal communication, community programming and messaging, law enforcement engagement, and justice system reforms.
... [6,7] Whereas pain has clear negative impact on social activities, [8] the influence of depression on social behavior is complex. [9] OFP patients also present with sleep problems, sleep apnea, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). [10][11][12] These sleep-related issues have significant burden on several quality-of-life domains including daily life functioning and social life. ...
Article
Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore the use of unsupervised machine learning in clustering the population based on reports of oral pain, psychological distress, and sleep problems and to compare demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as levels of functional domains (work, social, and leisure) between clusters. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1613 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2017-2018 were analyzed. Five variables, including oral pain, depression, anxiety, sleep apnea, and excessive daytime sleepiness, were selected for cluster analysis using the k-medoids clustering algorithm. The distribution of categorical variables between clusters was assessed using χ2 test. One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to compare numerical variables as appropriate. Results: Five distinct clusters were identified: healthy, norm, anxiety, apnea-comorbid, and pain-comorbid. The apnea-comorbid cluster had mean age of 59 years and higher proportion of men. The pain-comorbid cluster had mean age of 56 years and higher proportion of women. Whites constituted a majority of both comorbid clusters. The pain-comorbid cluster demonstrated the least percentage of individuals with college degree, the lowest income, and significant impairment in all functional domains. Conclusion: Through the use of unsupervised machine learning, the clusters with comorbidity of oral pain, psychological distress, and sleep problems have emerged. Major characteristics of the comorbid clusters included mean age below 60 years, White, and low levels of education and income. Functional domains were significantly impaired. The comorbid clusters thus call for public health intervention.
... The experience of meaning in life is associated with a variety of benefits such as enhanced psychological wellbeing (e.g., Zika & Chamberlain, 1992), decreased mortality (e.g., Krause, 2009), and reduced incidence of psychological disorders (e.g., Steger & Kashdan, 2009). Researchers tend to conceptualize meaning in life from a tripartite perspective wherein people have a subjective sense that their life (a) is significant, (b) makes sense, and (c) is characterized by the embrace or pursuit of one or more highly valued overarching purposes (Steger, 2016). ...
Article
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Previous research indicates that sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity are predictive of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A body of research supports that meaning in life predicts improved mental health and well-being, including fewer suicidal thoughts and attempts, yet no research has examined the moderating effects of meaning in life on the relations between personality and temperament and NSSI. Given the growing incidence rates of NSSI among adolescents and the potential lifelong consequences of NSSI, it is imperative to better understand the factors that reduce the rates at which adolescents in a clinical sample engage in NSSI. The present study investigates if the protective factors of meaning in life moderate the relation between personality and temperament variables and NSSI among 126 adolescents (71% female, Mage = 16.1, SD = 1.1, range 13–18, 80% White) residing in an inpatient psychiatric hospital who endorsed NSSI in the last 12 months. Results from hurdle modeling indicate that two subtypes of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning of life, may serve as robust protective factors against engagement in NSSI among a clinical sample of adolescents. Additionally, results suggest that search for meaning, but not presence of meaning in life, variables moderate the relations between personality and temperament and NSSI. Results provide evidence that meaning in life is an understudied variable of importance in understanding how to prevent or treat NSSI. It also underscores the need to develop, refine, and test meaning-making interventions.
... The unspecified depressive disorder category is given in conditions for which there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis (APA, 2013). The lack of expressiveness in nonverbal and verbal behaviors of depressed individuals, such as the minimized tendency to smile at their partners who are trying to interact with them, is considered a significant problem (Kupferberg et al., 2016;Steger & Kashdan, 2009). ...
Article
Depressive disorders affect individual’s thoughts, feelings, and social interactions. Enhancing emotional competencies of depressed individuals may alleviate their suffering. Purpose: This study aimed to compare depression severity and emotional intelligence before and after emotional intelligence training in patients with depressive disorders. Methods: A nonrandomized trial (one-group pretest–posttest) research design was applied to 69 patients purposively recruited. The patients’ sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory-II and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form were completed before and immediately after an 8-weeks of focused weekly group training. Results: A significant improvement in the scores of well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability; total emotional intelligence scores; and total depression scores was perceived after training ( Z = 5.601, 4.398, 5.686, and 3.516; 4.943; and 2.387, respectively). Implications for Nursing Practice: As emotional intelligence can be learned; it may be a target for interventions when dealing with patients with depressive disorders by strengthening their emotional intelligence.
... The mechanism underlying the mediating role of depressive status in the cognitive function-IADL disability association may be linked to a lack of interest in all or most things [46]. Older individuals with more severe depressive symptoms reported more negative social interactions [47] and a lack of sense of belonging [48]. A review [49] including 66 studies showed that low social support, social activity restriction, and tense interpersonal relationships are all related to depression. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Cognitive decline is associated with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. Intervention targeting the mediators of this association will provide a path to avoid cognition-related IADL disability. (2) Methods: This study used data of wave 2008 (baseline) and wave 2014 of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Surveys. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the mediating effect of social interaction, lifestyle (fruit and vegetable intake; exercise habits), and depressive status on the association between four baseline cognitive function dimensions (measured by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and five (2014) IADL dimensions (visiting neighbors, shopping, preparing meals, washing clothes, and taking public transportation). (3) Results: Among 1976 older adults, 29.1% developed IADL disability 6 years later. The cognition–disability association was completely mediated by social interaction (estimate = −0.095, p < 0.001), lifestyle (estimate = −0.086, p < 0.001), and depressive status (estimate = −0.017, p = 0.003). The mediating effects of social interaction (46.3% variances explained) and lifestyle (42.0% variances explained) were both larger than that of depressive status (8.3% variances explained). (4) Conclusions: The development of interventions aimed at improving social interaction, depression, and lifestyle could be of value to prevent cognition-related IADL disability.
