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The Smell of Virtue: Clean Scents Promote Reciprocity and Charity

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... Past research has shown that physical cleanliness increased moral behaviors. Specifically, after smelling clean scents, people showed more benign behaviors, such as reciprocating others and involving in volunteering and donation, than those who did not smell clean scents [11]. Nevertheless, no evidence hitherto has linked physical dirtiness to immoral behaviors. ...
... As in Study 1, we asked participants to evaluate the current weather (1 = very bad, 7 = very good; M = 4.68, SD = 1.46). Given that washing behaviors might influence their moral judgment and moral behaviors [6,11], they also reported whether they had washed themselves (e.g., washing hands, having a bath, etc.) right before attending the research by choosing between yes or no. ...
Article
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The present research recruited participants from China, which is suffering from serious air pollution, and examined whether air pollution would be associated with moral judgment and immoral behavioral intention. Study 1 (n = 145) used the objective Air Quality Index to indicate the level of air pollution and found that it predicted harsh judgment on others’ moral violations but did not predict judgment on others’ non-moral negative behaviors or their own immoral behavioral intentions. Study 2 (n = 90) asked participants either to recall a past experience of being exposed to air pollution or to recall a neutral experience and consistently found that air pollution only influenced judgment on moral violations. The findings also ruled out the feeling of threat or the trust of government as possible mediators in the relationship between air pollution and harsh moral judgment.
... In pleasantly scented places, consumers are oriented toward positive inferences toward others (Huber and McCann 1982). Fowler and Bridges (2012) and Liljenquist, Zhong, and Galinsky (2010) show that the diffusion of a pleasant scent encourages consumers to judge others as courteous. Ambient scents encourage consumers to adopt a positive and caring mindset toward other human beings (Fredrickson 2001;Zemke and Shoemaker 2007); they also facilitate peer perceptions and helping behaviors (Baron 1997;Bitner 1990). ...
... This article shows that the impact of ambient scents on consumer comfort with frontline employees and shows that consumer comfort mediates the link between ambient scents and perceived product quality and service. Few studies in social psychology had emphasized the positive impact of pleasant scents on interactions between human beings (Fowler and Bridges 2012;Liljenquist, Zhong, and Galinsky 2010;Baron 1997;Bitner 1990) but they did not consider interactions between frontline employees and consumers. Recent research on olfaction focuses on the impact of ambient scents on the overall quality of the customer experience (e.g., Silva et al. 2021) but does not specifically study the impact of scents on consumers-employee's relationships (Biswas 2019). ...
... Depuis quelques années, les gares se tournent vers le marketing sensoriel. Les odeurs de propre les intéressent tout particulièrement, car au-delà de leur capacité à donner une impression concrète de propre (Holland et al., 2005), elles peuvent aussi évoquer des valeurs abstraites comme la pureté ou la moralité (De Lange et al., 2012 ;Liljenquist, Zhong et Galinsky, 2010) pouvant stimuler un imaginaire positif. Diffuser un parfum de propre dans les gares pourrait ainsi diminuer le climat d'insécurité qui règne dans les lieux publics depuis les attentats récents en Europe, et en France. ...
... Plus précisément, les rituels de propreté du corps sont, dans diverses religions, intimement liés à la notion de purification, y compris morale. Ainsi, les individus qui semblent propres semblent plus respectueux de la morale que ceux qui semblent sales (De Lange et al., 2012 ;Keizer, Lindenberg et Steg, 2008 ;Liljenquist, Zhong et Galinsky, 2010 ;Seubert et al., 2014). La littérature montre également que la présence d'un parfum influence la perception des autres individus, même si le parfum n'émane pas directement de ces individus (Demattè, Österbauer et Spence, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Cet article s'intéresse à l'impact du marketing olfactif sur la perception de la sécurité d'une part, de la propreté d'autre part et in fine de la satisfaction des individus dans une gare. L'expérimentation, réalisée in situ auprès de 196 clients d'une grande gare parisienne, teste l'impact de trois odeurs de propre (naturelle ou synthétique moyennement ou fortement plaisante) dans la gare. Les résultats montrent que toutes les odeurs de propre n'ont pas l'effet positif escompté. Si certaines odeurs de propre améliorent l'impression de propreté de la gare (odeur naturelle fortement plaisante), d'autres améliorent davantage le sentiment de sécurité (odeurs synthétiques). Certaines odeurs de propre (synthétique fortement plaisante) permettent d'avoir un effet positif significatif sur la satisfaction voyageur. Cet article souligne le rôle du caractère naturel (vs synthétique) de l'odeur de propre, en articulant les notions de sécurité, de propreté et de satisfaction dans les lieux publics. Abstract : Our research highlights the impact of ambient scents on safety feelings, perceived cleanliness and satisfaction. An experimental study was conducted in a large French Parisian railway station on 196 travelers. Results show that impact of cleanliness smells vary when odors are natural (vs synthetic) and strongly (vs moderately) pleasant. Although several cleanliness odors result in a cleaner place (natural and strongly pleasant odors), others may result in a more safety place (synthetic odors). Finally, synthetic and strongly pleasant odors have a positif and significant effect on satisfaction. This paper highlights the role of natural (vs synthetic) dimension of odors, and interlink the concepts of cleanliness, safety and satisfaction in public places.
... The embodied cognition theory was extended vastly to sensory marketing research, which suggests that integration of sensory inputs constitutes consumer experience and influences their behaviors (Krishna & Schwarz, 2014;Wen & Leung, 2021). As such, individuals' five sensestouch (Williams & Bargh, 2008;Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006), taste (Dann & Jacobsen, 2003;Meier et al., 2012), smell (Liljenquist et al., 2010), hearing (Wilson et al., 2019) and sight (Raghubir & Krishna, 1999), have all been examined by researchers. Among these five senses, sight was the dominant sense, being most memorable and recognizable (Agapito, 2020;Krishna, 2012) and the most important factor for future research (Sun & Lv, 2021). ...
Article
Dark-light spectrum was used to express the depth of dark experience in dark tourism. Based on embodied cognition theory, this paper examined the visual expression of tourists' dark tourism experience. Five consecutive studies were conducted including analysis of tourists' photos in online reviews of 53 dark tourism destinations worldwide, charcoal pencil painting tasks of selected dark tourism sites in lab experiments, and field experiment. Results showed that tourists with darker experience tend to use deeper visual darkness to express their feelings, in the forms of painting and photographs, even when the cognitive process (i.e., expression in the form of words) is omitted. This psychological mechanism explains the scientific principle behind dark tourism spectrum. Our research suggests a new way of interpretation of tourist image data (e.g., photos) and sheds light for effective management of tourist experience.
... In the field of olfaction, several disciplines and approaches have already tackled the issue of individual perception, including historiographies of odors through the centuries 192,193 , the role of smell in social interactions and moral judgements [194][195][196] , as well as its cultural significance in different populations 127,132 , giving us precious accounts on the subjective experience of smell through space and time. Nonetheless, experimental researchers still lack a proper descriptive model of subjective experience for their protocols, partly due to the traditional opposition between objective experiments and subjective reports. ...
