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Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological, body composition and performance variables following two training periodization models: traditional (TP) versus block periodization (BP). Ten world-class kayakers were assessed four times during a training cycle over two consecutive seasons. On each occasion, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak ergometer to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), VO(2) at second ventilatory threshold (VO(2) VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2peak) (PS(peak)) and VT2 (PS( VT2)), power output at VO(2peak) (Pw(peak)) and VT2 (Pw( VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2peak) (SR(peak)) and VT2 (SR( VT2)) as well as heart rate at VO(2peak) and VT2. Volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each endurance training session. Both TP and BP cycles resulted in similar gains in VO(2peak) (11 and 8.1%) and VO(2) VT2 (9.8 and 9.4%), even though the TP cycle was 10 weeks and 120 training hours longer than the BP cycle. Following BP paddlers experienced larger gains in PS(peak), Pw(peak) and SR(peak) than those observed with TP. These findings suggest that BP may be more effective than TP for improving the performance of highly trained top-level kayakers. Although both models allowed significant improvements of selected physiological and kayaking performance variables, the BP program achieved similar results with half the endurance training volume used in the TP model. A BP design could be a more useful strategy than TP to maintain the residual training effects as well as to achieve greater improvements in certain variables related to kayaking performance.

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... Empirical information comparing training periodization models is very limited, and most of the research studies to date has been conducted in individual endurance sports focusing either on endurance variables (1,2,7,17,29) or in strength/power (26), or in team sports but considering only strength training programs (15). In individual sports, García-Pallarés et al. (7), in their study with 10 male elite world class kayakers, concluded that a BP program produced significantly better results than a TP program when it came to improving kayak peak performance (gain of 6.2 vs. 3.4%; p # 0.05) and kayak peak power (gain 14.2 vs. 6.0%; ...
... Empirical information comparing training periodization models is very limited, and most of the research studies to date has been conducted in individual endurance sports focusing either on endurance variables (1,2,7,17,29) or in strength/power (26), or in team sports but considering only strength training programs (15). In individual sports, García-Pallarés et al. (7), in their study with 10 male elite world class kayakers, concluded that a BP program produced significantly better results than a TP program when it came to improving kayak peak performance (gain of 6.2 vs. 3.4%; p # 0.05) and kayak peak power (gain 14.2 vs. 6.0%; p # 0.05). ...
... The main finding of this study was that a block periodized training showed to be more effective than traditional periodized training for improving physiological and physical handball key performance factors. The few studies available in the literature comparing different periodization models have also shown better training results using the BP model when compared with other types of periodization models (1,2,7,17,29). Consistently with this study, Painter et al. (26) concluded that BP was more efficient than a daily undulated model in producing strength gains based on calculated training efficiency scores. ...
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Manchado, C, Cortell-Tormo, JM, and Tortosa-Martínez, J. Effects of two different training periodization models on physical and physiological aspects of elite female team handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study was undertaken to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological and physical team handball performance factors after 2 training periodization models: traditional vs. block periodization (BP). Eleven female team handball players who played over 2 consecutive seasons for a Spanish first league team were assessed twice per season during a training cycle. On each occasion, participants completed a 20-m sprint test, a treadmill incremental test to exhaustion to determine maximum oxygen uptake, a maximal dynamic strength test (1-repetition maximum) for upper (bench press) and lower (half squat) body, and explosive strength test for upper (throwing velocity) and lower extremities (countermovement and squat jump [SJ]). Anthropometric measurements including height, body mass, and body mass index were also obtained. Both cycles resulted in gains in the SJ (3.04% for traditional periodization [TP], 9.01% for BP; p ≤ 0.05) and countermovement jump (1.13% for TP, 9.89% for BP; p ≤ 0.05). Maximal dynamic strength improved in the half squat (16.48% for TP, 25.26% for BP; p ≤ 0.05), bench press (10.9% for TP, 16.04% for BP; p ≤ 0.05), and the sprint performance in 20 m (1.39% for TP, 4.32% for BP, p < 0.001). In addition, only in the BP model, improvements (5.36%, p ≤ 0.05) were found in throwing velocity in all modalities. These findings suggest that BP may be more effective than TP for improving important physiological and physical team handball performance factors in a Spanish first league women's handball team.
... For optimal competition preparation, athletes undergo specialised training programmes which emphasise effort durations and intensities that are race-specific (Oliveira Borges, Dascombe, Bullock, & Coutts, 2015;Zouhal et al., 2012). To quantify the training demands for these athletes, current practice involves the measurement of heart rate (HR), where intensity is classified into aerobic training zones (Bullock, Woolford, Peeling, & Bonetti, 2012;Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). In high-performance settings, these aerobic training zones are delineated into a 3-or 5-zone intensity model using established physiological criteria such as the first and second blood lactate (BLa) thresholds (LT 1 and LT 2 ) (Bullock et al., 2012;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;Seiler, 2010). ...
... To quantify the training demands for these athletes, current practice involves the measurement of heart rate (HR), where intensity is classified into aerobic training zones (Bullock, Woolford, Peeling, & Bonetti, 2012;Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). In high-performance settings, these aerobic training zones are delineated into a 3-or 5-zone intensity model using established physiological criteria such as the first and second blood lactate (BLa) thresholds (LT 1 and LT 2 ) (Bullock et al., 2012;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;Seiler, 2010). While these individualised zones may be informative for endurance-based training (Seiler, 2010;Van Someren & Oliver, 2002), they provide limited information of the training performed at intensities above maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) (Bullock et al., 2012;Nimmerichter, Eston, Bachl, & Williams, 2011). ...
... While these zones enable a coach to differentiate training performed across a wide spectrum of training intensities, the standardised SR-zones do not account for individual variation or changes in fitness throughout a season (Bullock et al., 2012). Furthermore, previous literature on sprint kayaking suggests that athletes may increase their SR to compensate for impaired muscle force-generating capacity (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;), which over the course of a fatiguing session, may limit the efficacy of SR for intensity quantification (Hogan, Binnie, Doyle, Lester, & Peeling, 2020). ...
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This study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) compared to traditional measures of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) for quantifying high-intensity sprint kayak training. Twelve well-trained, male and female sprint kayakers (21.3 ± 6.8 y) completed an on-water graded exercise test (GXT) and a 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-trial for the delineation of individualised training zones (T) for HR (5-zone model, T1-T5), SR and PO (8-zone model, T1-T8). Subsequently, athletes completed two repeat trials of a high-intensity interval (HIIT) and a sprint interval (SIT) training session, where intensity was prescribed using individualised PO-zones. Time-in-zone (minutes) using PO, SR and HR was then compared for both HIIT and SIT. Compared to PO, time-in-zone using HR was higher for T1 in HIIT and SIT (P < 0.001, d ≥ 0.90) and lower for T5 in HIIT (P < 0.001, d = 1.76). Average and peak HR were not different between HIIT (160 ± 9 and 173 ± 11 bpm, respectively) and SIT (157 ± 13 and 174 ± 10 bpm, respectively) (P ≥ 0.274). In HIIT, time-in-zone using SR was higher for T4 (P < 0.001, d = 0.85) and was lower for T5 (P = 0.005, d = 0.43) and T6 (P < 0.001, d = 0.94) compared to PO. In SIT, time-in-zone using SR was lower for T7 (P = 0.001, d = 0.66) and was higher for T8 (P = 0.004, d = 0.70), compared to PO. Heart rate measures were unable to differentiate training demands across different high-intensity sessions, and could therefore misrepresent the training load in such instances. Furthermore, SR may not provide a sensitive measure for detecting changes in intensity due to fatigue, whereas PO may be more suitable.
... Observational studies of small cohorts of high-level athletes are the main source of data for periodization models for World-class and Olympic athletes in cross-country skiing (Tønnessen et al., 2014;Sandbakk and Holmberg, 2017;Solli et al., 2017), cycling (Schumacher and Mueller, 2002), rowing (Fiskerstrand and Seiler, 2004), and running (Esteve-Lanao et al., 2005). These models typically divide the annual cycle into two to four periods (macrocycles): general preparation periods (high training volume at intensities corresponding to powers or velocities associated with blood lactate concentration ([La] b ) ≤ 4 mmol·L −1 and strength training) alternating with more specific periods at higher intensity, ending with the intense competitive phases (Schumacher and Mueller, 2002;García-Pallarés et al., 2010). In several sports like cross-country skiing (Fiskerstrand and Seiler, 2004;Sandbakk and Holmberg, 2017;Solli et al., 2017), orienteering (Tønnessen et al., 2015), and rowing (Fiskerstrand and Seiler, 2004), the general preparation periods are long (18-24 weeks) and the training load increases progressively until stabilization. ...
... These periodization practices are close to the so-called multi-targeted block periodization method (Issurin, 2016), which consists of three types of block mesocycles: accumulation (development of endurance), transmutation (acquisition of specific technical motor skills) and realization (taper, specific preparation for competitive events), all of similar duration (2-4 weeks). The aim of this method is to develop energetic qualities and promote efficient transfer of general adaptations (strength and aerobic endurance) to specific adaptations (anaerobic endurance) with minimal risk of overtraining (García-Pallarés et al., 2010;Issurin, 2016). The effectiveness of this method was experimentally confirmed in world-class kayakers (García-Pallarés et al., 2010), well-trained cyclists (Rønnestad et al., 2014), as a 12week block periodization yielded greater improvements in strength, maximal power output (MPO), power output at blood lactate concentrations of 2-4 mmol·L −1 and performance than traditional linear periodization. ...
... The aim of this method is to develop energetic qualities and promote efficient transfer of general adaptations (strength and aerobic endurance) to specific adaptations (anaerobic endurance) with minimal risk of overtraining (García-Pallarés et al., 2010;Issurin, 2016). The effectiveness of this method was experimentally confirmed in world-class kayakers (García-Pallarés et al., 2010), well-trained cyclists (Rønnestad et al., 2014), as a 12week block periodization yielded greater improvements in strength, maximal power output (MPO), power output at blood lactate concentrations of 2-4 mmol·L −1 and performance than traditional linear periodization. In summary, in macrocycles of about 15 weeks, swimmers, coaches and sports scientists should consider periodization involving two to three mesocycles, each lasting from 3 to 5 weeks interspersed with recovery periods (1-2 weeks). ...
