Source: OAI


Three main processes in Natural Language Processing are syntax analysis or parsing, semantic interpretation and contextual interpretation. This paper discuss about the first and the second of these processes. Parsing is the recognition of the sentence structure based on a grammar and a lexicon. Parsing can be done in either top-down or bottom-up methods, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Top-down parsers can not handle grammar with left-recursion, where bottom-up parsers can not handle grammar with empty production. The best parsers combine these two approaches. Semantic interpretation is the process of mapping a sentence into its context-independent meaning representation called logical form. There are two processes needed in building logical form, the first is to identify the semantic roles that each word and phrase plays in the sentence, the second is to choose the correct sense of each word to build a plausible sentence, which called word-sense disambiguation. The semantic roles may be represented using predicate-argument relations or using the thematic roles, word-sense disambiguation can be done by selectional restrictions or by context-activation. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tiga proses utama yang dilakukan dalam pengolahan bahasa alami ialah analisa sintaksis, interpretasi semantik dan interpretasi kontekstual. Makalah ini akan membahas mengenai proses yang pertama dan kedua. Analisa sintaksis atau parsing ialah proses penentuan struktur sebuah kalimat berdasarkan grammar dan lexicon tertentu. Parsing dapat dilakukan secara top-down maupun bottom-up, masing-masing memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangannya sendiri. Top-down parsing tidak dapat menangani grammar dengan left-recursion, sedangkan bottom-up parsing tidak dapat menangani grammar dengan empty production. Karena itu metode parsing yang terbaik ialah yang dapat menggabungkan kedua cara ini. Interpretasi semantik ialah proses penerjemahan sebuah kalimat menjadi bentuk representasi artinya yang umum disebut logical form tanpa memperhatikan konteks. Dua proses utama yang diperlukan dalam membentuk logical form ialah penentuan peran tiap kata dan frase dalam kalimat, serta pemilihan arti kata yang tepat untuk membentuk kalimat yang masuk akal. Peranan kata-kata dan frase dalam kalimat dapat direpresentasikan dalam bentuk predikat-argumen biasa ataupun menggunakan thematic roles. Sedangkan proses pemilihan arti kata yang tepat dapat dilakukan dengan selectional restrictions ataupun context activation. Kata kunci: pengolahan bahasa alami, analisa sintaksis, interpretasi semantik, grammar, lexicon.

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ase-structure rules and gives a simple presentation of ID/LP rules and transformational grammar. Chapter 5 introduces a unification-based grammar formalism and an extension to Prolog for this. Chapter 6 describes and compares top-down, bottom-up, left-corner, and chart parsing as well as Earley's algorithm. Chapter 7 offers techniques for representing, in Prolog, knowledge from English sentences. Chap- 137 Computational Linguistics Volume 22, Number 1 ter 8 discusses language translation, word-sense disambiguation, and understanding events. Chapter 9 presents some background on morphology as well as some models and techniques for computational morphology. Appendix A is a thorough review of Prolog (it accounts for 10% of the book!). Appendix B provides Prolog code for string input and tokenization, used elsewhere in the text. This is not the first book that deals with NLP and Prolog. Gazdar and Mellish (1989) wrote a book primarily on NLP, which uses Prolog to illustrate linguistic con
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002
  • No preview · Book · Jan 1987
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    Full-text · Book · Jan 1987