Thesis
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Odor perception is an essential function in humans, allowing for hazard prevention, food detection and social communication. However, this sense is often underestimated, especially regarding the ability to identify and describe odors through language. In this PhD, we aimed to better understand the subjective experience of smell, its diversity, and its neural correlates. To this end, we first introduced olfaction with its specificities and the importance of hedonics in odor perception. Then, we investigated interindividual variability in olfaction through a series of studies and showed that olfactory perception comprises both a shared and a diverse component depending on the odorants, with little effect of common factors of variation like age or sex. Also, we showed that the relation between chemical structure, receptors and perception of odors is influenced by the degree of interindividual variability, a finding important for the ongoing stimulus-percept issue in olfactory research. Through this bibliographic and experimental work, we show that there is a lack of reflection on the way we measure perception, and that its subjective nature has been under considered in contemporary research. We thus discuss the place of subjectivity in science and several methodologies that were proposed to better integrate first-person reports in experimental protocols. From these approaches, we set up a new study collecting unbiased subjective reports of odors, to construct a descriptive model of olfactory experience. We found that contrary to common belief, people can talk about odors, using references to diverse categories, including associated memories, qualitative description, source, impact, use and difficulty. With data mining, we were also able to get a fine-grained characterization a few perceptual profiles for the odors. Next, we considered the ongoing debate around the neural basis of consciousness, and the proposed methodologies to relate first-person data with cerebral activity measurements. Another study thus attempted to relate the subjective experience of odors with the evoked brain activity. The results open new ways to construct imaging protocols with a better inclusion of first-person accounts. In conclusion, we argue that subjective data has an important place in experimental research that it must be rigorously collected to fully understand human perception. We also emphasize the importance of integrating different disciplinary approaches to get a global picture of our objects of study.
... However, the process through which an odor produces affective responses is relatively unknown, but it is hypothesized to be via the amygdala, through the absorption of pharmacologically active components of an odor and/or its perceptual associations (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Odors can nevertheless have profound effects, where studies have reported that pleasant odor inhalation may have positive psychophysiological impacts (Liljenquist et al. 2010;Haehner et al. 2017). Conversely, it has been found that people who are intolerant of volatile chemicals (e.g., in multiple chemosensitivities) generally suffer from sleep disturbances and health complaints (Baldwin et al. 2004;Persson et al. 2008). ...
... The physical experiences, therefore, activate these abstract concepts through the symbolic meaning. Significant research supports this theory of embodied cognition (Huang, Galinsky, Gruenfeld, & Guillory, 2011;Jostmann, Lakens, & Schubert, 2009;Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010;Mussweiler, 2006;Schnall, Benton, & Harvey, 2008;Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988;Wells & Petty, 1980;Williams & Bargh, 2008;Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006). Adam and Galinsky (2012) argue that wearing clothes also can trigger associated abstract concepts and their symbolic meanings. ...
Article
Clothes play a ubiquitous, yet under-appreciated social role. In the context of body image, clothes may both reflect and facilitate wearers' ideals and anxieties about their physical appearance. Athleisure, referring to athletic-inspired workout apparel that explicitly accentuates wearers' physiques, is a hitherto unexamined clothing trend worth tens of billions of dollars annually (and growing) in the United States consumer market alone. We conducted the first qualitative examination of athleisure by interviewing 20 women who regularly wore athleisure. Four master themes emerged from the data: (1) the athleisure lifestyle, (2) the conditional nature of athleisure, (3) athleisure embodiment, and (4) athleisure-linked cognitive dissonance. Our results suggest that wearing athleisure communicates to others an adherence to the lifestyles depicted in fitspiration - a class of social media imagery that glorifies thin-fit bodies. Participants articulated that athleisure encouraged them to feel more confident and athletic; athleisure also emphasized the women's physiques, and whether they aligned with the thin-fit ideal. Thus, the act of wearing athleisure motivated participants to engage in fitspiration-based activities. Given the (a) massive public demand for athleisure, and (b) industry projections for continued growth in athleisure spending, our findings compel additional research on the connections between clothing and body image.
... Like music, smell is also closely linked to emotion (Yeshurun and Sobel, 2010), with the olfactory bulb directly linked with the limbic system, thought to control basic emotions (Bradford and Desrochers, 2009). Thus, smell might also be used to influence behavior in a similar manner (e.g., de Lange et al., 2012;Holland et al., 2005;Liljenquist et al., 2010). For example, the odor of a cleaning product can lead to more cleaning-related behavior (de Lange et al., 2012;Holland et al., 2005). ...
... As many of the tactics used to enhance the customer experience target the subconscious-for example, scents designed to enhance perceptions of quality (e.g. Fiore, Yah, & Yoh, 2000;Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010;Spangenberg, Sprott, Grohmann, & Tracy, 2006), and sounds designed to impact the taste of food (e.g. North, 2012)-researchers should explore the ethical limits of such stimuli on customer perceptions and behaviors. ...
Article
Business model innovation (BMI) is critical to a firm's ability to achieve growth and long-term viability. It helps improve the value of products or services and/or delivery of these offerings to customers. Much of the academic literature to date however lacks customer-driven business model innovation frameworks. As such, the aim of this investigation is to propose a customer experience driven (CX) business model innovation framework that aligns customer values and the firm's strategic needs. This paper contributes to the literature by (a) conceptualizing the way in which business model innovation and customer experience are related (b) providing managers with a concrete framework to guide business model innovation that supports customer experience-driven new services and (c) highlighting opportunities for future research to advance business model innovation research and practice.
... However, the process through which an odor produces affective responses is relatively unknown, but it is hypothesized to be via the amygdala, through the absorption of pharmacologically active components of an odor and/or its perceptual associations (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Odors can nevertheless have profound effects, where studies have reported that pleasant odor inhalation may have positive psychophysiological impacts (Liljenquist et al. 2010;Haehner et al. 2017). Conversely, it has been found that people who are intolerant of volatile chemicals (e.g., in multiple chemosensitivities) generally suffer from sleep disturbances and health complaints (Baldwin et al. 2004;Persson et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Introduction Olfaction has an important role in physiological and affective processes, as well as the potential to have profound effects on activities such as sleep and learning. We investigated two commercially manufactured odors (“Deep Sleep” and “Oriental,” from This Works) purported to promote sleep, compared with control odor, where we aimed to explore whether neural and behavioral differences existed after odor inhalation. Methods In a neuroimaging study, 30 healthy participants were exposed to the odors via an olfactometer during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a further behavioral study using 12 chronic insomniacs, we investigated whether the commercial odors showed effects on sleep during a double-blind, randomized home evaluation. Results In the neuroimaging, the odors were related to activation of olfactory-relevant areas, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, and we found positive connectivity between the piriform cortex and the hippocampus, amygdala, insula, and middle cingulate cortex. Deep Sleep specifically activated the superior temporal gyrus, whereas Oriental activated the caudate. Further, these commercial odors showed some beneficial impact on sleep. Conclusions The perceptual and neural impacts of the commercial odors showed that olfactory stimulation can potentially aid sleep and modify affective processes in a number of ways. Implications The present work opens up opportunities for further investigations into how different odors may lead to specific behavioral and physiological modifications, such as their impact on sleep and well-being, which may provide non-pharmacological alternative approaches.
... significance of protecting purity (Horberg, Oveis, Keltner, & Cohen, 2009). Disgust also affects behavior: Clean scents increase reciprocity and willingness to donate to charities (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010). Incidental disgust increases anchoring and adjustment (Inbar & Gilovich, 2011) and eliminates the endowment effect (Lerner, Small, & Loewenstein, 2004). ...
Article
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We report three studies exploring the relationship between disgust and trust. Study 1a measured emotions using face-reading technology while participants played a repeated trust game. We observed a negative correlation between trust and disgust. Study 1b employed self-reports along with the face reader. The self-report procedure adversely affected participants’ emotional state and eliminated the correlation between trust and other emotions. Study 2 induced incidental disgust or sadness using virtual reality and manipulated participants’ awareness of the source of their emotions. Disgusted participants judged others as less trustworthy and sent less in a trust game than sad or control participants. An interaction indicated that awareness of the source of emotions eliminated the effect. Our data are consistent with the association between disgust and harsher moral judgments and suggest that disgust is antithetical to the building of trust. However, the association disappears if individuals are aware that their disgust is unrelated to the setting.