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Background This study investigated the periodization of elite swimmers’ training over the 25 weeks preceding the major competition of the season.Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study of elite male (n = 60) and female (n = 67) swimmers (46 sprint, 81 middle-distance) over 20 competitive seasons (1992–2012). The following variables were monitored: training corresponding to blood lactate <2 mmol⋅L-1, 2 to ≤4 mmol⋅L-1, >4–6 mmol⋅L-1, >6 mmol⋅L-1, and maximal swimming speed; general conditioning and maximal strength training hours; total training load (TTL); and the mean normalized volumes for both in-water and dryland workouts. Latent class mixed modeling was used to identify various TTL pattern groups. The associations between pattern groups and sex, age, competition event, Olympic quadrennial year, training contents, and relative performance were quantified.ResultsFor the entire cohort, ∼86–90% of the training was swum at an intensity of [La]b ≤ 4 mmol⋅L-1. This training volume was divided into 40–44% at <2 mmol⋅L-1 and 44–46% at 2 to ≤4 mmol⋅L-1, leaving 6–9.5% at >4–6 mmol⋅L-1, and 3.5–4.5% at >6 mmol⋅L-1. Three sprint TTL patterns were identified: a pattern with two long ∼14–15-week macrocycles, one with two ∼12–13 week macrocycles each composed of a balanced training load, and one with a single stable flat macrocycle. The long pattern elicited the fastest performances and was most prevalent in Olympic quadrennials (i.e., 4 seasons preceding the 2004, 2008, and 2012 Olympic Games). This pattern exhibited moderate week-to-week TTL variability (6 ± 3%), progressive training load increases between macrocycles, and more training at ≤4 mmol⋅L-1 and >6 mmol⋅L-1. This fastest sprint pattern showed a waveform in the second macrocycle consisting of two progressive load peaks 10–11 and 4–6 weeks before competition. The stable flat pattern was the slowest and showed low TTL variability (4 ± 3%), training load decreases between macrocycles (P < 0.01), and more training at 4–6 mmol⋅L-1 (P < 0.01).Conclusion Progressive increases in training load, macrocycles lasting about 14–15 weeks, and substantial volume of training at intensities ≤4 mmol⋅L-1 and >6 mmol⋅L-1, were associated with peak performance in elite swimmers.
... [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. ...
... [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. 4 However, these methods are arbitrary, and likely fail to account for individual, and activity-specific variation. ...
... Literature on sprint kayaking suggests that impaired neuromuscular performance may reduce an athlete's force-generating capacity in each stroke, resulting in an increase in SR to maintain the same PO. 5,30 Considering that the final T2 effort was completed toward the end of the training session, following bouts Figure 4 -Typical trace of a rolling (10-point) average of an athlete's paddling power output (black) and heart rate (gray) during the aerobic set of the on-water sprint kayak training session. of short, high-intensity (T5) efforts, the higher SRs found here may relate to greater muscular fatigue and as such reduced paddling efficiency. This potential drift in SR throughout training may have implication for the evaluation of training loads, as coaches may overestimate intensity when SR is used as the sole training load measure. ...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: Current practice for the classification of exercise intensity in Flat-water sprint kayaking involves the use of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) measures (1). However, HR measures are limited by cardiovascular drift during long-duration bouts and a lag time during high intensity, short-duration efforts (2). Moreover, measures of SR are typically delineated into generic SR-bands which ignore individual variation (1). In other sports, measures of power output (PO) are used for load quantification, since this measure provides the most direct intensity indicator (2). In kayaking, recent advances in wireless instrumented paddle technology now enable coaches to utilise real-time PO measures for training monitoring and prescription. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the use of individualised HR, SR and PO-zones for quantifying sprint kayak training. METHODS: Twelve well-trained, sprint kayakers completed a preliminary on-water 7x4 min graded exercise test and a 200, 500 and 1000m time-trial for the delineation of individualised training zones for HR (5-zone model, T1-T5), SR and PO (8-zone model, T1-T8). Subsequently, athletes completed two repeated trials of an aerobic (AER), a high-intensity interval (HIIT) and a sprint interval (SIT) training session, where intensity was prescribed by individual PO-zones. Time spent in T1-T8 during each training session were then compared between PO, HR and SR. RESULTS: Compared to PO, time-in-zone using HR was higher in T1 (p<0.001) across all training sessions, was lower for T2 and higher for T4 (p<0.001) in AER, and lower for T5 (p<0.001) in HIIT. Average and peak HR were not different between HIIT and SIT (p=0.823; p>0.999). Time-in-zone using SR was higher for T4 (p<0.001) and T5 (p=0.028) in AER, higher for T4 (p<0.001) and lower for T5 (p=0.005) and T6 (p<0.001) in HIIT, and lower for T7 (p=0.001) and higher for T8 (p=0.004) in SIT compared to PO. In all training sessions, differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1-T8 when using PO (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: HR and SR misrepresented the time spent in T1-T8 as prescribed by PO. HR measures were unable to differentiate the training demands across different high-intensity interval sessions and could therefore misrepresent the training load of such sessions. Measures of SR appear limited for quantifying decrements in intensity due to fatigue, whereas PO may be more suitable. The stochastic nature of PO and the influence of unpredictable on-water conditions likely explain the discrepancies between the prescribed and actual time-in-zone for this measure. For optimised training prescription and monitoring, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity, and how they may influence intensity distribution. 1. N. Bullock et al., Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes 2, 421-433 (2012). 2. D. Sanders et al., International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 9, 1-20 (2017).
... These findings contrast the findings of a recent meta-analysis by Molmen et al. (2019), indicating a small benefit of using BP. However, the findings of the different studies included in that metaanalysis ranged from no performance-benefits of BP over TP (Breil et al., 2010;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;McGawley et al., 2017), to moderate, positive effects on performance and performance-related measures (e.g., VO 2peak , W max , and W 4mmol ) in both trained, and highly trained athletes (Breil et al., 2010;Ronnestad et al., 2012Ronnestad et al., , 2014Ronnestad et al., , 2016Clark et al., 2014;Costa et al., 2017). Differences across studies might relate to differences in training design, including duration, load administration, performance level, and distribution of training at different intensities. ...
... We found substantial improvements of several endurance performance measures such as W max (6%), W 4mmol (~10%), and fractional utilization of VO 2 at W 4mmol (~5%) in both TP and BP when including MIT, suggesting an applicability of MIT in both blocked-, and traditionally periodized programs. In support of this, Garcia-Pallares et al. (2010) included MIT and HIT intensity ranges in their comparison of BP and TP and found ~10% improvements in VO 2 at the second ventilatory threshold. However, the use of both different durations of the MIT periods and intensity distribution during the BP and TP (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010), makes comparisons with the present study difficult. ...
... In support of this, Garcia-Pallares et al. (2010) included MIT and HIT intensity ranges in their comparison of BP and TP and found ~10% improvements in VO 2 at the second ventilatory threshold. However, the use of both different durations of the MIT periods and intensity distribution during the BP and TP (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010), makes comparisons with the present study difficult. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks load-matched block periodization (BP, n = 14), using weekly concentration of high-(HIT), moderate-(MIT), and low-(LIT) intensity training, with traditional periodization (TP, n = 16) using a weekly, cyclic progressive increase in training load of HIT-, MIT-, and LIT-sessions in trained cyclists (peak oxygen uptake: 58 ± 8 ml·kg −1 ·min −1). Red blood cell volume increased 10 ± 16% (p = 0.029) more in BP compared to TP, while capillaries around type I fibers increased 20 ± 12% (p = 0.002) more in TP compared to BP from Pre to Post12. No other group differences were found in time-trial (TT) performances or muscular-, or hematological adaptations. However, both groups improved 5 and 40-min TT power by 9 ± 9% (p < 0.001) and 8 ± 9% (p < 0.001), maximal aerobic power (W max) and power output (PO) at 4 mmol·L −1 blood lactate (W 4mmol), by 6 ± 7 (p = 0.001) and 10 ± 12% (p = 0.001), and gross efficiency (GE) in a semi-fatigued state by 0.5 ± 1.1%-points (p = 0.026). In contrast, GE in fresh state and VO 2peak were unaltered in both groups. The muscle protein content of β-hydroxyacyl (HAD) increased by 55 ± 58% in TP only, while both TP and BP increased the content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) by 72 ± 34%. Muscle enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were unaltered. TP increased capillary-to-fiber ratio and capillary around fiber (CAF) type I by 36 ± 15% (p < 0.001) and 17 ± 8% (p = 0.025), respectively, while BP increased capillary density (CD) by 28 ± 24% (p = 0.048) from Pre to Post12. The present study shows no difference in performance between BP and "best practice"-TP of endurance training intensities using a cyclic, progressively increasing training load in trained cyclists. However, hematological and muscle capillary adaptations may differ.
... [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. ...
... [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. 4 However, these methods are arbitrary, and likely fail to account for individual, and activity-specific variation. ...
... Literature on sprint kayaking suggests that impaired neuromuscular performance may reduce an athlete's force-generating capacity in each stroke, resulting in an increase in SR to maintain the same PO. 5,30 Considering that the final T2 effort was completed toward the end of the training session, following bouts Figure 4 -Typical trace of a rolling (10-point) average of an athlete's paddling power output (black) and heart rate (gray) during the aerobic set of the on-water sprint kayak training session. of short, high-intensity (T5) efforts, the higher SRs found here may relate to greater muscular fatigue and as such reduced paddling efficiency. This potential drift in SR throughout training may have implication for the evaluation of training loads, as coaches may overestimate intensity when SR is used as the sole training load measure. ...
Article
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Purpose: To compare methods of monitoring and prescribing on-water exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], stroke rate [SR], and power output [PO]) during sprint kayak training. Methods: Twelve well-trained flat-water sprint kayak athletes completed a preliminary on-water 7 × 4-min graded exercise test and a 1000-m time trial to delineate individual training zones for PO, HR, and SR into a 5-zone model (T1-T5). Subsequently, athletes completed 2 repeated trials of an on-water training session, where intensity was prescribed based on individual PO zones. Times quantified for T1-T5 during the training session were then compared between PO, HR, and SR. Results: Total time spent in T1 was higher for HR (P < .01) compared with PO. Time spent in T2 was lower for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T3 was not different between PO, SR, and HR (P > .05). Time spent in T4 was higher for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T5 was higher for SR (P = .03) compared with PO. Differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1-T5 when using PO (P < .001). Conclusions: The measures of HR and SR misrepresented time quantified for T1-T5 as prescribed by PO. The stochastic nature of PO during on-water training may explain the discrepancies between prescribed and actual time quantified for power across these zones. For optimized prescription and monitoring of athlete training loads, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity and how they may influence intensity distribution.