... Many preschool, elementary, and high school students experience problems related to anger, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem (Barnes et al., 2003;Fisher, 2006;Langer et al., 2015;Mendelson et al., 2010;Rempel, 2012) that negatively influence their academic and social development (Leigh & Clark, 2018;Maughan et al., 2013;Murphy et al., 2015) and have lasting effects on their well-being (Steger & Kashdan, 2009). Schools can play a pivotal role in promoting students' mental health and their social, emotional, and behavioral development (Barnes et al., 2003;Fisher, 2006;Mendelson et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the current literature on mindfulness-based school interventions (MBSIs) by evaluating evidence across specific outcomes for youth. Methods We evaluated 77 studies with a total sample of 12,358 students across five continents, assessing the quality of each study through a robust coding system for evidence-based guidelines. Coders rated each study numerically per study design as 1 + + (RCT with a very low risk of bias) to 4 (expert opinion) and across studies for the corresponding evidence letter grade, from highest quality (“A Grade”) to lowest quality (“D Grade”) evidence. Results The highest quality evidence (“A Grade”) across outcomes indicated that MBSIs increased prosocial behavior, resilience, executive function, attention, and mindfulness, and decreased anxiety, attention problems/ADHD behaviors, and conduct behaviors. The highest quality evidence for well-being was split, with some studies showing increased well-being and some showing no improvements. The highest quality evidence suggests MBSIs have a null effect on depression symptoms. Conclusions This review demonstrates the promise of incorporating mindfulness interventions in school settings for improving certain youth outcomes. We urge researchers interested in MBSIs to study their effectiveness using more rigorous designs (e.g., RCTs with active control groups, multi-method outcome assessment, and follow-up evaluation), to minimize bias and promote higher quality—not just increased quantity—evidence that can be relied upon to guide school-based practice.
... Nevertheless, as influencers are the key figure in the influencer community and play a dominant role in determining the community coherence, their features can significantly affect the community culture and followers' sense of belonging. People would simply prefer affiliating and socially interacting with attractive others (Steger & Kashdan, 2009) because this contributes and enhances their self identity (Kleine, Kleine, & Kernan, 1993). We hence hypothesized: ...
Article
Following social media influencers is a common activity for social media users. As influencers endeavour to engage followers and increase their power of influence for commercial value, it can result in potential negative consequences to followers' wellbeing. This research explored how social media influencing may cause problematic engagement with influencers. To do so, we drew from attachment theory and used mixed methods, including a Delphi study and a survey with 500 Instagram users. Results suggested that influencer characteristics such as physical attractiveness, social attractiveness, and self-presence, as well as followers' participation comprehensiveness can foster followers' problematic engagement through the mediation of bond- and identity-based attachment (i.e., parasocial relationship and sense of belonging). Importantly, following more influencers weakened the effect of sense of belonging on problematic engagement, but not that of parasocial relationship. Overall, this study sheds light on negative aspects of social media influencing and provides useful insights to gauge social media influencers’ engagement tactics for a healthy follower behaviour and influencer outcomes.
... Young people with depression may find social interactions difficult and fail to engage with their courses (Steger & Kashdan, 2009 (Haque, 2016). in the health care system are the critical barriers to effective treatment (Sayed, 2015). ...
Article
Rising rates of university students experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety have been observed, both of which affect cognitive function. While some studies suggest that depression can significantly impact and impair students’ academic performance, study satisfaction, and general well-being, the relationship between anxiety and academic outcomes is perhaps more complex. Academic success is a crucial concern for university students; therefore, understanding how depression and anxiety and university academic experiences affect each other is critical. While options for effective treatments are widely available, these disorders are often under-diagnosed and under-treated. Recent literature suggests an increasing need for accessible and confidential mental health services to support university students suffering from psychological and/or academic difficulties. Student populations use technology at a high rate. Though online interventions can effectively improve university students’ mental health, their impact on educational attainment has not been fully explored. This PhD study aims to systematically review evidence for a relationship between anxiety and depression and academic performance in university students, to examine the hypothesis that higher levels of depressive or anxiety symptoms will be associated with poorer academic performance among university students, and investigate the potential effectiveness of a self-directed, internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural skills training tool (MoodGYM) in improving academic performance (GPA) and mood of university students in the UAE. Chapter one provides an overview of depression and anxiety in university students, a literature review of the prevalence of emotional disorders in this group, the impact of anxiety and depression on on academic outcomes, and the role of online interventions in supporting students’ mental health literacy in improving management and help-seeking for depression or anxiety. Through a systematic review, study One (Chapter Two) explores the evidence for the impact of emotional disorders (anxiety or depression) on university students’ academic performance. Of 2,746 citations, 10 met the eligibility criteria, of which six cross-sectional analyses and three of four longitudinal studies reported a negative relationship between depression and academic performance. Three cross-sectional analyses and one longitudinal study reported a negative relationship between anxiety and academic performance. This review supports a consistent relationship between depression and academic performance, but less support