... Like music, smell is also closely linked to emotion (Yeshurun and Sobel, 2010), with the olfactory bulb directly linked with the limbic system, thought to control basic emotions (Bradford and Desrochers, 2009). Thus, smell might also be used to influence behavior in a similar manner (e.g., de Lange et al., 2012;Holland et al., 2005;Liljenquist et al., 2010). For example, the odor of a cleaning product can lead to more cleaning-related behavior (de Lange et al., 2012;Holland et al., 2005). ...
Article
The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound–odor congruence on people’s attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants’ attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the product’s brand was measured, as well as memory for the product. In general, no sound–odor congruence effect was found on attitude, irrespective of brand familiarity. However, congruence was found to affect recognition: when a high-arousal odor and a high-arousal sound were combined, participants recognized products faster than in the other conditions. In addition, familiar brands were recognized faster than unfamiliar brands, but only when sound or odor arousal was high. This study provides insight into the possible applications of sound–odor congruence for marketing by demonstrating its potential to influence product memory.
... We aim to make the following contributions with this study. First, research into the physical work environment mainly focuses on specific aspects such as lighting (Zhong, Bohns, & Gino, 2010), color (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), and smell (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010), rather than broader areas of physical design. As suggested by Duffy (1997), autonomy and interaction are dimensions closely related to work, and thus the present study contributes to the physical environment literature by developing and validating scales that measure design for autonomy and interactive office design. ...
Article
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The physical work environment has a far-reaching effect on employee creativity. However, the research conceptualizing office design typically focuses on specific rather than broad dimensions. In this study, the effectiveness of design for autonomy and interactive office design is investigated, based on Duffy’s office design model. We take an interactive perspective and propose that office environment (design for autonomy and interactive office design) interacts with individual factors (intrinsic motivation and diversity ideology) to influence employees’ level of creativity. We first developed and validated items of office design and diversity ideology, and then tested our hypotheses in the main study. It was found that employees with strong intrinsic motivation and diversity ideology made the optimal use of office design for promoting the level of creativity. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... It is possible that visual cleanliness can also influence morality. Indeed, moral transgressions can engender literal feelings of dirtiness (Liljenquist, Zhong, & D.Galinsky, 2010). In addition to regulating physical cleanliness, clean smells might also motivate virtuous behavior. ...
Article
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In general, social responsibility is an important aspect which requires the responsible bodies to disclose both mandatory and voluntary corporate and social information to the public or stakeholders. These information disclosures are essential in assisting the organizations to make a better decision. Social responsibility in education is an indicator to examine the level of social responsibility practices among students toward moral and responsibility aspects. This study focuses on the element of moral values consist of respectfulness, cleanliness and thriftiness with the level of social responsibility practices among school children. Specifically, it intends to firstly examine and confirm the existence of moral values element in current curriculum syllabus secondly, to determine the association between these three moral values to the level of social responsibility awareness and practices among school children. The data will be collected through observations on school children from six schools and on top of that 120 questionnaires will be distributed. Various statistical analyses will be conducted to examine the relationship between the elements of respectfulness, cleanliness and thriftiness with the level of social responsibility practices.
... Retailers looking to cut labor costs by inducing customers to tidy up before leaving might consider using Lysol (i.e., a U.S. cleaning product) as part of their cleaning regime. The scent of a recognizable cleaning product has been shown to lead individuals to be tidier when eating (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010). Some evidence suggests that the presence of certain scents causes people to perceive products differently such as items of clothing being rated as softer (Demattè, Sanabria, Sugarman, & Spence, 2006;Laird, 1932; see also Churchill, Meyners, Griffiths, & Bailey, 2009). ...
Chapter
In a multisensory perspective, there can be little doubting that the multisensory atmospherics in stores and other commercial spaces affect the behavior of consumers in systematic ways (see Spence 2018a; Spence et al. 2014, for reviews). This message has created a revolution in sensory marketing, such that across virtually every product category, retailers (and manufacturers) are now increasingly seeking to influence the “sensory experience” of their consumers. One of the key questions then becomes how should a company design its multisensory atmospherics in store to ensure that the return on investment is worthwhile? And what is the relevant metric, anyway? Increased sales, or column inches in the press? But lurking in the background is also an ethical question around whether the effective design of multisensory atmospherics may be pushing more of us into consuming more than we otherwise might (see Spence 2015, 2018b, for reviews). In this talk, I will review the consumer scientific evidence related to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and even gustatory aspects of the store environment and their influence on the consumer’s behavior. I will highlight a number of areas where further research is needed in order to better understand how the multisensory retail environment shapes customer experience and shopping behavior. I will also discuss the latest findings in terms of the currently accepted cognitive neuroscience models of multisensory perception. Should there be time, I would also like to briefly address the question of whether there are meaningful individual/cultural differences in the desire for/avoidance of overly stimulating environments among consumers. Finally, I will take a look at how new technologies are changing the multisensory landscape for consumers.
... Next, warmer (but not hot) temperatures increase perceived similarity with a stranger. Pleasant, citrus odors can facilitate trust and reciprocity between strangers (Liljenquist et al. 2010). Most people probably prefer acoustically-pleasant or quiet environments in interactions. ...
... Next, warmer (but not hot) temperatures increase perceived similarity with a stranger. Pleasant, citrus odors can facilitate trust and reciprocity between strangers (Liljenquist et al. 2010). Most people probably prefer acoustically-pleasant or quiet environments in interactions. ...
Article
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This article discusses a new systems model of dyadic nonverbal interaction. The model builds on earlier theories by integrating partners’ parallel sending and receiving nonverbal processes into a broader, dynamic ecological system. It does so in two ways. First, it moves the level of description beyond the individual level to the coordination of both partners’ contributions to the interaction. Second, it recognizes that the relationships between (a) individuals’ characteristics and processes and (b) the social ecology of the interaction setting are reciprocal and best analyzed at the systems level. Thus, the systems model attempts to describe and explain the dynamic interplay among individual, dyadic, and environmental processes in nonverbal interactions. The potential utility and the limitations of the systems model are discussed and the implications for future research considered. Although the systems model is focused explicitly on face-to-face nonverbal communication, it has considerable relevance for digital communication. Specifically, this model provides a useful framework for examining the social effects of mobile device use and as a template for studying human–robot interactions.
... To develop alternative product-service systems for domestic life that do not necessitate harmful chemical use, it is first necessary to understand the roles played by problematic chemicals in products, and the ways in which they are essential to modern domestic life. Technological and scientific advances in the post-war era have bound concerning chemicals not only to particular products, but also to concepts such as hygiene, freshness and beauty (Ouimette 2011;Liljenquist et al. 2010). Chemicals provide many of the smells, textures and other aesthetic qualities that now represent virtues such as cleanliness. ...
