HIV and aging: Time for a new paradigm

Yale University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, New Haven, USA.
Current HIV/AIDS Reports (Impact Factor: 3.8). 05/2010; 7(2):69-76. DOI: 10.1007/s11904-010-0041-9
Source: PubMed


The population of patients with HIV infection achieving viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy is growing, aging, and experiencing a widening spectrum of non-AIDS diseases. Concurrently, AIDS-defining conditions are becoming less common and are variably associated with outcome. Nonetheless, the spectrum of disease experienced by those aging with HIV remains strongly influenced by HIV, its treatment, and the behaviors, conditions, and demographics associated with HIV infection. Our focus must shift from a narrow interest in CD4 counts, HIV-RNA, and AIDS-defining illnesses to determining the optimal management of HIV infection as a complex chronic disease in which the causes of morbidity and mortality are multiple and overlapping. We need a new paradigm of care with which to maximize functional status, minimize frailty, and prolong life expectancy. A composite index that summarizes a patient's risk of morbidity and mortality could facilitate this work and help chart its progress.

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    • "Concurrently, AIDS-defining conditions are becoming less common and are variably associated with outcome. The focus has shifted from a narrow interest in CD4 counts, HIV-RNA and AIDS-defining illnesses to the optimal management of HIV infection as a complex chronic disease and aims to maximize functional status, minimize frailty and prolong life expectancy within a new paradigm of care [41]. Hence, it is increasingly expected of an HIV psychiatrist to be able to employ the principles of geriatric psychiatry in their practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a model of HIV psychiatry used in an urban hospital in Toronto and examine it against current literature. Using a narrative method, we elaborate on how this model delivers care across many different settings and the integral roles that the HIV psychiatrist plays in each of these settings. This is articulated against a backdrop of existing literature regarding models of HIV care. This model is an example of an integrated model as opposed to a traditional consultation-liaison model and is able to deliver seamless care while remaining focused on patient-centric care. An HIV psychiatrist delivers seamless and patient-centric care by journeying with patients across the healthcare spectrum and playing different roles in different care settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · General hospital psychiatry
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    • "The increased life expectancy of the HIV-1-infected population means that physicians are increasingly being faced with previously unrecognized comorbid conditions and antiretroviral-related complications. Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, loss of renal function, osteopenia/ osteoporosis, and non-AIDS-defining cancers are some of the emerging conditions observed in large observational cohorts, and their incidence seems to be higher than in the general population [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. In addition, not only is HIV infection associated with AIDS-defining neurologic conditions with severe CD4 depletion, but also HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders seem more common in HIV-infected individuals despite achieving a successful immune recovery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There are conflicting data on the prevalence of coronary events and the quality of the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence of coronary events and to evaluate the management of CVRF in a Mediterranean cohort of 3760 HIV-1-infected patients from April 1983 through June 2011. Results: We identified 81 patients with a history of a coronary event (prevalence 2.15%); 83% of them suffered an acute myocardial infarction. At the time of the coronary event, CVRF were highly prevalent (60.5% hypertension, 48% dyslipidemia, and 16% diabetes mellitus). Other CVRF, such as smoking, hypertension, lack of exercise, and body mass index, were not routinely assessed. After the coronary event, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.025) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004) was observed. However, the percentage of patients who maintained LDL-cholesterol > 100 mg/dL remained stable (from 46% to 41%, P = 0.103). Patients using protease inhibitors associated with a favorable lipid profile increased over time (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The prevalence of coronary events in our cohort is low. CVRF prevalence is high and their management is far from optimal. More aggressive interventions should be implemented to diminish cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "Articles have highlighted the HIV and ageing phenomenon in New York [4], London [5], Italy [6] and Australia [7]. The increase has been seen partly due to widespread treatment access [3]. The ageing trend has been increasingly recognised in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of HIV infections occur [8-11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to support prevention, adherence and testing. More methodological rigourised needed in the studies targeting older adults. Specifically, including control groups in all studies is needed as well as sufficient sample size to allow for statistical testing. Addition of specific bio-marker or validated behavioural or cognitive outcomes would also strengthen the studies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Public Health
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