for anxiety. Study Two (Chapter Three) describes a longitudinal representative survey of depression, anxiety and academic achievement in 404 students from a public university in the UAE with a six-month follow-up. The survey also investigated whether the relationship between emotional disorders and academic performance is moderated by gender or socioeconomic status. The findings highlight that over a third of students (34.2%; CIs 29.7%–38.9%) screened for a possible major depressive disorder, but less than a quarter (22.3%; CIs 18.2%-26.3%) screened for possible generalised anxiety disorder. The cross-sectional analysis found that higher levels of depression and anxiety were significantly but weakly associated with poor academic performance. The longitudinal analysis found that depression, but not anxiety, predicted a poorer GPA at the six-month follow-up. Findings from these two studies were inputted into the development of the third study. It was predominantly based on exploring the potential effectiveness of a self-directed, internet-delivered, cognitive-behavioural skills training program (MoodGYM) in improving academic outcomes average and low mood in university students in the UAE with poor academic performance. Study Three (Chapter four) describes an exploratory pre-post intervention study with a historical control group of 50 students with less than 2 GPA (academically failing) and depressive symptoms from one UAE university. The findings of study three indicated a significant decrease in depression scores at post intervention (P=0.004) and the proportion of participants scoring above the cut-off for depression (HADS-D ≥8) fell from 77.2% to 27.3% (p<0.001). There was also a substantial fall in anxiety scores (p<0.001) and the proportion of participants above the cut-off for anxiety (HADS-A ≥8) fell from 50% to 11.4 % (p=0.001). GPA scores improved substantially over time (p<0.001, d=1.3) and attendance warnings reduced (p = 0.008, d = 0.6). Compared to historic control, the intervention group had higher GPA at follow-up (p < 0.030 d = 0.6) fewer attendance warnings (p = 0.036 d = 0.7). Most students (79.6%) evaluated MoodGYM as useful. More modules completed (p=0.005) and greater reduction in attendance warnings (p=0.007) were independently associated with greater improvement in GPA scores at follow-up. Chapter five considers all the evidence of the impact of emotional disorders on academic outcomes of university students, the evaluation of the online intervention, and plans for future longitudinal research for further feasibility studies.
... Since depression is a disease that, if left untreated, can lead to serious consequences such as suicide over time, its early detection is crucial. Since people with depression typically do not open up in person very often, they often see social media as a way to express their thoughts and feelings (Steger and Kashdan, 2009). This trend increased rapidly with * * Equal contribution. ...
Conference Paper
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Depression is a mental illness that negatively affects a person's well-being and can, if left untreated, lead to serious consequences such as suicide. Therefore, it is important to recognize the signs of depression early. In the last decade, social media has become one of the most common places to express one's feelings. Hence, there is a possibility of text processing and applying machine learning techniques to detect possible signs of depression. In this paper , we present our approaches to solving the shared task titled Detecting Signs of Depression from Social Media Text. We explore three different approaches to solve the challenge: fine-tuning BERT model, leveraging AutoML for the construction of features and classifier selection and finally, we explore latent spaces derived from the combination of textual and knowledge-based representations. We ranked 9th out of 31 teams in the competition. Our best solution, based on knowledge graph and tex-tual representations, was 4.9% behind the best model in terms of Macro F1, and only 1.9% behind in terms of Recall.
... Thus, it is not surprising that youths had the highest rate of experiencing depression compared with the other two groups. However, depression in youths has been linked with suicidality (Shaffer & Pfeffer, 2001), functional impairment (Balázs et al., 2013;Steger & Kashdan, 2009), and several negative health outcomes in adulthood (Alaie et al., 2019;Philipson et al., 2020). Timely preventive intervention to reduce subthreshold depression symptoms may significantly reduce depression's impact on children, adolescents, and their families, and it might prevent the onset of future depressive disorders and other adverse outcomes (Méndez, Sánchez-Hernández, Garber, Espada, & Orgilés, 2021;Thapar, Collishaw, Potter, & Thapar, 2010). ...
Article
Background. Subthreshold depression could be a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. However, reliable estimates of the prevalence and its contribution to developing major depression under different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression have to be established. Methods. By searching PubMed and Web of Science using predefined inclusion criteria, we included 1 129 969 individuals from 113 studies conducted. The prevalence estimates were calculated using the random effect model. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) was estimated by measuring the ratio of individuals with subthreshold depression who developed major depression compared to that of non-depressed individuals from 19 studies (88, 882 individuals). Results. No significant difference in the prevalence among the different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression (Q = 1.96, p = 0.5801) was found. By pooling the prevalence estimates of subthreshold depression in 113 studies, we obtained a summary prevalence of 11.02% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.78-12.33%]. The youth group had the highest prevalence (14.17%, 95% CI 8.82-20.55%), followed by the elderly group (12.95%, 95% CI 11.41-14.58%) and the adult group (8.92%, 95% CI 7.51-10.45%). Further analysis of 19 studies' incidence rates showed individuals with subthreshold depression had an increased risk of developing major depression (IRR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.33-3.73), and the term minor depression showed the highest IRR compared with other terms (IRR = 3.97, 95% CI 3.17-4.96). Conclusions. Depression could be a spectrum disorder, with subthreshold depression being a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. Proactive management of sub-threshold depression could be effective for managing the increasing prevalence of major depression.