Article
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The post-war introduction of new chemicals to consumer products created a range of complex environmental health issues. Despite recent evidence demonstrating the issues associated with using particular chemicals in the home, responses from industry and regulators have failed to account for the complex ways that chemicals interact with each other, humans and microorganisms to cause harm. This paper draws together the scientific and social science literature to make two key contributions: first, it demonstrates why investigating everyday practices will be crucial to improve knowledge of how human/environment interactions in the home are contributing to certain health conditions; second, it draws on examples of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals to show how these health conditions cannot be addressed by replacing individual products, or chemicals, as many toxic ingredients have become central to the functionality of interdependent networks of products, and the routines they enable. By failing to engage with these issues, future research and planning to establish healthy homes will not be able to account for these crucial sources of harm. We conclude that further research addressing indoor environmental health should expand the boundaries of inquiry across disciplines and knowledge perspectives to analyse how social practices structure micro-scale interactions between humans, microbes and chemicals, in the home.
... In a subsequent study, the citizens who were given €8 to participate in the experiment, contributed €5.68 on average in favour of the lemon tree reforestation intervention when a lemon fragrance was dispersed in the air versus €4.80 when a Scots pine fragrance was dispersed in the air which, although it was evaluated as equally pleasant as the lemon fragrance, it was not semantically congruent with lemon cultivations. The role of ambient fragrance on charity has also been documented byLiljenquist, Zhong and Galinsky (2010).The finding that ambient fragrances can influence judgments and choices are hardly surprising for researchers studying multisensory marketing (seeTurley & Milliman, 2000). Sony, for example, diffuses a fragrance of vanilla and mandarin orange in its 36 Sony Style Stores, which are boutiques showcasing Sony's electronic goods (Corriere della Sera, October 3, 2006, p. 24). ...
Article
Our current lifestyle is not sustainable. One way to increase sustainability is by developing greener technologies. Another, complementary way, is by altering people’s attitudes, habits, and behaviors. Here we discuss six techniques that aim to gently push or nudge people towards more pro-environmental choices and behaviors. These techniques range from ones that can be applied from a distance, e.g., techniques which could inform the construction of communication messages, to ones that involve changes in the context where the choice takes place. Therefore, the present review can be of interest to practitioners such as marketers, policymakers, and consumer representatives. For each technique, we discuss its theorized cognitive and/or emotional underpinnings. Furthermore, we identify gaps in the literature and ways in which future research could fill these gaps.
... Given this criterion, we did not include studies that included outcome behavior that reflected simply retuning a favor (e.g., direct reciprocity). For instance, we did not include findings from one-shot anonymous trust games that examined the extent to which a receiver returns monetary incentives to a sender after having benefitted from the sender's generosity (e.g., Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010). ...
Article
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Exposure to prosocial models is commonly used to foster prosocial behavior in various domains of society. The aim of the current article is to apply meta-analytic techniques to synthesize several decades of research on prosocial modeling, and to examine the extent to which prosocial modeling elicits helping behavior. We also identify the theoretical and methodological variables that moderate the prosocial modeling effect. Eighty-eight studies with 25,354 participants found a moderate effect (g = 0.45) of prosocial modeling in eliciting subsequent helping behavior. The prosocial modeling effect generalized across different types of helping behaviors, different targets in need of help, and was robust to experimenter bias. Nevertheless, there was cross-societal variation in the magnitude of the modeling effect, and the magnitude of the prosocial modeling effect was larger when participants were presented with an opportunity to help the model (vs. a third-party) after witnessing the model’s generosity. The prosocial modeling effect was also larger for studies with higher percentage of female in the sample, when other people (vs. participants) benefitted from the model’s prosocial behavior, and when the model was rewarded for helping (vs. was not). We discuss the publication bias in the prosocial modeling literature, limitations of our analyses and identify avenues for future research. We end with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... Specifically, in a neutral emotional state, the act of cleansing may have primed feelings of morality; thus, participants who cleansed may have volunteered for a greater amount of time in order to act in accordance with their moral self. This explanation is consistent with research, demonstrating that in a neutral emotional state, clean scents promote virtuous behavior by priming morality (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010). Another explanation is that participants in the neutral condition who were presented with the antiseptic wipe may have felt as if they received a favor from the experimenter and volunteered in order to reciprocate the favor. ...
Article
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The Macbeth effect is a proposed phenomenon, whereby feelings of immorality activate a desire to cleanse. Extensions of this theory suggest that cleansing alleviates immoral feelings, thus reducing the urge to engage in compensatory behaviors, such as volunteering. We examined the Macbeth effect and volunteerism in undergraduate students with high levels of obsessive-compulsive disorder contamination concerns (n ¼ 164). Participants underwent an immorality, anxiety, or neutral emotion-induction condition and subsequently cleansed their hands or performed a control task. For participants in the immorality condition, increased ratings of distress were associated with increased accessibility of cleansing words. Furthermore, individuals in the immorality condition who cleansed volunteered for significantly less time than those who did not cleanse. We discuss findings in relation to the literature on the Macbeth effect and mental contamination.
... In fact, conscious thought is largely only a capture of the tail-end of such immediate and rapid processing, the brain's interpretation of somatic markers such as blood flow, hormonal levels, digestive activity, and other dimensions of cellular metabolism (Damasio 1999;Lodge and Taber 2005;Erisen, Lodge, and Taber 2012). This means that situational and contextual factors greatly impact initial perceptions and their affective charge: according to recent psychological studies, people tend to consider others more favorably if a room is tidy or while holding a warm beverage, and are more trusting and generous in a clean-scented room (Schnall, Benton, and Harvey 2008a;Liljenquist, Zhong, and Galinsky 2010). Inversely, when one experiences physical disgustbitter tastes or repugnant smells, for instanceexperiments show parties are prone to harsher moral judgments (Schnall et al. 2008b;Eskine, Kacinik, and Prinz 2011). ...
Article
However complex and challenging it is understood to be, recognition is still largely examined to date as a disembodied cognitive process. Yet the affective dimensions of recognition cannot be taken for granted, particularly when it is required in contexts of deep diversity and inequality. An examination of the embodied dimensions of recognition sheds light on why, as some recognition scholars observe, recognition is so difficult to achieve. It also reveals practical directions for addressing these very challenges. This article offers an account of recognition as physiological process. Bringing recent psychological and neuroscience research into dialogue for the first time with recognition theory, it outlines three aspects of our physiological responses to difference that make a politics of recognition difficult, identifies how these physiological processes are further shaped by inhabiting positions of relative advantage, and begins to explore what this might mean for democratic life.
... At the same time, however, it should be noted that olfactory priming effects have not always proven so easy to replicate (see Smeets and Dijksterhuis, 2014, for a review). There is also a separate line of empirical research, and hence potential opportunity, to use scent functionally to enhance the passengers' multisensory experience/nudge to engage in more prosocial behaviors (e.g., Schiffman and Siebert, 1991;Gueguen, 2001;Spence, 2002Spence, , 2021bHolland et al., 2005;Liljenquist et al., 2010;De Lange et al., 2012;Henshaw et al., 2018), while at the same time possibly also improving their mood (e.g., Warren and Warrenburg, 1993;Spence, 2020c). Finally, it is worth noting how a pleasant scent was introduced onto bus services and mass transit in Singapore the hope that it might help nudge more people to use public transport (cf. ...
Article
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There is undoubtedly growing interest in the role of scent in the design of multisensory experiences. However, to date, the majority of the research has focused on its use in the (static) built environment. As highlighted by this narrative review, somewhat different challenges and opportunities arise just as soon as one starts to consider olfaction in the case of transportation–what might be called “scent in motion.” For instance, levels of anxiety/stress while traveling are often higher (especially in the case of air travel), while, at the same time, the passenger's personal space is frequently compromised. Four key functional roles for scent in the context of passenger transportation are outlined. They include the masking of malodour, the introduction of branded signature scents, short-term olfactory marketing interventions, and the functional use of scent to enhance the experience of travel. In the latter case, one might consider the use of scent to help reduce the stress/anxiety amongst airplane passengers or to give the impression of cleanliness. Meanwhile, in the case of driving, scents have been suggested as an inoffensive means of alerting/relaxing the driver and may also help tackle the problem of motion sickness. The specific challenges associated with scent in motion are reviewed and a number of future opportunities highlighted.