... 7 However, the first English written studies comparing BP and TRAD were not published before the year 2010. 8,9 Subsequently, several studies have been published and with the growing literature in the field, there is a need to evaluate the current pooled evidence for the effect of BP of endurance training in trained athletes. Vladimir Issurin, one of the pioneers fronting BP training, states that BP has taken different forms according to the positions and experiences of those who presented them. ...
... In long-term case-studies, 58 and 17 weeks of BP revealed a 36% improvement in power output at 3 mmol·L −1 lactate concentration and 14% increase in power output at lactate threshold, respectively. 29,31 BP and TRAD were equally effective in improving paddling power at second ventilatory threshold (+10% vs +11%, respectively) in rowers, 9 while in cross-country, skiers were BP superior to TRAD in improving power output at 4 mmol·L −1 lactate concentration (11±10% and 2±4%, respectively; p<0.01; ES=1.26) after a 5-week training period. ...
... BP and TRAD increased power output at a definite exercise threshold in all included studies, except for the TRAD group in Rønnestad et al. 22 Improvements were larger for BP compared to TRAD in cyclists 17 and cross-country skiers 20 at onset of blood lactate accumulation. In contrast, equal improvements of power output at a definite exercise threshold have been observed in kayakers, 9 whereas one study observed a tendency in favor of BP 11 and another study observed a withinchange for BP, but not for TRAD and no significant change between groups. 22 Moreover, considering the case-studies with their limitations, long-term effect of BP shows substantial improvements of 14% and 36% in exercise threshold power output. ...
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Background: Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative to traditional (TRAD) organization of the annual training plan for endurance athletes. Objective: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the effect BP of endurance training on endurance performance and factors determinative for endurance performance in trained- to well-trained athletes. Methods: The PubMed, SPORTdiscus and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to August 2019. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: 1) the study examined a block-periodized endurance training intervention; 2) the study had a one-, two or multiple group-, crossover- or case-study design; 3) the study assessed at least one key endurance variable before and after the intervention period. A total of 2905 studies were screened, where 20 records met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality for each study was assessed using the PEDro scale. Six studies were pooled to perform meta-analysis for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal power output (Wmax) during an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Due to a lower number of studies and heterogenous measurements, other performance measures were systematically reviewed. Results: The meta-analyses revealed small favorable effects for BP compared to TRAD regarding changes in VO2max (standardized mean difference, 0.40; 95% CI=0.02, 0.79) and Wmax (standardized mean difference, 0.28; 95% CI=0.01, 0.54). For changes in endurance performance and workload at different exercise thresholds BP generally revealed moderate- to large-effect sizes compared to TRAD. Conclusion: BP is an adequate, alternative training strategy to TRAD as evidenced by superior training effects on VO2max and Wmax in athletes. The reviewed studies show promising effects for BP of endurance training; however, these results must be considered with some caution due to small studies with generally low methodological quality (mean PEDro score =3.7/10).
... 32 Body fat has been associated with poorer performances as race distance increases, 2 while low adiposity values are advantageous in decreasing the total weight and, therefore, the wetted area of the hull and friction drag. 6 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cicloergometri, 39,40 cicloergometro per braccia, 11,15,38,41,42 ergometri canoa 39,43,44 , ergometri kayak 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] e test in acqua. 22,35,38,60 Tuttavia, l'allenamento della parte superiore del corpo con la pagaia induce cambiamenti nel rapporto braccio-gamba dei parametri fisiologici a regime di lavoro submassimale e massimale, di conseguenza testare il lavoro esercitato dalle gambe in canoisti e kayaker non può fornire informazioni affidabili sulla loro potenza aerobica e sulle risposte cardiovascolari. ...
... 71 La principale fonte di energia dei pagaiatori proviene dal sistema aerobico, dal momento che questi trascorrono la maggior parte del tempo di gara nell'intorno del valore di VO 2peak . 29 15,17,22,25,26,34,40,42,48,51,52,55,57,63,73 e fem-ties through the years such as treadmills, 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cycle ergometers, 39,40 arm crankers, 11,15,38,41,42 canoe 39,43,44 or kayak ergometers 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and on-water tests. 22,35,38,60 However, paddling upper-body training induces changes in the arm-to-leg ratio of physiological parameters at submaximal and maximal work, so testing canoeists and kayakers by leg work cannot provide reliable information about their aerobic power and cardiovascular responses. ...
... 71 La principale fonte di energia dei pagaiatori proviene dal sistema aerobico, dal momento che questi trascorrono la maggior parte del tempo di gara nell'intorno del valore di VO 2peak . 29 15,17,22,25,26,34,40,42,48,51,52,55,57,63,73 e fem-ties through the years such as treadmills, 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cycle ergometers, 39,40 arm crankers, 11,15,38,41,42 canoe 39,43,44 or kayak ergometers 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and on-water tests. 22,35,38,60 However, paddling upper-body training induces changes in the arm-to-leg ratio of physiological parameters at submaximal and maximal work, so testing canoeists and kayakers by leg work cannot provide reliable information about their aerobic power and cardiovascular responses. ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Flatwater canoeing is an Olympic sport in which two modalities are differentiated, kayak and canoe. However, the term “canoeing” is commonly used for both, which can give rise to confusion in the scientific literature despite the great differences between modalities. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was to conduct a systematic search of the scientific literature concerning canoeing and kayaking individually to highlight the main determinants of performance of male and female flatwater paddlers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A thorough search up to June 2020 has been conducted in Scopus, Sport Discus and Web of Sciences databases for published literature on male and female flatwater canoeing and kayaking. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Male high-level kayakers and canoeists share similar mesomorph structures, with low fat percentages and strong muscled bodies, reporting high values of lean body mass, with kayakers slightly taller than canoeists. In addition, it has also been reported great levels of aerobic and anaerobic capacity together with a distinguished upper-body strength and muscle thickness, especially in arms and shoulders. Female kayakers follow the same trend with lower values than males. CONCLUSIONS: Canoeing and kayaking successful performance depends on a combination of anthropometric, physiological, biomechanical, neuromuscular, psychological and nutritional factors which differ among specialized kayak and canoe paddlers due their different paddling motor pattern. Hence, the importance of taking into account the specific characteristics and demands of each modality in terms of physical preparation and talent detection of female and male canoeists and kayakers.
... Most of the previous reports indicated VO 2max does not change significantly over the season in well-trained athletes [17,19,21] or it increased only in the early phase of training programs [1,22]. In turn anaerobic threshold moves towards higher exercise loads over the season [18,[23][24][25]. Although, the link between efficiency and endurance performance was previously reported [26][27][28][29], several studies indicate efficiency was not influenced by training status [30][31][32][33]. ...
... The changes between TRAN and COMP were statistically significant (p < 0.01; Fig. 2). No significant correlations were found between absolute and relative VO 2max and GE constWL in any training period (r = 0. 25 ...
... Since training variable manipulation clearly influences the interference effect [16,29], the periodization strategy employed within a concurrent training program may also influence the degree of interference seen. Although studies directly examining the effect of training periodization on concurrent training adaptation are scarce [75,76], some direct and indirect observations from the literature may provide some insight into the potential importance of concurrent training periodization. For example, given that higher endurance training volumes or loads are associated with interference to strength training adaptations [29,77], strategies to minimize endurance training volume during certain training phases may be beneficial. ...
... Research findings in world-class kayakers favored a block periodization approach, whereby specific endurance and strength components were trained simultaneously over multiple 5-week "blocks," for improving kayaking performance [75,76]. Compared with a traditional periodization model, the block periodization approach, which involved a 10% higher workload accumulation in each training block and less than half the total training volume, led to greater improvement in markers of kayaking performance. ...
Chapter
Many studies suggest that performing both endurance and resistance training within the same training program (i.e., concurrent training) can lead to sub-optimal adaptations. However, there are also contrasting and equivocal findings, which may be related to methodological differences between studies. These methodological differences include training program design (e.g., exercise frequency, intensity, volume, order, and recovery duration), as well as other considerations such as participant training status, nutrition, the study design, and statistical analyses used in the research. This chapter will summarize research that has investigated the effects of these methodological considerations on the outcome of concurrent training studies, while also highlighting gaps in the literature and areas requiring further research.
... Within the different types of training approaches, block periodization (BP) has emerged as one of the most popular methods to structure a program (20). Block periodization consists of training cycles of well-concentrated workloads (19), and there is a large body of research that supports its effectiveness (1,7,16,19,20,41,42). The concentrated workloads within BP are focused on limited target abilities, with the aim to maximize the development of the performance while avoiding excessive fatigue accumulation (19,20). ...
... The BP method is used in many sports ranging from kayaking to cycling. In kayaking (1,16) and cross-country skiing (7), BP lead to larger improvements in fitness and performance than multitargeted traditional training prescription. In road cycling, BP has shown to results in greater improvements in VȮ 2 max, power output at 2 mmol·L 21 , and 40-minute time-trial performance (41,42,47). ...
Article
Predefined training programs are common place when prescribing training. Within predefined training, block periodization (BP) has emerged as a popular methodology due to its benefits. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as an effective tool for prescribing training. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of HRV guided-training against BP in road cycling. Twenty well-trained cyclists participated in this study. After a preliminary baseline period to establish their resting HRV, cyclists were divided into two groups: an HRV-guided group and a BP group and they completed 8 training weeks. Cyclists completed three evaluations weeks, before and after each period. During the evaluation weeks, cyclists performed: (1) a graded exercise test to assess VO2max, peak power output (PPO) and ventilatory thresholds with their corresponding power output (VT1, VT2, WVT1, and WVT2, respectively) and (2) a 40-min simulated time-trial (40TT). The HRV-guided group improved VO2max (p = 0.03), PPO (p = 0.01), WVT2 (p = 0.02), WVT1 (p = 0.01) and 40TT (p = 0.04). BP group improved WVT2 (p = 0.02). Between-group fitness and performance were similar after the study. The HRV-guided training could lead to a better timing in training prescription than BP in road cycling. Keywords: cardiac autonomic regulation; cycling; endurance training; day-to-day; aerobic performance; HRV.
... Las diferentes nomenclaturas que ha recibido el primer hito fisiológico de la transición aeróbica-anaeróbica (umbral aeróbico), desde mediados de siglo XX hasta principios de los años 80 del mismo siglo, se muestran en la siguiente tabla: El MLSS está considerado como un gran predictor del rendimiento en pruebas de fondo y medio fondo (Billat, Sirvent, Py, Koralsztein, & Mercier, 2003), siendo la disponibilidad de glucógeno, el principal factor limitante del esfuerzo a esta intensidad (Coyle, Coggan, Hemmert, & Ivy, 1986). Es asimismo el MLSS una parte predominante del entrenamiento aeróbico de los atletas de cualquier nivel competitivo (Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009). Fue Beneke (1995) quien por primera vez estandarizó el protocolo para su detección, consistente en varias cargas de trabajo a intensidad constante de 30 minutos de duración, que desde entonces es considerado el "Gold Standard" para la determinación del MLSS. ...
