Distribution of different hepatitis C virus genotypes in patients with hepatitis C virus infection

GI and Liver Disease Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Firouzgar Hospital, Valadi Street, Valiasr Square, Tehran, Iran.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 04/2010; 16(16):2005-9. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i16.2005
Source: PubMed


To investigate the presence of mixed infection and discrepancy between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and liver biopsy specimens.
From September 2008 up to April 2009, 133 patients with chronic hepatitis C referred to Firouzgar Hospital for initiation of an antiviral therapy were recruited in the study. Five milliliters of peripheral blood was collected from each patient and liver biopsy was performed in those who gave consent or had indications. HCV genotyping was done using INNO-LiPA(TM) HCV II in serum, PBMCs, and liver biopsy specimens and then confirmed by sequencing of 5'-UTR fragments.
The mean age of patients was 30.3 +/- 17.1 years. Multiple transfusion was seen in 124 (93.2%) of patients. Multiple HCV genotypes were found in 3 (2.3%) of 133 plasma samples, 9 (6.8%) of 133 PBMC samples, and 8 (18.2%) of 44 liver biopsy specimens. It is notable that the different genotypes found in PBMCs were not the same as those found in plasma and liver biopsy specimens.
Our study shows that a significant proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C are affected by multiple HCV genotypes which may not be detectable only in serum of patients.

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Available from: Hossein Keyvani, Feb 22, 2014
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    • "Published online in Wiley Online Library ( et al., 1992; Ferri et al., 1993; Bokharaei Salim et al., 2010]. The lymphotropism of this virus may explain the relationship between infection by HCV and some lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [Pena et al., 2000]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Occult HCV infection is a form of chronic HCV infection characterized by absence of detectable anti-HCV antibodies or plasma HCV-RNA but presence of HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in PBMCs of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. One hundred and four consecutive patients with lymphoproliferative disorders admitted to Firouzgar Hospital from January 2010 to March 2011 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A 6-ml sample of whole blood was taken from the patients, the total RNA was extracted from the samples after the separation of plasma and PBMCs. The HCV-RNA of the samples was amplified by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). The HCV genotypes of the positive samples were tested using the INNO-LiPA™ HCV II kit, and the HCV genotypes were then confirmed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR fragments after the PCR products were cloned into a pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector. The mean age of the patients was 48.3 ± 1.76 years (range: 16-83). HCV-RNA was found in PBMCs from 2 (1.9%) of the 104 patients. Genotyping showed that the patients were infected with HCV subtype 1a. One patient suffered non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the other suffered chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients with lymphoproliferative disorders with negative anti-HCV antibodies and negative plasma HCV-RNA may have occult HCV infection. Therefore, in the absence of a liver biopsy, the testing of PBMCs for the detection of genomic HCV-RNA may be beneficial. J. Med. Virol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    • "There are numerous reports indicating that infection with distinct HCV genotype doesn’t make a barrier to infect with other HCV genotypes, thus several exposures to HCV may be lead to multiple episodes and mixed infection in some patients. This infection may result in severe disease, unresponsiveness to antiviral therapy or relapse following the concluding of antiviral treatment (38-41). In the present study the prevalence of mixed HCV infection was about 2.5%, and the relatively high prevalence of mixed inter-genotype HCV infection with 1a and 3a (56.5%) was found in our subjects (Table 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has different genotypes throughout the world. Since the determination of which antiviral treatment to be applied is related to HCV genotypes, identification of an individual's HCV genotypes prior to antiviral therapy is critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of HCV genotypes in a large population of Iranian HCV infected patients. Eleven thousand, five hundred and sixty one patients with chronic HCV infection which referred to hospitals related to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Tehran Hepatitis Center-Clinical Department of Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroeneterology and Liver Disease from March 2003 to December 2011 were enrolled. Following extraction of viral RNA of the serum, HCV-RNA was detected using reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) and then HCV genotypes analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The mean age of patients was 37.6 ± 14.2 years (range: 1-87). The highest frequency was noted for subtype 1a (44.9%) followed by subtype 3a (39.6%), and 1b (11.3%). Mixed HCV genotypes were also found in 2.5% of the total cases. Subtype 1a was the most frequent genotype in patients over 40 years of age (46.1% versus 42.4%) and subtype 3a was the most frequent in patients under 40 years old (41.5% versus 38.9%). This study suggested that the dominant HCV subtype among Iranian patients was 1a followed by subtype 3a.
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    • "The high prevalence of genotype 4 and 1 among Libyans which is uncommon in Europe and North America is particularly attributable to medical-related transmission such as blood transfusion, surgery and dental procedures. This is an agreement with studies from Pakistan and Hungry where the majority of cases of genotypes 1 and 4 have history of hospitalization for surgery, dental procedure and blood transfusion [9,23,29]. This raises an important question regarding the prevention methods of to be established among Libyan hospitals to prevent the spread of HCV and other blood born viruses [30,31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The information on hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes among Libyan population and its association with various risk factors is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiological manifestations of HCV genotypes among Libyan patients and their association with certain potential risk factors. A total of 1240 of HCV infected patients registered at Tripoli Medical Centre were studied in five years period from January 2005 to October 2009. The information were reviewed and the data were collected. A sample from each patient (785 male; 455 female) was analysed for genotyping and sub-typing using specific genotyping assay. The information was correlated with the risk factors studied and the statistical data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Off the total patients studied, four different genotypes were reported, including genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. Genotype4 was the commonest (35.7%), followed by genotype1 (32.6%). According to subtypes 28% were unclassified genotype 4, 14.6% were genotype 1b and some patients infected with more than one subtype (2.3% genotype 4c/d, 1% genotype 2a/c). Genotypes 1 was the commonest among males, while genotype 4 among females. According to the risk factors studied, Genotype1 and genotype 4 were found with most of the risk factors. Though they were particularly evident surgical intervention, dental procedures and blood transfusion while genotype 1 was only followed by genotype 3 mainly which mainly associated with certain risk groups such as intravenous drug abusers. Here in we report on a detailed description of HCV genotype among Libyans. The most common genotype was type 4 followed by genotype 1, other genotypes were also reported at a low rate. The distribution of such genotypes were also variable according to gender and age. The commonly prevalent genotypes found to be attributable to the medical -related transmission of HCV, such as blood, surgery and dental procedures when compared with other risk factors. This however, raises an alarming signal on the major steps to be taken to reduce such infection in Libya.
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