... Evaluating the evidence on fragrance effects on person perception, and the underlying cognitive mechanisms, where they are known, or have been suggested, may also help those wishing to critically evaluate the popular psychology literature that has developed around the suggestion that perfume can be used as an effective tactic of impression management in social and organizational settings (Baron, 1988;Levine & McBurney, 1986;Lobmaier et al., 2020;Newsweek, 1984;Zemke & Shoemaker, 2007), in non-verbal communication, and in order to engage in behavioural, or sensory, nudging (Baron, 1980;Cowley et al., 1977;De Lange et al., 2012;Ebster & Kirk-Smith, 2005;Gueguen, 2001;Gustavson et al., 1987;Hold & Schleidt, 1977;Hirsch, 1993;Hirsch & Gruss, 1999;Kirk-Smith & Booth, 1980;Liljenquist et al., 2010;Razran, 1940;Sczesny & Stahlberg, 2002;Taylor, 1968, p. 53). 4 As might have been expected, and as we will see later, there has also been extensive commercial interest in supporting claims around the role of fragrance in attraction/attractiveness-i.e., both in terms of a fragrance's ability to boost the wearer's self-confidence, but also to influence how they are perceived by others (Berliner, 1994;Hirsch, 2006). But, one might ask, are all the attributes/dimensions of person perception equally affected by the presence of scent/malodour, or are some judgments more malleable/important than others? ...
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In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into the crossmodal influence of olfactory cues on multisensory person perception. Numerous peer-reviewed studies have documented that a variety of olfactory stimuli, from ambient malodours through to fine fragrances, and even a range of chemosensory body odours can influence everything from a perceiver’s judgments of another person’s attractiveness, age, affect, health/disease status, and even elements of their personality. The crossmodal and multisensory contributions to such effects are reviewed and the limitations/peculiarities of the research that have been published to date are highlighted. At the same time, however, it is important to note that the presence of scent (and/or the absence of malodour) can also influence people’s (i.e., a perceiver’s) self-confidence which may, in turn, affect how attractive they appear to others. Several potential cognitive mechanisms have been put forward to try and explain such crossmodal/multisensory influences, and some of the neural substrates underpinning these effects have now been characterized. At the end of this narrative review, a number of the potential (and actual) applications for, and implications of, such crossmodal/multisensory phenomena involving olfaction are outlined briefly.
... In the aural dimension, music of the slow rhythm makes individuals stay longer in restaurants and increases the consumption (Milliman, 1986). In the olfactory dimension, clean smell can significantly increase an individual's donation behavior (Liljenquist et al., 2010), whereas for the taste sense, individuals who eat sweet candy are more likely to help others (Meier et al., 2012). In the dimension of tactile sense, individuals tend to have a higher sense of social closeness if they felt warmth through handshakes with others . ...
Article
Research in dark tourism has been ongoing for over two decades. Although in practice, many dark tourism destinations adjusted the lighting of the display environment to influence tourist experience, little is known about the sensory stimulation of non-text related content (e.g., lighting of the environment or darkness of visual materials) on dark tourists' psychological experience. This study examined the influence of visual darkness on tourists' dark experience and explored the relationship between visual darkness and psychological darkness through a content analysis of online comments and photos for 30 dark tourism destinations worldwide, followed by four experiments. Results showed that the stimulation of visual darkness affected dark tourists’ psychological experience and behavioral intentions (including recommendation intention and touch preference), and such embodied effect existed in both two-dimensional plane and three-dimensional space. The study provides many practical implications for experience creation of dark tourism destinations.
... Previous research has identified that the color of a room impacts the amount of food consumed (Stroebele and De Castro, 2004), perceived crowding in a restaurant impacts approach-avoidance behaviors (Hwang et al., 2012), and music preference increases the time spent in a restaurant (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Further, emitting an ambient scent associated with cleaning products leads individuals to be tidier when eating (Liljenquist et al., 2010). Ambient scents also impact consumption, as limited exposure (<30 s) to an indulgent scent increases purchases of unhealthy foods, while the reverse was found for an extended exposure (>2 min) to the scent . ...
Atmospheric factors within a retail environment provide efficient and effective methods for influencing customer behavior. Drawing on the concept of sensory compensation, this research investigates how ambient lighting influences taste perceptions. Three studies demonstrate that dim lighting enhances taste perceptions. The results of Studies 1a and 1b provide support that low lighting positively influences consumers' perceived taste of single taste dimension foods (e.g., sweet). Study 2 shows the number of taste dimensions (e.g., sweet vs. sweet and salty) stimulated serves as a boundary condition, attenuating the significant effect of dim lighting on taste perceptions.
... Additionally, clean scents seems to influence feelings of virtue, leading to increased reciprocity and charity [55]. ...
Article
Today’s washing appliances are much more efficient than those of a decade ago, but the environmental benefits of this efficiency are counteracted by shifts in consumer behavior. Initiatives to reverse these shifts have often proven futile, indicating a basic lack of clarity on why we clean our clothes. This article is an explorative review with the aim of identifying dominant factors that shape how we do our laundry. The results can be used both as an introduction to laundry research in general, as well as a baseline for future interdisciplinary research. Three guiding principles are presented that describe the most influential factors underlying laundering: (1) technology changes conventions, while social context dictates technology acceptance; (2) technological solutions are often suggested to influence consumers, but individual concerns seem to override the effect of such interventions; (3) consumers are guided by social conventions, rooted in underlying psychological dynamics (e.g. moral dimensions of cleanliness). Looking at these principles it is understandable why interventions for sustainability are failing. Many interventions address only a part of a principle while disregarding other parts. For example, consumers are often informed of the importance of sustainability (e.g. “washing at lower temperature is good for the environment”), while questions of social belonging are left out (e.g. “many of your neighbors and friends wash at lower temperature”). To increase the possibility of a lasting change, it would be beneficial if instead all of the three principles could be addressed given the specific consumer group of interest.
... Recent studies have found that such metaphorical mental links may not only be triggered by physical cleanliness but also potentially by environmental factors such as brightness, temperature, and smell. People exposed to contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., darkness vs. brightness; cold vs. warmth; clean scents vs. disgusting scents) will display different moral judgments and behaviors (Liljenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010;IJzerman & Semin, 2009;Meier, Robinson, & Clore, 2004;Meier, Robinson, Crawford, & Ahlvers, 2007;Schnall, Haidt, Clore, & Jordan, 2008;Williams & Bargh, 2008;Zhong, Bohns, & Gino, 2010;Zhong & Leonardelli, 2008), but there is some controversy over the conclusions of these studies (Corke, Lynott, Wortman, Connell, Donnellan, Lucas, et al., 2014;Lynott, Corker, Wortman, Connell, Donnellan, Lucas, et al., 2014;Williams, 2014). ...
