Article

Prevalence of superficial siderosis in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy(CME)

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 04/2010; 74(17):1346-50. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dad605
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) typically presents with lobar intracerebral macrohemorrhages (ICH) or microbleeds (MBs). Several case reports also found superficial siderosis (SS) in patients with CAA. We aimed to assess the value of SS for the in vivo diagnosis of CAA, and tested whether the inclusion of SS as a criterion alters the sensitivity and specificity of the Boston criteria for CAA-related hemorrhage.
We retrospectively analyzed the T2*-weighted MRIs of 38 patients with histopathologically proven CAA and of 22 control patients with histopathologically proven non-CAA ICHs regarding the presence of ICHs, MBs, and SS. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the classic Boston criteria to that of modified criteria, which included SS as a criterion.
ICHs were present in 71% of the patients with CAA, and in all control patients. MBs were found in 47.4% of patients with CAA and in 22.7% of controls. SS was detected in 60.5% of patients with CAA, but in none of the controls. The classic criteria had a sensitivity of 89.5% for CAA-related hemorrhage, while inclusion of SS increased their sensitivity to 94.7% (not significant). On the contrary, the specificity of the Boston criteria was 81.2% both for the classic and for the modified criteria.
Superficial siderosis (SS) occurs with high prevalence in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and is rare in non-CAA forms of intracerebral hemorrhages. Thus, we propose that inclusion of SS in the Boston criteria might enhance their sensitivity for CAA-related hemorrhage without loss of specificity.

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Available from: Jennifer Linn, Feb 19, 2014
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    • "Brain imaging reveals white matter lesions, cortical microinfarcts, superficial siderosis, and multiple cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) in a varying extent. Patients with CAA suffer a higher incidence of cognitive impairment and spontaneous lobar hemorrhage91011121314. The spatial relationship between vascular Aβ deposition and lobar cMBs was demonstrated both by histological studies and non-invasive imaging, comparing gradient echo sequences and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET)151617. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    • "We read with great interest the article by Martinez- Ramirez et al. [1] on the diagnostic value of cerebral microbleeds (MBs) in patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The neuropathologic validation of the Boston criteria for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to date has been mainly in cohorts of patients with symptomatic ICH [2] [3]. This study makes a key contribution by expanding the application of these diagnostic criteria into a healthy older population, which could be important for testing potential new therapeutic approaches designed to slow CAA disease progression [4]. "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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    • "Within the past decade, a second type of brain siderosis restricted to the supratentorial compartment and the convexities of the cerebral hemispheres, has been identified and referred to as 'cortical' superficial siderosis (cSS) (Linn et al., 2008). cSS has a different range of potential causes and clinical presentation to classical siderosis, but in older individuals is emerging as a key feature of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a common and important age-related cerebral small vessel disorder (Linn et al., 2010; Viswanathan and Greenberg, 2011; Charidimou et al., 2012a). cSS is associated with characteristic clinical symptoms , including transient focal neurological episodes (Greenberg et al., 1993), and might be a marker of future intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) risk in CAA patients (Charidimou et al., 2013c; Linn et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical superficial siderosis describes a distinct pattern of blood-breakdown product deposition limited to cortical sulci over the convexities of the cerebral hemispheres, sparing the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Although cortical superficial siderosis has many possible causes, it is emerging as a key feature of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a common and important age-related cerebral small vessel disorder leading to intracerebral haemorrhage and dementia. In cerebral amyloid angiopathy cohorts, cortical superficial siderosis is associated with characteristic clinical symptoms, including transient focal neurological episodes; preliminary data also suggest an association with a high risk of future intracerebral haemorrhage, with potential implications for antithrombotic treatment decisions. Thus, cortical superficial siderosis is of relevance to neurologists working in neurovascular, memory and epilepsy clinics, and neurovascular emergency services, emphasizing the need for appropriate blood-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences to be routinely acquired in these clinical settings. In this review we focus on recent developments in neuroimaging and detection, aetiology, prevalence, pathophysiology and clinical significance of cortical superficial siderosis, with a particular emphasis on cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We also highlight important areas for future investigation and propose standards for evaluating cortical superficial siderosis in research studies. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Brain
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