... Thus, it is not surprising that youths had the highest rate of experiencing depression compared with the other two groups. However, depression in youths has been linked with suicidality (Shaffer & Pfeffer, 2001), functional impairment (Balázs et al., 2013;Steger & Kashdan, 2009), and several negative health outcomes in adulthood (Alaie et al., 2019;Philipson et al., 2020). Timely preventive intervention to reduce subthreshold depression symptoms may significantly reduce depression's impact on children, adolescents, and their families, and it might prevent the onset of future depressive disorders and other adverse outcomes (Méndez, Sánchez-Hernández, Garber, Espada, & Orgilés, 2021;Thapar, Collishaw, Potter, & Thapar, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Subthreshold depression could be a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. However, reliable estimates of the prevalence and its contribution to developing major depression under different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression have to be established. Methods By searching PubMed and Web of Science using predefined inclusion criteria, we included 1 129 969 individuals from 113 studies conducted. The prevalence estimates were calculated using the random effect model. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) was estimated by measuring the ratio of individuals with subthreshold depression who developed major depression compared to that of non-depressed individuals from 19 studies (88, 882 individuals). Results No significant difference in the prevalence among the different terminologies depicting subthreshold depression ( Q = 1.96, p = 0.5801) was found. By pooling the prevalence estimates of subthreshold depression in 113 studies, we obtained a summary prevalence of 11.02% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.78–12.33%]. The youth group had the highest prevalence (14.17%, 95% CI 8.82–20.55%), followed by the elderly group (12.95%, 95% CI 11.41-14.58%) and the adult group (8.92%, 95% CI 7.51–10.45%). Further analysis of 19 studies' incidence rates showed individuals with subthreshold depression had an increased risk of developing major depression (IRR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.33–3.73), and the term minor depression showed the highest IRR compared with other terms (IRR = 3.97, 95% CI 3.17–4.96). Conclusions Depression could be a spectrum disorder, with subthreshold depression being a significant precursor to and a risk factor for major depression. Proactive management of subthreshold depression could be effective for managing the increasing prevalence of major depression.
... Some researchers have therefore considered alleviated reactivity to positive and negative social cues as a hallmark of major depressive disorder (see Čolić et al., 2020;Henriques & Davidson, 1991;Rottenberg, 2005). Yet, other research has suggested individuals with depressions could display heightened sensitivity to both positive and negative social cues (Allen et al., 2004;Gilbert, 2006;Needles & Abramson, 1990;Steger & Kashdan, 2009). Our study seeks to contribute to this discussion by considering how participants with and without depression react to those positive and negative social cues that are an inherent part of the key communicative actions constitutive of joint decision-making interaction (i.e., acceptances, rejections, and relinquishments). ...
Article
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We used a novel interdisciplinary experimental paradigm where two types of dyads—15 dyads with one depressed and one non-depressed participant and 15 dyads with two non-depressed participants—engaged in a series of food-decision-making tasks. We examined how different communicative events during the decision-making process were reflected in the affective responses of the interacting participants, as indicated in their skin conductance (SC) response rates. The participants’ SC response rates were found to be higher during the emergence of the final decision, compared to the other segments during the process. Furthermore, relinquishing one’s initially expressed preferences was associated with SC response rates higher than the baseline. However, during the relinquishment segments, there was a negative interaction between depression diagnosis and SC response rates, which suggests that, compared to their non-depressed comparisons, it is affectively less arousing for the participants with depression to give up their previously expressed preferences.
Article
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The FMR1 gene in its premutation (PM) state has been linked to a range of clinical and subclinical phenotypes among FMR1 PM carriers, including some subclinical traits associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study attempted to further characterize the phenotypic profile associated with the FMR1 PM by studying a battery of assessments examining clinical-behavioral traits, social-cognitive, and executive abilities in women carrying the FMR1 PM, and associations with FMR1-related variability. Participants included 152 female FMR1 PM carriers and 75 female controls who were similar in age and IQ, and screened for neuromotor impairments or signs of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. The phenotypic battery included assessments of ASD-related personality and language (i.e., pragmatic) traits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, four different social-cognitive tasks that tapped the ability to read internal states and emotions based on different cues (e.g., facial expressions, biological motion, and complex social scenes), and a measure of executive function. Results revealed a complex phenotypic profile among the PM carrier group, where subtle differences were observed in pragmatic language, executive function, and social-cognitive tasks that involved evaluating basic emotions and trustworthiness. The PM carrier group also showed elevated rates of ASD-related personality traits. In contrast, PM carriers performed similarly to controls on social-cognitive tasks that involved reliance on faces and biological motion. The PM group did not differ from controls on self-reported depression or anxiety symptoms. Using latent profile analysis, we observed three distinct subgroups of PM carriers who varied considerably in their performance across tasks. Among PM carriers, CGG repeat length was a significant predictor of pragmatic language violations. Results suggest a nuanced phenotypic profile characterized by subtle differences in select clinical-behavioral, social-cognitive, and executive abilities associated with the FMR1 PM in women.
Article
Cholinergic crisis and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of the brain have been known to induce anxiety disorders upon ageing. BOTOX® is a widely used therapeutic form of botulinum neurotoxin that acts by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction. BOTOX® can migrate from the muscle to the brain through retrograde axonal transport and modulate neuroplasticity. While a mild dose of BOTOX® has been used to manage various neurological deficits and psychiatric complications including depression, the efficacy and experimental evidence for its anxiolytic effects and antioxidant properties remain limited. In this study, we have investigated the effect of BOTOX® on the innate anxiety-like behaviours in ageing mice upon exposure to different behavioural paradigms like open field test, elevated plus maze and light-dark box test, and estimated the enzymatic activities of key antioxidants in the hippocampus. Results revealed that animals injected with a mild intramuscular dosage of BOTOX® showed reduced level of innate anxiety-related symptoms and increased activities of hippocampal antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. This study strongly supports that BOTOX® could be implemented to prevent or treat anxiety and hippocampal oxidative stress resulting from ageing, emotional and mood disorders.