... El MLSS. Intensidad de entrenamiento habitual y predictor del rendimiento en pruebas de resistencia de larga duraciónLa velocidad de carrera y nado, así como la potencia de pedaleo a intensidad de MLSS, se han mostrado como grandes predictores del rendimiento en pruebas de fondo y medio fondo(Billat et al., 2003), siendo una intensidad de entrenamiento habitual en multitud de estos deportistas (Esteve-Lanao, Foster,Seiler, & Lucia, 2007;Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, et al., 2010;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The doctoral thesis presented in this document is structured in three different parts. The first part of the work is composed of studies I and II, where the validation work of two different workload cycling tools, “drive indoor trainer Cycleops Hammer” and “PowerTap P1 Pedals Power Meter “, is detailed. In both articles, randomized and counterbalanced incremental workload tests (100-500 W) were performed, at 70, 85 and 100 rev·min-1 cadence, with sitting and standing pedalling in 3 different Hammer unit cadences. Then, the results are compared against the values measured by a professional SRM crankset. In general terms, no significant differences were detected between the Hammer devices and the SRM, while strong intraclass correlation coefficients were observed (≥0.996; p=0.001), with low bias (-5,5 a 3,8), and high values of absolute reproducibility (CV<1,2%, SEM<2,1). The PowerTap P1 pedals showed strong correlation coefficients in a seated position (rho ≥ 0.987). They underestimated the power output obtained in a directly proportional way to the cadence, with an average error of 1.2%, 2.7%, 3.5% for 70, 85 and 100 rev∙min-1. However, they showed high absolute reproducibility values (150-500 W, CV = 2.3%, SEM <1.0W). These results prove that both are valid and reproducible devices to measure the power output in cycling, although caution should be exercised in the interpretation of the results due to the slight underestimation. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the study III, where the time to exhaustion (TTE) at the workloads related to the main events of the aerobic and anaerobic pathway in cycling were analysed in duplicate in a randomized and counterbalanced manner (Lactic anaerobic capacity (WAnTmean), the workload that elicit VO2max -MAP-, Second Ventilatory Threshold (VT2) and at Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS). TTE values were 00:28±00:07, 03:27±00:40, 11:03±04:45 and 76:35±12:27 mm:ss, respectively. Moderate between-subject reproducibility values were found (CV=22.2%,19.3%;43.1% and 16.3%), although low within-subject variability was found (CV=7.6%,6.9%;7.0% y 5.4%). According to these results, the %MAP where the physiological events were found seems to be a useful covariable to predict each TTE for training or competing purposes. Finally, in the third part of the work, the results of studies IV y V have been included. The validity of two different methods to estimate the cyclists’ workload at MLSS was evaluated. The first method was a 20 min time trial test (20TT), while the second method was a one-day incremental protocol including 4 steps of 10 minutes (1day_MLSS). The 20TT test absolute reproducibility, performed in duplicate, was very high (CV = -0.3±2.2%, ICC = 0.966, bias = 0.7±6.3 W). 95% of the mean 20TT workload overestimated the MLSS (bias 12.3±6.1W). In contrast, 91% of 20TT showed an accurate prediction of MLSS (bias 1.2±6.1 W), although the regression equation "MLSS (W) = 0.7489 * 20TT (W) + 43.203" showed even a better MLSS estimates (bias 0.1±5.0 W). Related to the 1day_MLSS test, the physiological steady state was determined as the highest workload that could be maintained with a [Lact] rise lower than 1mmol·L-1. No significant differences were detected between the MLSS (247±22 W) and the main construct of the test (DIF_10to10) (245±23 W), where the difference of [Lact] between minute 10 of two consecutive steps were considered, with high correlations (ICC = 0.960), low bias (2.2W), as well as high within-subject reliability (ICC = 0.846, CV = 0.4%, Bias = 2.2±6.4W). Both methods were revealed as valid predictors of the MLSS, significantly reducing the requirements needed to individually determine this specific intensity.
... endurance, power and speed) as well as technical and tactical skills in combination. Therefore, the existing findings comparing TP and BP [7,11] may not be transferable to basketball training schemes. To the best of our knowledge, only one study has investigated the effect of a prolonged BP training model on physical performance in elite basketball players, showing significant enhancement in vertical jump [12]. ...
... In contrast, power and power endurance sessions were performed in each micro-cycle in the TP group. Therefore, the power and pow- The effect of different periodization approaches on anaerobic capacity has been previously investigated in various athletic groups [7,11,26,27]. Our results demonstrated substantially superior CMJ performance following the BP model than the TP model at the end of the preseason period. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of block periodization (BP) and traditional periodization (TP) approaches on jumping and sprinting performance in collegiate basketball players during an 8-week pre-season period. Ten collegiate male basketball players (mean±SD; age: 21.5±1.7 years; body mass: 83.5±8.9 kg; stature: 192.5±5.4 cm) from the same team were equally assigned to a training group (BP or TP). BP and TP were designed with different numbers of power sessions (BP=8; TP=16) and recovery days (BP=14; TP=8). Counter-movement jump (CMJ) and 20-m sprint performance was measured prior to training commencement (baseline) and every 2 weeks thereafter (week 2, week 4, week 6 and week 8). Within-group, between-group and individual changes were assessed using magnitude-based statistics. Substantially higher (likely positive) CMJ scores were evident in week 8 compared to baseline, week 2 and week 4 with BP training. Substantially higher CMJ values were only observed in week 2 (likely positive) compared to baseline, with TP training. Sprint data showed likely negative differences in week 6 compared to baseline in both TP and BP, with no substantial differences in week 8. The only performance difference between TP and BP training was in CMJ in week 8 (very likely negative). Individual analysis showed that only three athletes demonstrated a negative predicted score (i.e. lower sprinting time) in BP, while all players following the TP model demonstrated positive predicted scores. BP training showed substantially higher jumping performance compared to TP, while no improvement in sprinting performance was observed in either training approach. Basketball coaches should consider using BP training rather than TP to train players' jumping abilities.
... In flat-water sprint kayaking, coaches and practitioners commonly utilise global positioning systems (GPS) to quantify the external load measures of speed and distance, measured relative to land (García-Pallarés, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;Oliveira Borges, Bullock, Duff, & Coutts, 2014;Smith & Hopkins, 2012). However, this method is limited since there are a number of environmental factors that can influence an athlete's boat velocity (Oliveira Borges et al., 2014), with wind speed and water flow being two such factors of concern. ...
... This is an important finding, since coaches will often prescribe training based upon relative percentages of athletes' race pace (i.e. percentage of 1000-m race-pace) (WC Sprint Coaches Technical Group, 2001), which may not reflect the desired training response in a flowing river environment (Oliveira Borges et al., 2014). Furthermore, while average S GPS and time-to-completion over race-specific distances are often used to monitor on-water performance outcomes and external training loads for athletes over time (García-Pallarés et al., 2010;Oliveira Borges et al., 2014), our findings highlight the limitations of these measures when used in a flowing river environment. Therefore, given that sprint kayak athletes often train on a flowing river, the use of S GPS and time-to-completion measures appear somewhat limited for prescribing and monitoring training in this setting. ...
Article
Quantification of external training load for sprint kayak athletes can be challenging due to the influence of the water flow on boat velocity in a flowing river environment. Therefore, this study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) and its relationship to measures of relative boat speed when training on a flowing river. Twelve (8 males, 4 female) well-trained sprint kayak athletes completed 4 separate on-water sessions comprising one time-trial session (2 × 1000-m maximal efforts) and three repeated sprint kayak training sessions (5 x split 1000-m [2 × 500-m up and down the river] submaximal efforts) in their individual (K1) kayak. For each session, a Kayak Power Meter recorded athletes’ PO, and a SpeedCoach device recorded relative land-speed via a Global Positioning System (GPS) (SGPS), and relative water-speed via an impeller mounted under the boat hull (SIMP). Non-linear least squares regression were used to evaluate the curvilinear relationship between PO and speed (SGPS and SIMP) data. The exponents of velocity in the PO-SIMP relationship (2.87 females, 2.94 males) were closer to theoretical values (3.00) and showed greater model accuracy (root mean squared error (RMSE) = 20-26 W) than the PO-SGPS relationships (speed exponents=1.58-2.02, RMSE=31-40 W). Overall, PO measures could better account for the influence of water flow compared to traditional SGPS measures, and therefore, may be more suitable for quantifying athletes’ external load in their training environment.
... In contrast, the block periodization training employs highly focused training workloads on particular physical ability for approximately 3-6 weeks (Issurin, 2016). Some studies have reported superior strength, power, and local muscular endurance gains using traditional periodization (Monteiro et al., 2009;Rhea, Ball, Phillips, & Burkett, 2002), whereas other studies have shown no significant differences in these strategies or have favoured block periodization (Bartolomei, Hoffman, Merni, & Stout, 2014;Buford, Rossi, Smith, & Warren, 2007;García-Pallarés, García-Fernández, Sánchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;Hartmann, Bob, Wirth, & Schmidtbleicher, 2009;Hoffman et al., 2009). It should be noted that the majority of studies used strength training programs that compared the two periodization models. ...
... Different periodization approaches to improve athletes' anaerobic capacity have been studied previously (Bartolomei et al., 2014;García-Pallarés et al., 2010;Hartmann et al., 2009;Marques, Franchini, Drago, Aoki, & Moreira, 2017). One investigation analysing the effect of 15 weeks of BP and TP training structured with an equal volume of anaerobic exercises indicated an improvement of upper body power in BP compared to TP in power athletes, while no substantial changes were noted between groups in lower body strength and jump performances (Bartolomei et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of block and traditional periodization preseason preparation on advanced players’ jumping and sprinting dynamics during the simulated basketball games. Methods. Ten college-level males (age (mean ± standard deviation (SD)), 21.5 ± 1.7 years; weight, 83.5 ± 8.9 kg; height, 192.5 ± 5.4 cm) were divided into two teams according to the training model: block periodization (BP) and traditional periodization (TP). Block periodization (BP) consisted of the following blocks: aerobic endurance (AE), power endurance (PE), basketball specifc aerobic endurance (BSAE), and power (P). Both groups played a simulated basketball game with each other before and after preseason preparation. Vertical countermovement jump and 20 meters sprint were measured before each simulated game and after each quarter of the game. Results. In BP, the 8 weeks of preseason training resulted in elevated vertical jump and 20 meters sprint dynamics during simulated games (p < .05). Conclusion. We conclude that 8 weeks of block periodization enhanced leg power production and sprint abilities during simulated games and therefore is more effective than traditional periodization model. Keywords: basketball, power, periodization.