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Cleanliness connotes cleanness, hygiene, and beauty. Physical cleanliness is also a metaphor for moral purity, as proposed in recent literature. However, cleanliness means not only physical cleanliness but also environmental cleanliness. The article proposes that environmental cleanliness and physical self-cleanliness may metaphorically influence immoral behaviors in the workplace, and their effects may be different. The current study conducted a 2 (environmental cleanliness: clean vs. dirty) × 3 (self-cleanliness: hands-cleansing vs. face-cleansing vs. non-cleansing) between-subjects field experiment with employees as participants in a Chinese enterprise. One-hundred-seventy-seven employees volunteered to participate in the experiment. It was found that a clean workplace, rather than physical self-cleansing, renders harsh moral judgment regarding immoral workplace behaviors. The participants were less willing to accept immoral workplace behaviors in a clean environment than in a dirty environment, while self-cleanliness (hands-cleansing or face-cleansing vs. non-cleansing) had no significant influence on employees’ moral judgments of immoral workplace behaviors. In addition, the significant effects of environmental cleanliness were found in all the ten dimensions of immoral workplace behaviors. The findings reveal the metaphorical association between environmental cleanliness and the concept of higher social moral norms, and confirm that environmental cleanliness is a key factor leading to moral metaphorical effects. This result provides unique insight to the social significance of environmental cleanliness, and has important implications to prevent immoral workplace behaviors. A theoretical framework is proposed to explain why environmental cleanliness is more likely to affect moral judgment involving organizational interests than self-cleanliness. Considering most previous research has been done with samples of college students, this study is especially valuable through a field experiment on actual employees.
... Indeed, individuals' subjective perception of odors, especially of body odors, can involve social judgments (e.g. differentiating between the outgroup or ingroup) or even bear a moral dimension (Liljenquist et al. 2010;Skarlicki et al. 2013). Anthropological work in diverse populations and social systems reveals that odors are important in the construction of reality, and that they are associated with culturally assigned contextual significance (Almagor 1990). ...
Article
Although olfaction is a modality with great inter-individual perceptual disparities, its subjective dimension has been let aside in modern research, in line with the overall neglect of consciousness in experimental psychology. However, following the renewed interest for the neural bases of consciousness, some methodological leads have been proposed to include subjectivity in experimental protocols. Here, we argue that adapting such methods to the field of olfaction will allow to rigorously acquire subjective reports, and we present several ways to do so. This will improve the understanding of diversity in odor perception and its underlying neural mechanisms.
... Experimental studies have found that pleasant ambient scents improved agreeableness and several measures of work cooperativity (Baron & Bronfen, 1994;Marchlewska et al., 2016). A familiar scent highly associated with cleanliness has even been shown to promote prosocial behaviors, such as reciprocating trust and charity (Liljenquist et al., 2010). These findings imply that if pleasantly scented cleaning products are used in the workplace; employees might be friendlier and more cooperative, which in turn may improve work productivity and outcomes. ...
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Humans have deliberately scented their environment for purpose or pleasure for millennia. In the contemporary marketplace most consumers prefer and purchase scented versions of common household products. However, the drivers of this consumer preference have not been elucidated. To explain the attraction to scent in household products we propose a novel three-factor framework, comprising functional benefits (malodor mitigation, base odor coverage, freshening), in -use experience benefits (cleanliness, efficacy, pleasure), and emotional benefits (increasing in confidence, mood and nostalgia). To support this framework, we present new data from a market research survey on US consumer purchasing habits and attitudes towards home cleaning, laundry, and air freshening products. Further substantiating our framework, a focused review of olfactory psychological science illustrating the central role of scent in cognition, wellbeing, motivated behavior, and social behavior, as well as sensory marketing research highlights the benefits and implications of scent in consumer household products. Based on our three-factor framework we go on to discuss the potential for scent to influence health and raise issues to consider (such as potential negative responding to fragranced products). We conclude by showcasing new opportunities for future research in olfactory science and on scented household products that can advance the positive impacts of scent.
... So, for example, according to the results of a couple of published studies, people engage in significantly more cleaning, and are more likely to pick up rubbish, with a citrus cleaning scent in the air (Holland et al., 2005;De Lange et al., 2012; though see also Toet et al., 2013, for evidence suggesting that scents may have somewhat different effects in virtual environments). Meanwhile, other researchers have reported that the presence of 'clean' ambient scents (a spray of citrus-scented Windex) can also promote reciprocity (in a one-shot anonymous trust game) and charitable behavior (e.g., as assessed by the intention to volunteer; Liljenquist et al., 2010). At the same time, however, the robustness of a number of these smell-induced behavioral priming effects have also been questioned by researchers (Smeets and Dijksterhuis, 2014; see also Doyen et al., 2012). ...
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The majority of the world’s population now lives an urban existence, spending as much as 95% of their lives indoors. The olfactory atmosphere in the built environment has been shown to exert a profound, if often unrecognized, influence over our mood and well-being. While the traditionally malodorous stench to be found indoors (i.e., prior to the invention of modern sanitation) has largely been eliminated in recent centuries, many of the outbreaks of sick-building syndrome that have been reported over the last half century have been linked to the presence of a strange smell in the environment. At the same time, however, there is also growing evidence that consumer behavior can be manipulated by the presence of pleasant ambient odors, while various aromatherapy scents are said to improve our mood and well-being. This Anglophone review focuses primarily on indoor western urban developed spaces. Importantly, the olfactory ambience constitutes but one component of the multisensory atmosphere and ambient odors interact with the visual, auditory, and haptic aspects of the built environment. Surprisingly, the majority of published studies that have deliberately chosen to combine ambient scent with other sensory interventions, such as, for example, music, have failed to increase store sales, or to enhance people’s mood and/or well-being, as might have been expected. Such negative findings therefore stress the importance of considering multisensory congruency while, at the same time, also highlighting the potential dangers that may be associated with sensory overload when thinking about the effect of ambient smell on our well-being.
... Indeed, intuitions frequently bias more explicit top-down views and judgments 2,13,17,26 , and certain explicit beliefs may be more compelling and difficult to override when they stem from intuitive impressions 2,13,17,27 . These effects have been found to operate across diverse modalities of sensory information processing [28][29][30] . For example, in the context of interpersonal evaluations, humans rely on rapid, nonconscious face processing to form intuitions of trustworthiness [29][30][31] , which has substantial influence on subsequent decision-making 31 . ...
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Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.
... On the other hand, the link between olfaction and cognition has been extensively investigated in humans. Olfactory cues influence not only human thinking, actions and decisions in a non-conscious manner [14,15] but also human judgment [16] and behavior toward other people (e.g., clean scent increases helping behavior [17]). Recent literature shows also that odors affect human mood [18] and working performance when they are previously associated with the emotion of frustration [19]. ...
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The ability of odors to spontaneously trigger specific memories has been widely demonstrated in humans. Although increasing evidence support the role of olfaction on dogs’ emotions and cognitive processes, very little research has been conducted on its relationship with memory in this species. The present study aimed at investigating the role of olfaction in the recall of detailed memories originally formed in the presence of a specific odor (i.e., vanilla). To test this, three groups of participants were trained with the same spatial learning task while a specific odor (i.e., vanilla) was dispersed in the testing room. Subjects were then divided in three experimental groups and after 24 h delay, they were presented with the same spatial task. The first group (Group 1) performed the task in the presence of a novel odor (i.e., control), whereas the second (Group 2) and the third group (Group 3) carried out the test in the presence of the vanilla odor and no odor (Group 3), respectively. After a brief delay, the test was presented again to the three groups of dogs: subjects of Group 1 were now tested in the presence of the vanilla odor, whereas the Group 2 was tested with the control odor. The Group 3 received no odor in both tests. A significant improvement of dogs’ performance was registered in the control-vanilla odors condition (Group 1), suggesting that the exposure to the odor presented at the encoding time would prompt the recall of spatial memories in dogs.