Article
Nearly 40% of Canadian university students are depressed. However, strong social support may mitigate adverse outcomes for some. This study examined: (1) If students who showed initial depression were more likely to experience poorer end‐of‐semester well‐being (continued depressive symptoms, burnout, and poor social and academic adjustment); and (2) if social support was a moderator for initial depression effects on poorer end‐of‐semester well‐being. Participants (N = 461) were first‐time first‐year undergraduates who completed questionnaires in September and December 2018. Entering university with depressive symptoms was associated with end‐of‐semester depression, burnout and decreased academic adjustment. Across well‐being outcomes, social support was not beneficial for those who entered university with high depressive symptoms.
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In this work, we provide an extensive part-of-speech analysis of the discourse of social media users with depression. Research in psychology revealed that depressed users tend to be self-focused, more preoccupied with themselves and ruminate more about their lives and emotions. Our work aims to make use of large-scale datasets and computational methods for a quantitative exploration of discourse. We use the publicly available depression dataset from the Early Risk Prediction on the Internet Workshop (eRisk) 2018 and extract part-of-speech features and several indices based on them. Our results reveal statistically significant differences between the depressed and non-depressed individuals confirming findings from the existing psychology literature. Our work provides insights regarding the way in which depressed individuals are expressing themselves on social media platforms, allowing for better-informed computational models to help monitor and prevent mental illnesses.
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The meaning in work is predicted to increase a person's commitment and quality. Teachers with high work commitment are the main predictors of the quality of learning and school organization, while those with low commitment and quality increases cases of teacher turnover. This research aims to explore how private teachers in Indonesia analyze meaning in work and its impact on their work commitment. The phenomenological approach was used in this study to explore the essence of the participants' experiences. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to collect data on 15 private primary and secondary school teachers in Indonesia that have worked for more than five years. The subjects were chosen based on their initial research, which has a high meaning in work. The results showed that the meaning in teachers work is formed because it is driven by (1) the feeling of having the opportunity to self-actualize, (2) pride of their work, and (3) high religious attitude. These three factors ultimately encourage teachers’ commitment to work. The research recommends the importance of the principal's policy to support the formation of teacher meaning in work. Furthermore, teachers can also take advantage of these findings by maximizing antecedent factors to increase meaning in work.
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Depression become the most health problem especially after COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq by increased the psychiatric disorder, the present study focused on the Mitochondrial Genes (ND1, ATP6c) in Depression patients using PCR-SSCP technique, samples collection with patients data were collected from psychiatric clinic, then DNA isolation and genes polymorphisms were detected, the results show that patients recorded in age more than 40 years and in married than single individuals in significant differences, non- significant differences were observed in occupational status, the genotyping found tow haplotypes in ATP6c gene (A and B) in significant differences between for B haplotype frequent in patients, the ND1 polymorphisms show three haplotypes (A, B and C) that varied in non-significant differences between patients and control, the present results concluded association between ATP6c and depression disease but didn’t found linked with ND1 polymorphism.
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Loneliness is a subjectively perceived state of social isolation that is associated with negative emotional, cognitive, and physical health outcomes. Physical distancing and shelter-in-place public health responses designed to curb COVID-19 transmission has led to concerns over elevated risk of loneliness. Given that physical isolation does not necessitate social isolation in the age of digital communication, this study investigated the relationship between the frequency of social interaction and loneliness over a two-week period in people engaging in physical distancing and examined whether this relationship was moderated by physical isolation level, age, or depression. A self-selected sample of N = 469 individuals across Australia who were engaged in physically distanced living completed daily surveys for 14-days during April to June of 2020. Multilevel modelling showed that more frequent social interaction with close, but not intermediate or distant contacts, was uniquely associated with lower loneliness. In addition, being younger, more depressed, more anxious, or having a mental health condition diagnosis (past or present) were also independently associated with higher loneliness. Critically, depression was the only significant moderator of the relationship between social interaction and loneliness over time, where more frequent social interaction with close contacts buffered against loneliness over time in high depression individuals only. The findings suggest that encouraging social activity with close contacts may promote resilience against loneliness in individuals with elevated depression symptoms.
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This study examined major and subthreshold depression, their relationships with sociodemographic/risk factors and quality of life (QOL) of internally displaced older persons in a rural community in north central Nigeria. A community-based, cross-sectional study conducted among 200 older adults in Riyom, Nigeria. The respective modules of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and WHOQOL-BREF were used to conduct face to face interviews to assess major and subthreshold depression and QOL respectively. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed using 95% confidence interval to analyse the significant relationships between depression, socio-demographic/risk factors, and QOL. Probability value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of lifetime major and sub-threshold prevalence of depression were 58.5% and 12.5% respectively. The factors significantly associated with increased odds for major depression were average monthly income, history of traumatic event (s) and having a confidant to talk with after the event (s) with (OR=1.839, CI=1.364-2.480, p= 0.001); (OR=9.860, CI=1.025- 94.876, p= 0.048) (OR= 4.570, CI=1.783- 11.718, p= 0.002) respectively while access to health care and having a confidant after the event (s) similar to major depression (OR= 5.105, CI=1.037- 25.133, p= 0.045); (OR= 0.276, CI=0.088- 0.862, p= 0.027) respectively were found significantly associated for sub-threshold depression. The prevalence ofThe prevalence of major and sub-threshold depression among internally displaced older persons in a Nigerian rural community were high and there were significant relationships with sociodemographic factors and QOL. While there is a need for more studies, intervention studies in internally displaced older persons would need to consider low socioeconomic status, social support, and traumatic events with substantial impairment in QOL in addressing the burden of major and sub-threshold depression among these growing populations.