... Na Tabela 1 são apresentados os dados de caracterização dos sujeitos, as modalidades esportivas e o desenho experimental dos estudos. Foram encontrados 9 estudos que se enquadraram nos critérios de inclusão da presente revisão, sendo 2 estudos na modalidade triatlo 19,20 , 4 no ciclismo 21-24 , 2 no esqui cross-country (XCO) 25,26 e 1 na canoagem 27 . ...
... -25 apontaram superioridade nos ganhos das medidas fisiológicas e no desempenho quando realizado de forma concentrada comparado a quando o TIAI é realizado de forma distribuído com 2-3 sessões por semana (PT), outro ponto importante a se destacar nos estudos deste grupo de pesquisa é que o volume de treinamento e o número de sessões de TIAI foi equalizado para PB e PT. Por outro lado García-Pallarés et al.27 , verificaram em canoístas de elite que 12 semanasTabela 2. Caracterização dos treinos intervalados de alta intensidade e baixa intensidade realizados. out: esforço na máxima intensidade; FCmax: frequência cárdica máxima; m: metros; min: minutos; TBI: treinamento de baixa intensidade; TIAI: treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade; PBTIAIC: grupo de treinamento com TIAI de esforços de 10 a 20 segundos; PBTIAIL: grupo de treinamento com TIAI de esforços de 15 a 45 segundos; s: segundos; VO2max: consumo máximo de oxigênio; v200m: velocidade para a prova de 200 metros na natação; XCO: cross-country; ?: não especificado.Tabela 3. Resultados sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos e no desempenho de contrarrelógio. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze systematically the effects of block training periodization, on physiology parameters and performance in endurance athletes. Method: The PubMed and Science Direct database was used to search. Results: Nine studies was found that fit the criteria of this review, the main result was that block training periodization performed during 1-2 weeks composed of 5-16 high intensity interval training sessions followed by a period of 1-3 weeks of taper enhance maximal oxygen uptake, lactate/ventilatory thresholds, maximal aerobic power and performance in endurance athletes. Conclusions: The block training periodization can rapidly enhance physiology and performance in endurance athletes.
... Given that concurrent training has been demonstrated to enhance body composition, V _ O 2 peak, MAP, GME, and maximal strength of able-bodied cyclists (5,37,43), it can be speculated that it may also enhance hand cycling performance. Indeed, Garcia-Pallares et al. (15,16) recently demonstrated that a 12-week concurrent training programme based on a block periodization model significantly improved several neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and performance markers in 11 world-class kayakers. As kayaking demonstrates a similar upper-body push/ pull movement pattern to that of hand cycling, it can be postulated that a comparable training intervention may also improve hand cycling performance. ...
... Training Intervention. Based on a conjugated block periodization model (15)(16)(17)28,29), the 8-week training intervention for Strength training loads in the CT group were determined through the use of repetition zones matched with appropriate volume and recovery parameters (33)(34)(35) to elicit the required adaptive response (e.g., maximal strength). A detailed description of the strength training variables is given in Table 1. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week concurrent strength and endurance training programme in comparison to endurance training only on several key determinants of hand cycling performance. Five H4 and five H3 classified hand cyclists with at least one year's hand cycling training history consented to participate in the study. Subjects underwent a battery of tests to establish body mass, body composition, VO2peak, maximum aerobic power, gross mechanical efficiency, maximal upper body strength, and 30 km time trial performance. Subjects were matched into pairs based upon 30 km time trial performance and randomly allocated to either a concurrent strength and endurance or endurance training only, intervention group. Following an 8-week training programme based upon a conjugated block periodisation model, subjects completed a second battery of tests. A mixed model, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant changes between groups. However, the calculation of effect sizes (ES) revealed that both groups demonstrated a positive improvement in most physiological and performance measures with subjects in the concurrent group demonstrating a greater magnitude of improvement in body composition (ES -0.80 vs. -0.22) maximal aerobic power (ES 0.97 vs. 0.28), gross mechanical efficiency (ES 0.87 vs. 0.63), bench press 1 repetition maximum (ES 0.53 vs. 0.33), seated row 1 repetition maximum (ES 1.42 vs. 0.43), and 30 km time trial performance (ES -0.66 vs. -0.30). In comparison to endurance training only, an 8-week concurrent training intervention based upon a conjugated block periodisation model appears to be a more effective training regime for improving the performance capabilities of hand cyclists.
... c Simultaneous increases of noncompatible fitness factors during training for a few weeks or more can inhibit adaptation of one or more factors, including learning new skills (14). For example, simultaneous increases in endurance factors, tends to favor endurance adaptations and can inhibit development of strength associated factors, such as muscle and connective tissue architecture (e.g., pennation angle, fascicle length, etc.) and especially explosive strength (rate of force development [RFD]) and power (7,15,46,64,65,68,93,119,128,170,171). ...
... The primary challenge(s) using multifactor BP is reducing noncompatibility and excessive training volume during training. For example, especially during an accumulation phase, evidence indicates that simultaneously training for endurance, strength, explosiveness, and speed can mute the adaptations for strength and particularly for explosiveness and speed (29,62,64,76,84,130,131,154,180). Therefore, to reduce noncompatibility, the selection of exercise methods should be critically appraised. ...
Article
Periodization can be defined as a logical sequential, phasic method of manipulating fitness and recovery phases to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for nonfunctional overreaching, overtraining, and injury. Periodization deals with the micromanagement of timelines and fitness phases and is cyclic in nature. On the other hand, programming deals with the micromanagement of the training process and deals with exercise selection, volume, intensity, etc. Evidence indicates that a periodized training process coupled with appropriate programming can produce superior athletic enhancement compared with nonperiodized process. There are 2 models of periodization, traditional and block. Traditional can take different forms (i.e., reverse). Block periodization has 2 subtypes, single goal or factor (individual sports) and multiple goals or factors (team sports). Both models have strengths and weaknesses but can be “tailored” through creative programming to produce excellent results for specific sports.
... In 77 contrast, traditional organization of training periods focus on simultaneous development of 78 many abilities, which may lead to suboptimal stimulus and suboptimal adaptations, especially 79 in well-trained athletes [14]. So far, the effect of block periodization has predominately been 80 investigated in endurance athletes with focus on aerobic training (and not on strength 81 training), suggesting that block periodization of endurance training induces favorable 82 endurance adaptations [16][17][18][19]. However, it has also been indicated that block periodization of 83 strength training leads to superior adaptations in strength and power in well-trained athletes 84 [20], though this finding does not seem to be universal [21]. ...
Article
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Team sports like ice‐hockey require high levels of performance in numerous physical characteristics such as strength, power and endurance. As such, training is associated with a potential interference effect. The present study randomized well‐trained ice‐hockey players into a block periodization group (BP; n=8), focusing on development of either strength and power or endurance on a weekly, undulating basis, and a traditional group (TRAD; n=8), performing a mixed training model, with simultaneous focus of strength, power and endurance training every week. During the 6 weeks intervention, the two groups performed equal volumes and intensities of both strength, power, and endurance training. BP led to larger improvements than TRAD in knee extension peak torque at 180°·sec⁻¹ (6.6 ± 8.7 vs. ‐4.2 ± 6.3%, respectively; p<0.05) and maximal oxygen uptake (5.1±3.3 vs. 1.1±3.5%, respectively; p<0.05). There was also a trend toward larger improvements in BP than TRAD in peak torque in knee extension at 60°·sec⁻¹ (2.1 ± 2.5 vs. ‐0.1 ± 2.5%, respectively; p<0.1, effect size = 0.83) and mean power output during a 30‐s cycling sprint (4.1 ± 2.5 vs. ‐0.3 ± 5.9%, respectively; p<0.1, effect size = 0.89). Overall, BP exhibited a moderate to large effect size for all these variables compared to TRAD. The present study suggests that block periodization of strength‐ and endurance training induce superior adaptations in both strength‐ and endurance capacities in well‐trained ice‐hockey players compared to traditional mixed organization, despite similar training volume and intensity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A number of authors have defined a list of CBL parameters associated with specific exercise intensities such as LT (Wasserman et al., 1973), maximal lactate steady state (MLSS, Beneke and von Duvillard, 1996), OBLA (onset of blood lactate accumulation, Sjödin and Jacobs, 1981), or the D MAX (Cheng et al., 1992) . An accurate detection of MLSS is particularly important due to it being considered the highest intensity in which glycogen stores are the main exercise limiting factor (Coyle et al., 1986) and constitutes a prominent part of aerobic training in world-class athletes (García- Pallarés et al., 2009Pallarés et al., , 2010. Although CBL methods are commonly used for coaches to set individual training workloads, the relationship between lactate-based parameters and VTs load intensities is still an open debate. ...
Article
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The aims of this study were (1) to establish the best fit between ventilatory and lactate exercise performance parameters in running and (2) to explore novel alternatives to estimate the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) in well-trained runners. Twenty-two trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 60.2 ± 4.3 ml·kg·min-1) completed three maximal graded exercise tests (GXT): (1) a preliminary GXT to determine individuals' MAS; (2) two experimental GXT individually adjusted by MAS to record the speed associated to the main aerobic-anaerobic transition events measured by indirect calorimetry and capillary blood lactate (CBL). Athletes also performed several 30 min constant running tests to determine the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Reliability analysis revealed low CV (<3.1%), low bias (<0.5 km·h-1), and high correlation (ICC > 0.91) for all determinations except V-Slope (ICC = 0.84). Validity analysis showed that LT, LT+1.0, and LT+3.0 mMol·L-1 were solid predictors of VT1 (-0.3 km·h-1; bias = 1.2; ICC = 0.90; p = 0.57), MLSS (-0.2 km·h-1; bias = 1.2; ICC = 0.84; p = 0.74), and VT2 (<0.1 km·h-1; bias = 1.3; ICC = 0.82; p = 0.9l9), respectively. MLSS was identified as a different physiological event and a midpoint between VT1 (bias = -2.0 km·h-1) and VT2 (bias = 2.3 km·h-1). MAS was accurately estimated (SEM ± 0.3 km·h-1) from peak velocity (Vpeak) attained during GXT with the equation: MASEST (km·h-1) = Vpeak (km·h-1) * 0.8348 + 2.308. Current individualized GXT protocol based on individuals' MAS was solid to determine both maximal and submaximal physiological parameters. Lactate threshold tests can be a valid and reliable alternative to VT and MLSS to identify the workloads at the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in well-trained runners. In contrast with traditional assumption, the MLSS constituted a midpoint physiological event between VT1 and VT2 in runners. The Vpeak stands out as a powerful predictor of MAS.