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Based on the theory of embodied cognition, this study investigated the effect of bodily posture associated with self-regulation on economic decisions involving delayed rewards. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: Firming condition where participants were asked to clasp a pen firmly against their palm and no-firming condition where participants were asked to hold pen loosely between their index and middle fingers. While maintaining the respective bodily posture, participants were then asked to make a series of monetary decision, which involves choices between smaller, immediate rewards (SIR) and larger, delayed rewards (LDR). The results demonstrated that, compared to those in the no-firming condition, participants in the firming condition were more likely to discount the value of delayed rewards in a lesser degree and choose larger, delayed rewards (LDR) instead of smaller, immediate rewards (SIR). The effect, however, was significant only when the size of LDR was small. The implication of this finding was discussed.
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The Xangô Cult, as most Afro-American religions, is an "olfactive" religion, dealing with a large variety of smells, and among them intense smells, which are an integral part of its ritual activity. Curiously, such phenomenological blatancy has never caught much interest among Afro-Brazilianists. It might be ethnographically noticed here and there, but there are very few attempts, if any, of theorizing their potential ritual function. Drawing on the "olfactography" of the sacriicial rite of the Xangô Cult, my aim is to account for what smells do to rituals and the people who take part in them. I suggest three theoretical claims: the hypothesis of the metonymic function of smells (Howes 1987), i.e. that the very nature of smell-their liminal, intangible and evolutive character, as well as their privileged link to emotions-redouble at the experiential level the rituals' symbolic function of transformation; the hypothesis of an "olfactive evaluative conditioning" (Zucco 2013) at the heart of the metonymic function of smells; the existence of olfactive practices and "styles," which are constitutive elements of collective identities in Afro-Brazilian religions.
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The physical environment plays an important role in moral cognition. Previous research has demonstrated that the physical environment affects individual moral judgment. Investigators have argued that the environment influences moral judgment through emotion and cognition, such as during metaphor processing. Following the intensification of urbanization and increases in population size, the phenomenon of a narrow environment has become more common. However, the relation between environmental spaciousness and moral judgment has not been thoroughly examined. We examined the effect of environmental spaciousness (spaciousness vs. narrowness) on moral judgments in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Results showed that participants report a higher rating score of moral judgment in more spacious environments compared with narrow environments. We further explored the roles of emotion and metaphor in the relation between environmental spaciousness and moral judgments. We found support for a partial mediation effect of emotion in the relationship between environmental spaciousness and moral judgment. The results also supported an association between the concept of spaciousness and tolerant cognition. Spacious environments may elicit positive emotions and more tolerant cognition, which in turn influences moral judgment. These results provide new evidence for the influence of the environment on moral judgments, and more attention may be warranted to incorporate this relationship in environmental design.
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The Xangô Cult, as most Afro-American religions, is an "olfactive" religion, dealing with a large variety of smells, and among them intense smells, which are an integral part of its ritual activity. Curiously, such phenomenological blatancy has never caught much interest among Afro-Brazilianists. It might be ethnographically noticed here and there, but there are very few attempts, if any, of theorizing their potential ritual function. Drawing on the "olfactography" of the sacrificial rite of the Xangô Cult, my aim is to account for what smells do to rituals and the people who take part in them. I suggest three theoretical claims: the hypothesis of the metonymic function of smells (Howes 1987), i.e. that the very nature of smell-their liminal, intangible and evolutive character, as well as their privileged link to emotions-redouble at the experiential level the rituals' symbolic function of transformation; the hypothesis of an "olfactive evaluative conditioning" (Zucco 2013) at the heart of the metonymic * LAPCOS (EA 7278), université Côte d'Azur [halloy@unice.fr]. Le culte Xangô de Recife (Brésil), tout comme la majorité des religions afro-amé-ricaines, est une religion « olfactive », en ceci qu'une large variété d'odeurs, dont certaines particulièrement intenses, fait partie intégrante de son activité rituelle. Curieusement, cette évidence phénoménologique n'a jamais vraiment suscité l'intérêt des chercheurs afro-brésilianistes. Si elle est, çà et là, mentionnée ethnographique-ment, il existe très peu de tentatives de théoriser leur potentielle fonction rituelle. À partir d'une « olfactographie » du rite sacrificel du Xangô, mon objectif est de suggérer plusieurs pistes de réflexion et hypothèses sur ce que les odeurs font aux rituels et aux gens qui y participent. Trois d'entre elles sont au coeur de cet article : l'hypothèse de la fonction métonymique des odeurs (Howes 1987), à savoir que la nature même des odeurs-leur caractère intangible, liminal et changeant ainsi que leur lien privilégié avec les émotions-redouble au niveau expérientiel la fonction symbolique de transformation des rituels ; l'hypothèse d'un « conditionnement olfactif évaluatif » (Zucco 2013) à la base de la fonction métonymique des odeurs ; l'importance de pratiques et de « styles » olfactifs dans l'élaboration d'identités col-lectives au sein des religions afro-brésiliennes. [Mots-clés : religions afro-américaines, culte Xangô, odeurs, rituel, émotions, expérience, liminalité, efficacité symbolique.]
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The environment affects moral behavior. Previous research found that a beautiful environment leads to pro-social behavior, which is related to behavioral intention. However, the effect of environmental aesthetic value on immoral and moral behavior remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the effect of environmental aesthetic value on behavioral intention and its possible mechanisms. We conducted four experiments. Experiment 1 adopted the priming paradigm and IAT paradigm to explore the relationship between environmental aesthetic value and behavioral intention. It used photographs of the environment as priming stimuli and scene drawings of behavior as target stimuli. The results showed that participants had a higher intention to engage in moral behavior in an environment with a high aesthetic value, and a lower intention to engage in immoral behavior, compared to in an environment with a low aesthetic value. Similarly, an environment with a low aesthetic value was related to immoral behavior. Experiment 2 further explored the possible mechanism for the above results: changes in moral judgment. The results showed that moral judgment in different environments may lead to different behavioral intentions. The current study extends prior research by demonstrating the effect of environmental aesthetic value on behavioral intention and moral judgment, and good knowledge about the relationship between environmental aesthetic value and moral behavior. In addition, it provides a new hypothesis for the relationship between environment and behavior according to the results of the environment–behavior matching hypothesis, which can provide a new perspective on moral education.
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The revolution in metaphor studies has revealed the motivating presence of underlying conceptual metaphors in people’s use and understanding of metaphorical language and gesture. Metaphorical expression is typically viewed now as bodily enactment of mentally represented metaphorical concepts. My aim in this article is to advance the idea that metaphorical performances are always part of dynamical, ecological cognition and must always be characterized as embodied, enactive, embedded, and extended. The dynamical–ecological perspective emphasizes how human thought and action continuously change over time with metaphor, more specifically, emerging in partial and probabilistic ways given what particular ecologies best afford. I describe different metaphorical performances as they arise in varying situations as people face adaptive challenges. Part of my claim is that metaphorical meanings only exist within the context of their bodily articulations in specific ecological contexts. Embracing a dynamical–ecological approach to metaphor comes with the significant conclusion that metaphor is not a discrete event or activity that is suddenly “there” inside people’s minds but is a dynamical constraint on action that is distributed across brains, bodies, and real-world ecologies.