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The increase in psychological disorders and suicidal behaviour in students is a reason for growing concern. Some may start university with pre-existing problems, while others develop problems during this time. It is important to evaluate mental health and wellbeing early, identifying those at risk. The aim of this study was to compare mental health problems and help-seeking behaviour between students in Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Whilst geographically proximate, the institutions span a cross-border region with distinct education and healthcare systems. First-year undergraduate students (n=1828) were recruited in September 2019 as part of the World Mental Health International College Student Initiative. Suicidal behaviour, mental health and substance disorders were investigated using the World Mental Health- Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of disorders was high, with more ROI students experiencing problems than NI students. Students were significantly more likely to experience mental health problems if they were female (p<0.001), non-heterosexual (p<0.0001), and over the age of 21 (p<0.0001). These findings show that many students are starting university with high levels of psychopathology and suicidal behaviour, highlighting the importance of early intervention which may need to be tailored to different student populations.
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This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.
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Several different models postulate that depression is associated with decreased approach-related behavior. Relatively little has been done to date to specifically investigate this issue. In the present study, a signal-detection analysis was used to examine the response biases of dysphoric and nondysphoric female undergraduates during 3 payoff conditions: neutral, reward, and punishment. As predicted, the dysphoric subjects had a smaller change in bias from the neutral to the reward condition compared with the nondysphoric group. The 2 groups did not differ during the neutral and punishment conditions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the left frontal hypoactivation observed in depression reflects a deficit in approach-related behavior.
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Baseline resting electroencephalogram activity was recorded with 3 different reference montages from 15 clinically depressed and 13 control subjects. Power in all frequency bands was extracted by fast Fourier transformation. There was a significant Group × Hemisphere interaction in the midfrontal region, for the alpha band power only. Depressed subjects had less left-sided activation (i.e., more alpha activity) than did normal control subjects. This pattern of diminished left-sided frontal activation is interpreted as indicating a deficit in approach mechanisms in depressed subjects.
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We have interpreted the literature showing left anterior hypoactivation in depression as reflecting a decrease in approach-related motivation and behaviour among depressed subjects. In support of this model, we have previously demonstrated a decreased responsiveness to reward in subclinically depressed dysphoric subjects. The current study was designed to replicate and extend those findings. Clinically depressed subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for major depression were compared to a group of nondepressed control subjects on a verbal memory task under three monetary payoff conditions: neutral, reward, and punishment. Although control subjects changed their pattern of responding in both the reward and punishment conditions, relative to the neutral condition, so as to maximise their earnings, depressed subjects did not do so during reward. The two groups did not differ during the punishment condition. These findings provide additional evidence of a decreased responsiveness to reward in depressed individuals, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the left prefrontal hypoactivation observed in depression reflects a deficit in approach-related behaviour.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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E. Diener, R. J. Larsen, S. Levine, and R. A. Emmons ( 1985) distinguished between intensity and frequency as separable components in repeatedly measured affect. In this article, an improved way of differentiating intensity and frequency of affect is proposed that permits one to measure affect intensity separately for each emotion of interest. The results of 3 studies using this method provide further support for the affect intensity construct and demonstrate the superiority of the new approach. In addition, a new measure based on intensity ratings of hypothetical scenarios proved to be the best measure of affect intensity when it has to be assessed at I moment in time. Finally, results of 2 diary studies, one sampling emotional events and the other sampling random moments, confirmed the hypothesis that affect intensity is best conceptualized as a disposition to react strongly to emotion-eliciting events rather than to experience intense affect in the absence of goal-relevant situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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propose a model of the intimacy process the process begins when one person expresses personally revealing feelings of information to another it continues when the listener responds supportively and empathically for an interaction to become intimate the discloser must feel understood, validated, and cared for psychodynamic building blocks / building blocks from communication and exchange research / lay and psychometric conceptions of intimacy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
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For 21 days, 123 participants provided measures of their daily depressogenic adjustment, including Beck’s cognitive triad, causal uncertainty, control over the environment, self-esteem, and anxiety, and they described the positive and negative events that occurred. Daily adjustment negatively covaried with the number of negative events occurring each day and, except as measured by anxiety, positively covaried with positive events. The covariance between negative events and adjustment was stronger than the covariance between positive events and adjustment. Participants also provided measures of depressive symptoms. For the self-esteem and cognitive triad measures, adjustment covaried more strongly with negative and positive events for the depressed than they did for the nondepressed.
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This review evaluates evidence of attentional biases in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depressive disorder from studies using modified Stroop and visual probe tasks. There appears to be fairly consistent evidence for an attentional bias for external negative cues in GAD, and for the involvement of non-conscious processes in this bias. By contrast, in clinical depression, the evidence for an attentional bias is less robust, despite depressive disorder being commonly associated with high levels of co-morbid anxiety. Where an attentional bias has been found in depressed patients, it seems to occur mainly for self-relevant negative information which is presented under conditions that allow or encourage elaborative processing. Possible explanations for this discrepant pattern of results, and their theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
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We propose that people with negative self-views are rejected because they gravitate to partners who view them unfavorably. In relation to nondepressed college students (n = 28), depressives (n = 13) preferred interaction partners who evaluated them unfavorably (Study 1). Similarly, in relation to nondepressives (n = 106), depressives (n = 10) preferred friends or dating partners who evaluated them unfavorably (Study 2). Dysphorics (n = 6) were more inclined to seek unfavorable feedback from their roommates than were nondepressives (n = 16); feedback-seeking activities of dysphorics were also associated with later rejection (Study 3). Finally, people with negative self-views (n = 37) preferentially solicited unfavorable feedback, although receiving such feedback made them unhappy, in comparison with people with positive self-views (n = 42; Study 4). It seems a desire for self-verification compels people with negative self-views to seek unfavorable appraisals.