... Indeed, HIIT is an important and reliable training method with a variety of choices depending on the level of physical fitness and the period of training cycle of the kayak athletes. Particularly, in sprint kayak, high-intensity intervals, including shorter distances than those of racing, are used in training programs to improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance (10,19). ...
Article
Papandreou, A, Philippou, A, Zacharogiannis, E, and Maridaki, M. Physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval and continuous training in kayak athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training (HIIT) seems to be more effective than continuous training (CT) for the improvement of physical condition and sports performance. This study compared physiological adaptations with HIIT and CT in flat water kayak athletes. Twenty-four national-class kayakists were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 per group), 2 of which participated in an 8-week CT or HIIT program, whereas the third one served as control (C). An incremental maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), a maximal anaerobic Wingate-type, as well as 1,000-m (T1,000 m) and 200-m (T200 m) time test were performed before and after the training period on a kayak ergometer, to determine changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, peak blood lactate ([La]peak), paddling speed at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (PSVO2max), heart rate at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (HRpeak), paddling economy speed (PEs; speed at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), paddling speed at anaerobic ventilatory threshold (PSVT2), maximal paddling speed (PSpeak), and reduction of PSpeak (PSR). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, [La]peak, HRpeak, and PSR did not change after the 8-week training compared with baseline in either training group (p > 0.05). However, significant changes were found in PSVT2 and T200 m (HIIT), PSVO2max, PEs, PSpeak, and T1,000 m (CT and HIIT) (p < 0.05-0.0001) as compared to baseline. Moreover, percent changes were different between the training groups in PEs, and between control and training groups in PSpeak and PSVO2peak (p < 0.05-0.01). Both training programs improved physiological and performance variables; however, HIIT resulted in significant changes of PSVT2 and T200 m and higher improvement of PEs with 15 times less training time compared with CT. Thus, HIIT seems more time-efficient than CT for improving paddling economy of kayaking performance.
... 4%). However; performance improvements about 4% were reported in bench press 1RM values after a periodized 12-week training cycle in eleven elite male kayakers (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010). Besides, the improvement about 3-4% is similar to those observed in response to a long-term strength training in strength-trained individuals (Kraemer, 1997). ...
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In order to investigate the effects of different warm-up protocols on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press performance, 23 rowers (age 21.48±3.12 years, height 185.17±8.22 cm, body mass 83.86 ±8.7 kg.) completed 1RM leg press tests after four different general warm-up conditions with a standardized specific warm-up. The workloads of the warm-up protocols were individually designed according to the results of the incremental maximal rowing ergometer test that applied initially. The duration of the protocols were fixed as 15 minutes (min.) for each participant, but there were differences in the intensity of the warm-up. In statistical analysis, warm-up conditions were set as fixed factor while participants as a random factor. Tukey post hoc test was employed whenever a significant difference was found. A probability level of 0.05 was established to determine statistical significance. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPPS version 20. As a conclusion, approximately 4% higher 1 RM results were obtained after low intensity (40% of VO 2Max) protocols which contain two intermittent sprints that last 15 seconds in the last 5 min. of the protocol. Thus, the results of the present study are important for both practical and research environments.
... Measurement of training indices, however, even when used with multiple regression techniques, still do not appear to produce good markers of performance [2,3]. Different training models can produce the same outcome in competition [4] and, if a positive effect is to be maintained, the specificity of training requirements of international athletes needs to be retained in all training sessions at least 70% of the time [5]. As the magnitude of change is dependent on the characteristics of the training programs, the duration of the intervention, and the gender, [6] it is important to identify what stimulus is created by the training and how that relates to performance. ...
... 14 Alternative methods to traditional (or linear) periodization have been proposed, such as nonlinear or undulating, block, fractal, conjugate sequence, or reverse periodization. 7,13,[15][16][17] However, linear and block periodizations (in which the sequencing of accumulation, transmutation, and realization mesocycle blocks purportedly benefits from the favorable interaction of cumulative and residual training effects 7 ) have been the main methods studied for strength development [18][19][20] as well as performance enhancement in a variety of elite sports, including cross-country skiing and biathlon, 21,22 cycling, [23][24][25][26] kayaking, 27,28 orienteering, 29 sprinting, 30 swimming, 31,32 and tennis. 33 Depending on the event and the prevailing philosophies in a sport, coaches and athletes may plan for single, double, or multiple peaks for the season. ...
Article
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Sports periodization has traditionally focused on the exercise aspect of athletic preparation, while neglecting the integration of other elements that can impact an athlete's readiness for peak competition performances. Integrated periodization allows the coordinated inclusion of multiple training components best suited for a given training phase into an athlete's program. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence underpinning integrated periodization, focusing on exercise training, recovery, nutrition, psychological skills, and skill acquisition as key factors by which athletic preparation can be periodized. The periodization of heat and altitude adaptation, body composition, and physical therapy is also considered. Despite recent criticism, various methods of exercise training periodization can contribute to performance enhancement in a variety of elite individual and team sports, such as soccer. In the latter, both physical and strategic periodization are useful tools for managing the heavy travel schedule, fatigue, and injuries that occur throughout a competitive season. Recovery interventions should be periodized (ie, withheld or emphasized) to influence acute and chronic training adaptation and performance. Nutrient intake and timing in relation to exercise and as part of the periodization of an athlete's training and competition calendar can also promote physiological adaptations and performance capacity. Psychological skills are a central component of athletic performance, and their periodization should cater to each athlete's individual needs and the needs of the team. Skill acquisition can also be integrated into an athlete's periodized training program to make a significant contribution to competition performance.
... It is valid to state the influence of endurance and neuromuscular changes across periodized training cycle. A periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase seems to be effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;Garcia-Pallares, Sanchez-Medina, Carrasco, Diaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). To avoid the influence of different periodized training cycle, the athletes in our study were recruited in the same period. ...
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Information regarding the aerobic power on canoe slalom performance is scares. Moreover, the comparison of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) via specific and non-specific ergometer for slalom kayakers may improve training prescription and controlling over Olympic cycles. Lastly, it is still unknown to what extent the VO2max delimitate the high performance in this sport. To test this perspective, a highly qualified sample is desired. In overall statistics, Slovakian athletes gathered 14 Olympic medals over the last sixteen years. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare the aerobic power of Olympic medallists and Non-Olympic Slovakian kayakers via specific and non-specific evaluations from Beijing 2008 to Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Forty-two male canoe slalom athletes from Slovak national team were evaluated between the years 2006 and 2016. Slovakian athletes were tested for specific (i.e. paddling ergometer) and non-specific (i.e. treadmill) incremental protocols for VO2max determination. Over the last three Summer Olympic Games, the VO2max of Slovakian Olympic medallists was consistently lower than most of the Slovakian team. Moreover, disregarding the medallist characteristic or the moment, Slovakian kayakers presented higher VO2max on treadmill (57.7±6.8 mL. kg-1. min-1) when compared to paddle ergometer (46.9±6.5 mL. kg-1. min-1) (p=0.000;
... Based on the findings of Garcia-Pallares et al. (2010), who reported larger gains in paddling speed and paddling power at VO 2max after a block periodization of canoe-specific training in elite kayakers in comparison to a traditional periodization, the structure of the isokinetic strength training in this study included a block periodization as well. The desired periodization, which was worked out over the TUT, is reflected (Figure 2) in the product of the actual external (physical work) and internal training load. ...
Article
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In canoe sprint, the trunk muscles play an important role in stabilizing the body in an unstable environment (boat) and in generating forces that are transmitted through the shoulders and arms to the paddle for propulsion of the boat. Isokinetic training is well suited for sports in which propulsion is generated through water resistance due to similarities in the resistive mode. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isokinetic training in addition to regular sport-specific training on trunk muscular fitness and body composition in world-class canoeists and to evaluate associations between trunk muscular fitness and canoe-specific performance. Nine world-class canoeists (age: 25.6 ± 3.3 years; three females; four world champions; three Olympic gold medalists) participated in an 8-week progressive isokinetic training with a 6-week block “muscle hypertrophy” and a 2-week block “muscle power.” Pre- and post-tests included the assessment of peak isokinetic torque at different velocities in concentric (30 and 140°s-1) and eccentric (30 and 90°s-1) mode, trunk muscle endurance, and body composition (e.g., body fat, segmental lean mass). Additionally, peak paddle force was assessed in the flume at a water current of 3.4 m/s. Significant pre-to-post increases were found for peak torque of the trunk rotators at 30°s-1 (p = 0.047; d = 0.4) and 140°s-1 (p = 0.014; d = 0.7) in concentric mode. No significant pre-to-post changes were detected for eccentric trunk rotator torque, trunk muscle endurance, and body composition (p > 0.148). Significant medium-to-large correlations were observed between concentric trunk rotator torque but not trunk muscle endurance and peak paddle force, irrespective of the isokinetic movement velocity (all r ≥ 0.886; p ≤ 0.008). Isokinetic trunk rotator training is effective in improving concentric trunk rotator strength in world-class canoe sprinters. It is recommended to progressively increase angular velocity from 30°s-1 to 140°s-1 over the course of the training period.
... iv. The Professor cites two recent peer-reviewed publications as supporting BP. (33,34) Briefly reflect upon the interpretation of this research, for example; 11days of highintensity intervals are interjected into regular training patterns. Result; ...
... Endurance training based on individual physiological events is effective to enhance training responsiveness and maximize cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular, and functional adaptations (40). This training method requires determining individualized intensities corresponding to physiological milestones, such as the maximal oxygen uptake (VȮ 2 max) and the lactate/aerobicanaerobic thresholds (13,16,34,36,37). An accurate identification of these individual milestones will depend on the testing procedures (4,18,19). ...