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Cambridge Core - Cognition - Metaphors in the Mind - by Jeannette Littlemore
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This study examined the effect of dirty money on dispositional human greed and ethical moral behavior. This study was the first attempt to explicitly explain the mechanism associated with dirty money, human greed and ethical behaviour in Nigerian corrupt society. The participants comprised of 60 young people, 33 male (55.0%) and 27 female (45%) within the age range of 18 to 26 with a mean age of 22, drawn from the population frame of 154 psychology undergraduate students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Based on money pathology model dialectics, the proposed problem of study guided the formation of two hypotheses .Hypothesis 1 stated that dirty money minders will differ significantly from clean money minders on dispositional human greed. Hypothesis 2 stated that clean paper minders will differ significantly from dirty paper minders on ethically moral behavior. Dispositional greed scale and ethical moral self-inventory instruments were employed. Between subject experimental design ensured participants were primed with money (dirty Vs clean). ANOVA statistics were applied to the data. The result of data analysis indicated that dirty money minders did not differ significantly from clean money minders on dispositional human greed ;whereas clean paper minders do differ significantly from dirty paper minders on ethically moral behavior. As individuals in society, one must honor and value our currency and handle our money with maximum respect. Cognitive thought and belief about cleanness of non-monetary objects was more implicated in ethically moral behavior but not in dispositional human greed. Government must evolve new policies that encourage activation of laws and legal frameworks, that envision moral financial behaviour, transparent economic easy-of-doing-business, and sustain E-money business, regulated online cashless financial transactions, in a society that adhere to consumer ethical behaviour. Our aptness to value cleanness reflects strong adherence to ethical behaviour at the individual level. Thus purity, be it in objects we use, or in our immediate environment, is a reflection of adherence to ethical values standard and cherished moral behavior in contemporary Nigerian society.
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Smell is one of the many senses we deploy to act in and on our world. It is arguably the most visceral, ubiquitous, and immediately experienced, but simultaneously devalued and understudied, sense. Smell is often processed in an unconscious manner, exposing social class, gendered, age-based and racialised stereotypes. Smell therefore links to structural inequalities, affecting marginalised client groups who may emit certain smells, abide in malodorous environments, possess smell deficits, or exhibit strong emotional reactions to specific smells. Without relevant knowledge, social workers may associate various smells directly with negative individual personality or group characteristics or misinterpret situations. They could consequently unwittingly oppress subordinated groups, contravening value-based, anti-oppressive and reflexive practice. This article therefore explores the limited multidisciplinary literature on smell, supporting more informed and ethical practice decisions. IMPLICATIONS • The senses, particularly smell, have been mostly overlooked in social work. As a result, social workers may often ignore, be unaware of, or react autonomously to issues involving smell. • The multidisciplinary literature analysed and synthesised in this article illuminates smell’s, hitherto unrecognised, importance in social work. It begins to enable practitioners to identify when smell becomes a problematic issue, and reflexively respond in an informed, empathic manner. • The article also strongly suggests that greater attention should be paid to smell in future social work education, practice, and research.
Chapter
Although scholarship on the senses and sensory history has been fast expanding over the last decades, the importance of smell tends to be somewhat overlooked in favour of the other senses, in particular vision, already regarded by the likes of Plato as a superior sense. The ephemeral nature of smell, and the inherent difficulties in interpreting its sensory information, help explain this lack of attention. Smell is, however, one of the most intriguing senses, pivotal in the perception of ourselves and others, and deeply connected to our emotions and moral decisions. Medical and cultural historians, as well as anthropologists and psychologists, have emphasised the key role olfaction plays across time and place, not only through rituals, or as a means of diagnosing disease, but also as a warning mechanism regarding threats and dangerous environments, and ultimately, dangerous, stinky people (Classen C., Howes D., Synnott A. 1994; Reinarz, J. 2014; Jenner, M. 2011).
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El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos en la investigación sobre marketing sensorial y su influencia en la experiencia de compra, el cual busca aportar conocimiento al campo del marketing sensorial y su importancia en la construcción de experiencias memorables para los públicos. De esta forma se quiere comprender si un aroma puede relacionarse con la experiencia del servicio recibido en las instalaciones de un fondo de empleados de Manizales por medio de una investigación cuantitativa-descriptiva de alcance correlacional cuasiexperimental. En la primer semana se indagó en la percepción a 301 personas que ingresaron a las instalaciones del fondo de empleados sin intervención de algún esquema de aroma. Para la segunda semana se hizo una intervención, se recolectaron 301 encuestas a las personas que ingresaron y que calificaron las mismas variables en el espacio ya aromatizado. Se sistematizaron los cuestionarios en una matriz en Microsoft Excel 2013® para, posteriormente, realizar el análisis estadístico con el IBM SPSS v. 21. Se verificó la consistencia interna con alfa de Cronbach de 0,856, se caracterizó la población y se establecieron asociaciones ordinales mediante el coeficiente Gamma de Goodman y Kruskal, adicionalmente se comprobaron con la prueba Chi-cuadrado las posibles asociaciones. Uno de los resultados más importantes del estudio demostró que la estimulación del sentido del olfato puede asociarse de manera positiva en la percepción de las variables de atención en el servicio y limpieza.
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The consequences of overconsumption and the recent popularity of simple living point to consumer interest in reducing belongings. They also raise an interesting question—what is a useful approach to downsizing and decluttering? We investigate how dis/order (messy vs. tidy items) affects downsizing and find, across nine focal studies, that (a) consumers retain fewer items when choosing from a disordered set because (b) order facilitates the comparisons within category that underlie the tendency to retain items. The impact of dis/order is altered by consumers’ comparison tendencies, waste aversion, and decision strategy (selection vs. rejection), which serve as theoretically and pragmatically relevant moderators. Though consumers’ lay beliefs favor rejecting from order (i.e., choosing what to get rid of from tidy items), our findings point to the usefulness of selecting from disorder (i.e., choosing what to keep from messy items) as a downsizing strategy. Together, this research has implications for consumer downsizing activities, the burgeoning home organization and storage industries, as well as sustainability.
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Cognitive dissonance is a kind of ambivalence in which your apprehension of the fact that you performed or want to perform an action of which you disapprove gives rise to psychological distress. This, in turn, causes you to solicit unconscious processes that can help you reduce the distress. Here we look at the role that cognitive dissonance plays in explaining the inner workings of racism. We distinguish between three types of racist acts: inadvertent bigotry, habitual racism, and explicit racism. Unlike inadvertent bigots, habitual and explicit racists are racially motivated and they therefore are responsible for their racial acts. But unlike the explicit racists, habitual racists aren’t immediately aware of their racial motives. As habitual racists hold overt egalitarian attitudes, the conflict between their over attitudes and their covert racial motives are a potential source of distress. To avoid having to face their racial motives, they tend to turn to confabulation. While explicit racists aren’t bothered by a similar form of cognitive dissonance, their explicit racial attitudes and desires to cause black people to suffer are at odds with majority public opinion, which can be a source of shame. To escape this kind of negative self-realization, explicit racists seek to justify their actions as honorable or as necessary for the good of society. We conclude by briefly pondering how cognitive dissonance can be used as a strategy for transforming habitual and explicit racists.
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Generosity: Virtue in the civil society
  • T R Machan
Machan, T.R. (1998). Generosity: Virtue in the civil society. Wash-ington, DC: Cato Institute.
Swann's way (C.K. Scott-Moncrieff, Trans.) New York: The Modern Library. (Original work published 1913) Disgust as embodied moral judgment
  • M Proust
  • S Schnall
  • J Haidt
  • G L Clore
  • A H Jordan
Proust, M. (1928). Swann's way (C.K. Scott-Moncrieff, Trans.). New York: The Modern Library. (Original work published 1913) Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G.L., & Jordan, A.H. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096–1109.
Swann’s way (Scott-Moncrieff C.K., Trans.) New York: The Modern Library
  • Proust M.
  • Scott-Moncrieff C.K.