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Baseline resting electroencephalogram activity was recorded with 3 different reference montages from 15 clinically depressed and 13 control subjects. Power in all frequency bands was extracted by fast Fourier transformation. There was a significant Group X Hemisphere interaction in the mid-frontal region, for the alpha band power only. Depressed subjects had less left-sided activation (i.e., more alpha activity) than did normal control subjects. This pattern of diminished left-sided frontal activation is interpreted as indicating a deficit in approach mechanisms in depressed subjects.
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Baseline resting electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded from 6 normothymic depressives and 8 controls using three different reference montages. Power in all frequency bands was extracted by Fourier transformation. Significant Group X Region X Hemisphere interactions were found consistently for alpha band power only. Previously depressed subjects had less left-sided anterior and less right-sided posterior activation (i.e., more alpha activity) than did never depressed subjects. Previously depressed subjects had no history of pharmacological treatment and did not differ from controls in emotional state at the time of testing. The pattern of anterior and posterior asymmetry in the previously depressed subjects is similar to that found in acutely depressed subjects and suggests that this may be a state-independent marker for depression.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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The present study examined the relationships between depressive symptoms and everyday social interaction in a nonclinical population. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and social interaction was measured using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record. People who were classified as at risk for depression had less rewarding interactions than people who were not at risk. Depressive symptoms and interaction quantity and quality were negatively correlated for participants above the cutpoint, whereas they were uncorrelated for those below the at-risk cutpoint. The results also suggested that, compared with nondepressed people, depressed people derive more rewards from interactions with their closest opposite-sex friends, relative to the rewards they derive from interactions with other opposite-sex friends.
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Self-esteem lability (SEL), defined as daily event-related variability in state self-esteem, and low trait self-esteem (TSE) were assessed among 205 male and female undergraduates who were currently depressed (CD), previously depressed (PD), and never depressed (ND). SEL scores were derived for the effect of positive, negative, and combined events on state self-esteem over 30 days. Consistent with psychodynamic and cognitive theories, SEL was found to be a better index of depression proneness than TSE. PD Ss showed higher lability on all SEL scores than ND controls but did not differ from controls on TSE. Ss were reassessed 5 months later, and new cases showed higher premorbid SEL than ND controls but did not differ from controls on premorbid TSE. SEL at Time 1 was found to increase risk for depression at Time 2 among Ss reporting high life stress at Time 2. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
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For 21 days, 123 undergraduates provided measures of their self-esteem, anxiety, causal uncertainty, perceived control over outcomes, and the three constructs comprising A. T. Beck's (1972) cognitive triad. Factor analyses of measures of the mean level and day-to-day instability of these constructs produced 2 factors, level of well-being and day-to-day instability of well-being. Participants also provided 4 measures of risk for depression over 2 1/2 months. For participants who were not at risk for depression, level of day-to-day well-being was negatively related to risk for depression, and this effect was not moderated by day-to-day instability. In contrast, for participants who were classified as at-risk for depression, day-to-day instability of well-being moderated the strength of the negative relationship between level of well-being and risk for depression. The relationship between level of well-being and depression was stronger for participants who were more unstable.
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E. Diener, R. J. Larsen, S. Levine, and R. A. Emmons ( 1985) distinguished between intensity and frequency as separable components in repeatedly measured affect. In this article, an improved way of differentiating intensity and frequency of affect is proposed that permits one to measure affect intensity separately for each emotion of interest. The results of 3 studies using this method provide further support for the affect intensity construct and demonstrate the superiority of the new approach. In addition, a new measure based on intensity ratings of hypothetical scenarios proved to be the best measure of affect intensity when it has to be assessed at I moment in time. Finally, results of 2 diary studies, one sampling emotional events and the other sampling random moments, confirmed the hypothesis that affect intensity is best conceptualized as a disposition to react strongly to emotion-eliciting events rather than to experience intense affect in the absence of goal-relevant situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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We conceptualized affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors as an index of interpersonal sensitivity and evaluated it as a vulnerability factor for depression. College students completed an initial measure of depression (Time 1). Then, at the end of each day for two weeks, they completed a checklist of daily stressors and measures of state affect. Two months later (Time 2), students completed the depression measure again as well as a questionnaire that assessed life events for the intervening two months. We conducted regression analyses to predict Time 1-Time 2 changes in depressive symptoms. Our major predictions were positive main effects for Time 1 affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors and Time 2 negative interpersonal events, and a significant effect for the reactivity × Time 2 events interaction. Significant results were obtained for the two main effects, but not for the interaction. The results suggest that affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors is a predictor of depressive symptoms and demonstrate the heuristic value of a daily process design to study the antecedents of psychopathology.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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Nothing is more familiar to people than their moods and emotions. Oddly, however, it is not clear how these two kinds of affective processes are related. Intuitively, it makes sense that emotional reactions are stronger when they are congruent with a preexisting mood, an idea reinforced by contemporary emotion theory. Yet empirically, it is uncertain whether moods actually facilitate emotional reactivity to mood-congruent stimuli. One approach to the question of how moods affect emotions is to study mood-disturbed individuals. This review describes recent experimental studies of emotional reactivity conducted with individuals suffering from major depression. Counter to intuitions, major depression is associated with reduced emotional reactivity to sad contexts. A novel account of emotions in depression is advanced to assimilate these findings. Implications for the study of depression and normal mood variation are considered.