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This study was designed to validate a new short track test (Track(1:1)) to estimate running performance parameters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS), based on a laboratory treadmill protocol and gas exchange data analysis (Lab(1:1)). In addition, we compared the results with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Twenty-two well-trained male athletes (VO2max 60.3 ± 5.9 ml·kg−1·min−1; MAS ranged from 17.0 to 20.3 km·h−1) performed 4 testing protocols: 2 in laboratory (Lab(1:1)-pre and Lab(1:1)) and 2 in the field (UMTT and Track(1:1)). The Lab(1:1)-pre was designed to determine individuals' Vpeak and set initial speeds for the subsequent Lab(1:1) short ramp graded exercise testing protocol, starting at 13 km·h−1 less than each athlete's Vpeak, with 1 km·h−1 increments per minute until exhaustion. The Track(1:1) was a reproduction of the Lab(1:1) protocol in the field. A novel equation was yielded to estimate the VO2max from the Vpeak achieved in the Track(1:1). Results revealed that the UMTT significantly underestimated the Vpeak (−4.2%; bias = −0.8 km·h−1; p < 0.05), which notably altered the estimations (MAS: −2.6%, bias = −0.5 km·h−1; VO2max: 4.7%, bias = 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). In turn, data from Track(1:1) were very similar to the laboratory test and gas exchange methods (Vpeak: −0.6%, bias = <0.1 km·h−1; MAS: 0.3%, bias = <0.1 km·h−1; VO2max: 0.4%, bias = 0.2 ml·kg−1·min−1, p > 0.05). Thus, the current Track(1:1) test emerges as a better alternative than the UMTT to estimate maximal running performance parameters in well-trained and highly trained athletes on the field.
... An average gain of 4.3% (range 2-6.2%) in VO 2peak was reported following single blocks of highly concentrated HIT sessions lasting 2-5 weeks [15,16,19,20,22]. In studies with more prolonged BP programs (12, 13 and 40 weeks) VO 2peak gains were equal to 8.2, 8.1 and 13.9%, respectively [13,14,18]. Taking into account the performance status of the athletes tested (elite and sub-elite level), the increases in aerobic abilities can be considered high and valuable. ...
Article
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Block periodized (BP) training is an innovative and prospective approach that is drawing increasing attention from coaching scientists and practitioners. However, its further dissemination and implementation demands serious scientific biological underpinnings. More specifically, the fundamental scientific concepts of homeostatic regulation, stress adaptation and the law of supercompensation determine the biological essence and content of appropriate block mesocycles, i.e., the accumulation, transmutation and realization cycles, respectively. Such a separation is intended to prevent conflicting physiological responses and provide a favorable interaction for training effects. Several studies have evaluated the metabolic effects of various training programs, and the superiority of the BP model has been confirmed in terms of significant gains of maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power output and positive trends in athletic performance. It was found that the endocrine status of athletes is strictly dependent on appropriate blocks such as voluminous extensive workloads combined with resistance training (accumulation), lower-volume intense training (transmutation), and event-specific precompetitive training (realization). Evidence from molecular biology indicates the major regulators that determine meaningful adaptive events within specific block mesocycles. Specifically, voluminous extensive accumulation blocks stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in slow-twitch muscle fibres, whereas lower-volume intense workloads of the transmutation blocks evoke adaptive modifications in fast-twitch glycolytic and oxidative-glycolytic muscle fibers. Furthermore, such a training program causes a remarkable elevation of myonuclear content in muscle fibers that enables athletes to regain previously acquired abilities. The precompetitive realization block produces accentuated expression of stress-related and myogenic genes that affect protein synthesis and increase muscle glycogen. In addition, such a program stimulates and increases the size, force and power of fast-twitch fibers.
... exchange ratio were calculated. For the maximal test, the drag factor of the ergometer was set at 35, in agreement with a previously reported procedure [19]. Raw data from the Dansprint ergometer were analysed using MATLAB 2018a (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). ...
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Moderate paddling, as in long distance kayaking, constitutes an endurance activity, which shares energetic aspects with activities such as long distance running and road cycling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in moderate paddling there is a U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and stroke rate, and also whether elite kayakers apply a freely chosen stroke rate, which is energetically optimal. Eleven young male elite kayakers performed moderate kayak ergometry at preset target stroke rates of 65, 75, and 90 strokes min-1, and at a freely chosen stroke rate, while physiological responses including oxygen uptake were measured. The results showed that considering average values calculated across all participants, there was an approximately U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and target stroke rate with a minimum at 75 strokes min-1. The freely chosen stroke rate was 67.0 ± 6.1 strokes min-1. Thus, the freely chosen stroke rate, for the group in total, appeared to be lower and require higher oxygen uptake as compared to the energetically optimal preset target stroke rate. Eight out of 11 participants had a higher oxygen uptake (5.1% ± 6.7%, p = 0.028, across all participants) at their freely chosen stroke rate than at the preset target stroke rate, which resulted in the lowest oxygen uptake. In conclusion, an approximately U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and stroke rate for young elite kayakers during moderate ergometer kayaking was found. Additionally, the freely chosen stroke rate was systematically lower and, consequently, required higher oxygen uptake than the preset stroke rate, which resulted in the lowest oxygen uptake.
... With a TID comparable to that of our athletes, these rowers exhibited no change in VO 2peak or 2,000 m-TT performance, but, in contrast to our present observations, no alteration in power with a blood lactate concentration of 2 or 4 mmol·L −1 either. In contrast, following tapering phases 2 (García-Pallarés et al., 2009) or 4 weeks in duration (García-Pallarés et al., 2010), the paddling speed of elite sprint kayakers at VO 2peak during an incremental test on a kayak ergometer was improved, with no changes in any physiological parameters related to performance. This difference might reflect the fact that 45-47% of the training by those kayakers was in Z3, compared to only 4% in our case, and/or to the different incremental test employed by the Spanish researchers. ...
Article
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Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the training intensity distribution (TID) among highly trained canoe sprinters during a single season and to relate TID to changes in performance. Methods: The heart rates during on-water training by 11 German sprint kayakers (7 women, 4 men) and one male canoeist were monitored during preparation periods (PP) 1 and 2, as well as during the period of competition (CP) (total monitoring period: 37 weeks). The zones of training intensity (Z) were defined as Z1 [<80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak )], Z2 (81–87% VO 2peak ) and Z3 (>87% VO 2peak ), as determined by 4 × 1,500-m incremental testing on-water. Prior to and after each period, the time required to complete the last 1,500-m stage (all-out) of the incremental test (1,500-m time-trial), velocities associated with 2 and 4 mmol·L ⁻¹ blood lactate (v2 [BLa] , v4 [BLa] ) and VO 2peak were determined. Results: During each period, the mean TID for the entire group was pyramidal (PP1: 84/12/4%, PP2: 80/12/8% and CP: 91/5/4% for Z1, Z2, Z3) and total training time on-water increased from 5.0 ± 0.9 h (PP1) to 6.1 ± 0.9 h (PP2) and 6.5 ± 1.0 h (CP). The individual ranges for Z1, Z2 and Z3 were 61–96, 2–26 and 0–19%. During PP2 VO 2peak (25.5 ± 11.4%) markedly increased compared to PP1 and CP and during PP1 v2 [bla] (3.6 ± 3.4%) showed greater improvement compared to PP2, but not to CP. All variables related to performance improved as the season progressed, but no other effects were observed. With respect to time-trial performance, the time spent in Z1 ( r = 0.66, p = 0.01) and total time in all three zones ( r = 0.66, p = 0.01) showed positive correlations, while the time spent in Z2 ( r = −0.57, p = 0.04) was negatively correlated. Conclusions: This seasonal analysis of the effects of training revealed extensive inter-individual variability. Overall, TID was pyramidal during the entire period of observation, with a tendency toward improvement in VO 2peak , v2 [bla] , v4 [bla] and time-trial performance. During PP2, when the COVID-19 lockdown was in place, the proportion of time spent in Z3 doubled, while that spent in Z1 was lowered; the total time spent training on water increased; these changes may have accentuated the improvement in performance during this period. A further increase in total on-water training time during CP was made possible by reductions in the proportions of time spent in Z2 and Z3, so that more fractions of time was spent in Z1.
... We certainly appreciate how difficult long-term periodization studies are, such as [13][14][15], as most of our work, with a few exceptions [16,17], is rooted in semester length designs. We feel too often short term (6-10 week) training studies are simply viewed as "what worked better at developing performance adaption(s)?" ...
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In this editorial, we focus on recent problematic developments in sport science, and more specifically, problems related to periodization research. Primary areas discussed are (1) appreciation of history, (2) considerations for training studies, (3) the development of concepts, and (4) programming-driven training models.
... 52 We note that peer-reviewed studies have compared block periodization versus other periodization models in world-class kayakers and cross-country skiiers. 53,54 In contrast, Kiely et al 55 exposed a critical vision of the Issurin 56 and block periodization model, asserting that this form of training does not entirely stand up to robust scrutiny, and claims concerning block periodization remain unsubstantiated. ...
A well-planned periodized approach allows swimmers to achieve peak performance at the major national and international competitions. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of endurance training for highly trained swimmers described by the training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Studies that investigated the effect of the periodization of training in swimming, with the training load (volume, TID) and periodization reported, were included in the systematic review. Results: A total of 3487 studies were identified, and after removal of duplicates and elimination of papers based on title and abstract screening, 17 articles remained. A further 8 articles were excluded after full text review, leaving a final total of 9 studies in the systematic review. The evidence levels were 1b for intervention studies (n = 3) and 2b for (observational) retrospective studies (n = 6). The sprint swimmers typically followed a polarized and threshold TID, the middle-distance swimmers followed a threshold and pyramidal TID, and the long-distance swimmers primarily followed a pyramidal TID. The periodization model identified in the majority of studies selected is characterized by wave-like cycles in units like mesocycles to promote physiological adaptations and skill acquisition. Conclusions: Highly trained swimmers follow a training volume and TID based on their primary event. There is a need for further experimental studies on the effects of block and reverse periodization models on swimming performance. Although observational studies of training have limited evidence, it is unclear whether a different training/periodization approach would yield better results.
... 4,6 Comprehensive testing of the VO 2 max, oxygenation of muscles involved, and anaerobic threshold of sprint kayakers should aid in monitoring the development of performance and adjusting training appropriately. To assess these physiological and other performance parameters [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] as well as to prescribe training intensity, 9,[13][14][15] different incremental on-water and ergometer testing protocols are applied in canoeing and kayaking. The physiological responses (ie, oxygen uptake, peripheral oxygenation, blood lactate) between ergometer and on-water testing in relation to actual competitive performance in elite kayakers are unknown. ...
