Article

An Examination of Two Brief Stigma Reduction Strategies: Filmed Personal Contact and Hallucination Simulations

Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, Baker Hall 334, Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0505, USA.
Community Mental Health Journal (Impact Factor: 1.03). 04/2010; 46(5):494-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10597-010-9309-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mental illness stigma is quite prevalent with dire consequences. A number of interventions to decrease stigma have been formulated, but have variable effectiveness and limited dissemination. This research examined the impact of two brief interventions: a film depicting individuals with schizophrenia (filmed contact) and a simulation of auditory hallucinations. Participants (N = 143) were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: (1) filmed contact, (2) simulation, or (3) no intervention, and completed two stigma measures prior to, immediately after, and 1 week after the intervention. The filmed contact intervention led to decreases in stigma which persisted across 1 week. However, the simulation led to increases in stigma. The results suggest that a filmed contact intervention may decrease two aspects of mental illness stigma (social distance and negative emotions), which has implications for wide dissemination. The efficacy of a hallucination simulations intervention remains dubious.

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    • "In this study, after viewing the documentary film, the willingness for social distance significantly declined in the Film group but not in the Control group. This confirms our hypothesis and previous studies that also used filmed contact to change attitudes towards schizophrenia (Brown et al., 2010; Corrigan et al., 2007). These findings are promising as they suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia does not only have an effect on increasing knowledge about that illness, but also on improving certain attitudes towards people diagnosed with schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to develop interventions aiming to prevent, reduce or eliminate such stereotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a documentary film on schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation. Forty-nine participants were assessed on measures of stereotypes and social distance, and on the Model of Stereotype Content, which includes measures of stereotypes, emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies. Participants were randomly assigned into either a condition in which they viewed the documentary film (Film group), or into a control condition in which no intervention was conducted (Control group). Only participants in the Film group revealed a significant decrease of negative stereotypes (Dangerousness and Unpredictability) and desired Social distance, and a significant increase in the perception of sociability in persons with schizophrenia. Small sample size and its reduced generalizability are the main limitations in this study. These findings suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a promising tool to prevent and reduce stigmatisation regarding schizophrenia.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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    • "In this study, after viewing the documentary film, the willingness for social distance significantly declined in the Film group but not in the Control group. This confirms our hypothesis and previous studies that also used filmed contact to change attitudes towards schizophrenia (Brown et al., 2010; Corrigan et al., 2007). These findings are promising as they suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia does not only have an effect on increasing knowledge about that illness, but also on improving certain attitudes towards people diagnosed with schizophrenia. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    • "However, there might be a more mixed view among staff about whether increased service user involvement is always positive. Increased involvement is a priority for service users but not staff [69]. For example, a survey of 352 psychiatrists identified a differing emphasis on level of involvement for different patients (involvement less important when capacity reduced) and decision topic (more involvement endorsed for psychosocial decisions such as work, housing and psychotherapy, less for admission, medication, diagnostic procedures) [70]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief quantitative five-language measure of involvement and satisfaction in clinical decision-making (CDIS) - with versions for patients (CDIS-P) and staff (CDIS-S) - for use in mental health services. Methods: An English CDIS was developed by reviewing existing measures, focus groups, semistructured interviews and piloting. Translations into Danish, German, Hungarian and Italian followed the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force principles of good practice for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometricevaluation involved testing the measure in secondary mental health services in Aalborg, Debrecen, London, Naples, Ulm and Zurich. Results: After appraising 14 measures, the Control Preference Scale and Satisfaction With Decision-making English-language scales were modified and evaluated in interviews (n = 9), focus groups (n = 22) and piloting (n = 16). Translations were validated through focus groups (n = 38) and piloting (n = 61). A total of 443 service users and 403 paired staff completed CDIS. The Satisfaction sub-scale had internal consistency of 0.89 (0.86-0.89 after item-level deletion) for staff and 0.90 (0.87-0.90) for service users, both continuous and categorical (utility) versions were associated with symptomatology and both staff-rated and service userrated therapeutic alliance (showing convergent validity), and not with social disability (showing divergent validity), and satisfaction predicted staff-rated (OR 2.43, 95%CI 1.54- 3.83 continuous, OR 5.77, 95%CI 1.90-17.53 utility) and service user-rated (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.51-3.23 continuous, OR 3.13, 95%CI 1.10-8.94 utility) decision implementation two months later. The Involvement sub-scale had appropriate distribution and no floor or ceiling effects, was associated with stage of recovery, functioning and quality of life (staff only) (showing convergent validity), and not with symptomatology or social disability (showing divergent validity), and staff-rated passive involvement by the service user predicted implementation (OR 3.55, 95%CI 1.53-8.24). Relationships remained after adjusting for clustering by staff. Conclusions: CDIS demonstrates adequate internal consistency, no evidence of item redundancy, appropriate distribution, and face, content, convergent, divergent and predictive validity. It can be recommended for research and clinical use. CDIS-P and CDIS-S in all 3 five languages can be downloaded at http://www.cedar-net.eu/instruments.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Health Services Research
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