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Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 56(2) of Journal of Counseling Psychology (see record 2009-04542-008). The DOI was incorrect. The correct DOI is 10.1037/a0013317.] Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the complexity of African American LGBQ persons' experiences. This study examined the relations between multiple internalized oppressions and African American sexual minority persons' self-esteem and psychological distress. Results indicated that when examined together, internalized racism and internalized heterosexism (also known as internalized homophobia) were both significant negative predictors of self-esteem, but only internalized heterosexism was a unique positive predictor of psychological distress. The interaction of internalized racism and internalized heterosexism was not a significant predictor of self-esteem or psychological distress. Finally, the authors' findings indicate that self-esteem partially mediates the relationship between internalized heterosexism and psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Personal relationships are frequently studied using methods and analyses that reflect an interest in relationships as between-persons phenomena. Although informative, there is much to be learned from examining relational phenomena from a within-persons perspective. The present article reviews the application of within-persons approaches to both the conceptualization and investigation of relational phenomena. The benefits of studying variation in psychologically meaningful constructs across multiple relationships, across different contexts within a relationship, and across time are outlined. Moreover, combinations of between- and within-persons strategies that can examine how relational, contextual, and temporal variation differs across people are discussed. Methodological and statistical considerations important to such designs are also outlined, and their limitations are discussed. There are more truths in twenty-four hours of a man's life than in all the philosophies. —Raoul Vaniegem (1967/1979)
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A meta-analysis of 40 findings from 36 studies (N= 4,952) provided substantial overall support for the proposition that depressive symptoms and mood are contagious. Contagion appeared most pronounced in studies of depressive symptoms (vs. depressive mood). Contagion of depressive mood appears to depend on methodological approach, with strongest to weakest results in the following order: transcript studies, audio/ videotape studies, studies using actual strangers, studies using actual friends/acquaintances, and confederate studies. Contagion of depressed mood/symptoms held across combinations of target × respondent gender. There was very tentative evidence that contagion was specific to depressive versus other symptom/moods. Based in part on our meta-analytic findings, we summarize possible explanations of the phenomenon from cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal viewpoints and elucidate some clinical implications.
Article
The study was an attempt to extend Aaron Beck's formulation of the sociotropic and autonomous vulnerabilities involved in depressogenesis to a population experiencing depressive symptoms due to adjustment related difficulties, namely freshman college students beginning their first semester. The results obtained from 167 college freshmen, assessed 6–7 weeks after beginning their first semester at college, were generally consistent with the research predictions. Specifically, sociotropic persons displayed the classic symptoms of “homesickness” in that they were more likely to be preoccupied about home and display depressive symptoms after the transition to college. Attachment to home scores also mediated effects of sociotropy on depression. By contrast, autonomous persons were less attached to home, although they did report depressive symptoms as a result of the transition. Exploring this trend, it was observed that autonomy was related to disliking the university scores which did meditate indirect effects of autonomy on depression.
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Baumeister and Tice's (this issue) social exclusion theory of anxiety proposes that a primary source of anxiety is perceived exclusion from important social groups. This article elaborates the basic propositions of social exclusion theory, then applies the theory to a broader analysis of affective reactions to exclusion. Specifically, the article examines the relationship between perceived social exclusion and social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, and depression. The function of self-esteem and its role in moderating reactions to perceived exclusion are also discussed.
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Sense of belonging has recently been described and defined as one specific interpersonal process that influences health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sense of belonging and personal characteristics and selected indicators of social and psychological functioning in men and women. Using a sample of 379 community college students, sense of belonging was examined in relation to social support, conflict, involvement in community activities, attendance at religious services, loneliness, depression, anxiety, history of psychiatric treatment, and suicidality. Results indicated that sense of belonging is closely related to indicators of both social and psychological functioning. These relationships were generally stronger for women than for men. It appears that sense of belonging is a useful concept pertinent to exploration of social and psychological functioning.
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Eudaimonic theories of well-being assert the importance of achieving one’s full potential through engaging in inherently meaningful endeavors. In two daily diary studies, we assessed whether reports of engagement in behaviors representative of eudaimonic theories were associated with well-being. We also examined whether eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than behaviors directed toward obtaining pleasure or material goods. In both studies, eudaimonic behaviors had consistently stronger relations to well-being than hedonic behaviors. Data also provided support for a temporal sequence in which eudaimonic behaviors were related to greater well-being the next day. Overall, our results suggest that “doing good” may be an important avenue by which people create meaningful and satisfying lives.
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Although the concept of self-esteem plays a crucial role in current vulnerability models of depression, empirical studies have found that overall level of self-esteem is not a robust predictor of the onset of the disorder. To resolve this discrepancy we propose a multidimensional model of self-esteem in depression. Psychodynamic, cognitive, and social-environmental models each imply that the nature of vulnerable self-esteem is considerably more complex than simply level (i.e., high vs. low self-esteem) and that other dimensions might be more causally important. According to this multidimensional approach, vulnerability includes (a) structural deficits, such as few, rigid, or externally based sources of self-worth; (b) abnormally low self-esteem that is “primed” by either mildly depressed mood, stressful events, or schema-congruent experiences; and (c) temporal instability of self-worth. We review theoretical and empirical evidence relevant to this model.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.