Article
Purpose: (1) To compare various physiological indicators of performance during a 5 × 1500-m incremental kayak test performed on an ergometer and on-water and (2) to analyze the relationships between these indicators and the actual competition performance of elite sprint kayakers, aiming to provide information to coaches for evaluating and planning training on-water. Methods: A total of 14 male and female German elite sprint kayakers performed an incremental test both on an ergometer and on-water. The tissue saturation index of the musculus (m.) biceps brachii, oxygen consumption, ratings of perceived exertion, and levels of blood lactate were measured and compared with actual racing times. In addition, power output was monitored during ergometer testing only. Results: Oxygen consumption during the fourth (P = .02; d = 0.32) and final (fifth; P < .001; d = 0.32) steps of incremental testing was higher on-water than on the ergometer. The tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii was approximately 21% higher at the end of the ergometer test (P = .002; d = 1.14). During the second (P = .01; d = 0.78), third (P = .005; d = 0.93), and fourth stages (P = .005; d = 1.02), the ratings of perceived exertion for ergometer kayaking was higher. During the final step, power output was most closely correlated to 200- (r = .88), 500- (r = .93), and 1000-m (r = .86) racing times (all Ps < .01). Conclusions: During high-intensity kayaking on an ergometer or on-water, the oxygen consumption and tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii differ. Furthermore, at moderate to submaximal intensities, the ratings of perceived exertion were higher for ergometer than for on-water kayaking. Finally, of all parameters assessed, the power output during ergometer kayaking exhibited the strongest correlation with actual racing performance.
... The transition or off-season period is a period of reduced stress and a very important time to start the recovery of mental and physical performance after an exhausting competition season (García-Pallarés, García-Fernández, Sánchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010). This phase of reduction or complete training cessation after the end of the competitive season has been defined as detraining (Mujika & Padilla, 2000a) and can be divided into short term -less than 4 weeks, and long term -more than 4 weeks (Mujika, & Padilla, 2000b). ...
Article
The aim of this research was to examine the effects of a 6-week off-season period on body composition and muscle fitness in young soccer players. A total of 48 young soccer players, randomly selected for the experimental group-EG (n=24; Age: 16.83±1.14 years; Height: 175.35±6.68 cm) and control group-CG (n=24; Age: 16.80±1.19 years; Height: 178.18±6.97 cm) took part in this research. The variables of body composition (body mass, body fat mass and BMI) and muscle fitness (CMJ, CMJAS, 20m sprint, slalom test and slalom test with ball) were measured. The first testing session (TS1) took place immediately after the end of the competition period. The second testing session (TS2) was after 2 weeks and the third testing session (TS3) was after 6 weeks from the beginning of the preparation period. Statistically significant differences were found after TS2 and TS3 in all the variables (p<0.05) except in the variables of agility (slalom test and slalom test with a ball) in CG. A significant difference in the experimental group after TS2 was found in the 20m sprint (p<0.05) and after TS3 in body mass (p<0.05), body fat mass (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.05) and the 20m sprint (p<0.05). An effect size analysis showed significant increases after TS2 between EG and CG in the variable body fat mass (ES=-0.73, moderate) and significant decreases in the variable CMJAS (ES=0.60, moderate). Significant increases after TS3 between EG and CG were found in the variable body fat mass (ES=-0.93, moderate) and significant decreases in both the variable of jumping performance CMJ (ES=0.81, moderate) and CMJAS (ES=0.91, moderate).
... All sports events have a training cycle to achieve the best athletic ability in important competitions [25]. Cross-country skiing is also considered to have seasonal characteristics: general preparation period 1 (May to July), general preparation period 2 (August to October), specific preparation period (November to December), and the competition period (January to March) [21,23]. ...
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This study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of polarized training on body composition, cardiorespiratory function, and upper-body power of male and female cross-country skiers during the general preparation period. A total of 16 national cross-country skiers (8 male and 8 female; 8 national cross-country skiers and 8 national biathlon athletes) participated. Polarization training was conducted for 12 weeks from May to July in 2019 during the general preparation period for cross-country skiers. The low-weight, high-repetition method was used for strength training. The effect of the polarized training on body composition, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), respiratory exchange rate, all-out time, and ski ergometer exercise time was assessed. There was no change in weight, BMI, and muscle mass in male and female cross-country skiers following the 12 weeks of polarized training (p > 0.05). Male body fat percentage (pre 18.1%, post 12.7%) and female body fat percentage (pre 29.1%, post 21.4%) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). After training, VO2max increased by 7.72% in male athletes (pre 71.05 mL/kg/min, post 77.0 mL/kg/min) and 6.32% in female athletes (pre 60.26 mL/kg/min, post 64.33 mL/kg/min). Treadmill exercise time increased by 5.39% for male athletes (pre 1038 s, post 1064 s) and 2.23% for female athletes (pre 855 s, post 874 s). However, there was no significant difference between male and female athletes (p > 0.05). The 50% recovery time from the maximum heart rate to the target heart rate decreased by 64.52% in males (pre 168.8 s, post 102.6 s) and 6.48% in females (pre 135 s, post 129.6 s). Significant differences were found only in male athletes (p < 0.05). The double-pole 500 m exercise duration for the ski ergometer significantly decreased after the training for both sexes (p < 0.05). In this study, the 12 weeks of polarized training improved the body composition and athletic performance of all cross-country skiers. Interestingly, in this study, we confirmed that polarized training had a better effect on cardiorespiratory function in male cross-country skiers than in female cross-country skiers. Conversely, we found that the outcomes of the ski ergometer exercise factors were more effective in female athletes than in male athletes. Therefore, we insist that when applying a polarized training program to athletes, it should be planned in detail by sex, exercise amount, intensity, and type of training.
... 4,6 Comprehensive testing of the VO 2 max, oxygenation of muscles involved, and anaerobic threshold of sprint kayakers should aid in monitoring the development of performance and adjusting training appropriately. To assess these physiological and other performance parameters [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] as well as to prescribe training intensity, 9,[13][14][15] different incremental on-water and ergometer testing protocols are applied in canoeing and kayaking. The physiological responses (ie, oxygen uptake, peripheral oxygenation, blood lactate) between ergometer and on-water testing in relation to actual competitive performance in elite kayakers are unknown. ...
Article
Purpose: (1) To compare various physiological indicators of performance during a 5 × 1500-m incremental kayak test performed on an ergometer and on-water and (2) to analyze the relationships between these indicators and the actual competition performance of elite sprint kayakers, aiming to provide information to coaches for evaluating and planning training on-water. Methods: A total of 14 male and female German elite sprint kayakers performed an incremental test both on an ergometer and on-water. The tissue saturation index of the musculus (m.) biceps brachii, oxygen consumption, ratings of perceived exertion, and levels of blood lactate were measured and compared with actual racing times. In addition, power output was monitored during ergometer testing only. Results: Oxygen consumption during the fourth (P = .02; d = 0.32) and final (fifth; P < .001; d = 0.32) steps of incremental testing was higher on-water than on the ergometer. The tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii was approximately 21% higher at the end of the ergometer test (P = .002; d = 1.14). During the second (P = .01; d = 0.78), third (P = .005; d = 0.93), and fourth stages (P = .005; d = 1.02), the ratings of perceived exertion for ergometer kayaking was higher. During the final step, power output was most closely correlated to 200- (r = .88), 500- (r = .93), and 1000-m (r = .86) racing times (all Ps < .01). Conclusions: During high-intensity kayaking on an ergometer or on-water, the oxygen consumption and tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii differ. Furthermore, at moderate to submaximal intensities, the ratings of perceived exertion were higher for ergometer than for on-water kayaking. Finally, of all parameters assessed, the power output during ergometer kayaking exhibited the strongest correlation with actual racing performance.
... Considering the second aim of the present study, the small to moderate inverse correlations between accumulated loads (sRPE, total distance, and total time) and jump performance revealed a lower percentage of change in jump performance when the accumulated loads were higher. This suggests that training with higher intensities and lower volumes may be more effective for endurance athletes' strength gains [49]. This was more prominent when considering the internal load (sRPE) alone and jump performance; these were the only variables that showed moderate inverse correlations between A1 and A2 and between A2 and A3. ...
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Trail running involves off-road running over different surfaces of positive and negative unevenness. Given these particularities and the associated physical demands, it is essential to understand this relationship and how fitness levels influence performance. This study aimed to analyze fitness level variations during different times of the season and establish a relationship between changes in fitness levels and accumulated load. Twenty-five trail running athletes (age: 36.23 ± 8.30 years) were monitored over 52 weeks. Three periods of assessment were implemented, while load between those periods was calculated. Athletes were monitored daily by global positioning systems. The collected data included distance covered, duration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), which were used to obtain session-RPE. Additionally, maximal aerobic speed, vertical jump, and dynamic balance were tested periodically. Moderate inverse correlations were found between assessment 1 and 2 for total sRPE and vertical jump: countermovement jump (VJ: CMJ) (r = −0.349), and Y balance test: left posterolateral (YBT: LPL) (r = −0.494). Similar correlations were found between assessment 2 and 3 for total sRPE and VJ: CMJ (r = −0.397), and vertical jump: drop jump (VJ: DJ) (r = −0.395). The results suggest that trail running coaches should monitor and assess dose-response relationships and possible anterior asymmetries of dynamic balance performance.
... Rowing 1000 m distance leads to reaching the critical intensity limit and VO 2 max (Bond et al. 2012;Mohamed et al. 2016). Although flat water kayaking performance is highly supported by aerobic metabolism, it does require a large anaerobic contribution that reduces the absolute importance of the aerobic energetic pathway (Garcia-Pallares et al. 2010;Sinex and Chapman 2015;DeWeese et al. 2015). The training prescription for elite athletes should emphasize aerobic high-intensity training for 1000 m distance (Zouhal et al. 2012). ...
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High performance sport is important Analyse the effects of high intensity training on physical and functional capacities of elite kayakers by using the principal component analysis. The research analysed physical load during 1 year’s training cycle and used principal components analysis methods and Mann–Whitney Exact Test. The Principal component analysis approach revealed highly different adaptation of both well-trained athletes to the applied physical load. The coaches should pay more attention to individual skills of athletes, as well as to individual intensity and volume of the workout during the training sessions and the recovery time and quality. The Principal component algorithm suggested for monitoring and analysing the athletes’ training programs, as well as the findings of this study may be useful for planning the training programs.
... To increase performance levels constantly in the long run, supercompensation cycles should be repeated at the correct time as displayed in Figure 1, i.e. the next training cycle should start in the supercompensation phase. Planning and organizing training cycles is called periodization in sports [García-Pallarés et al., 2010]. During a year one-peak, two-peak, or multi-peak cycles may exist. ...
Preprint
Sports performance analysis is a viable tool for coaches, trainers, and managers in many sports disciplines. In biathlon, performance is mostly analysed and modelled discretely. In this study, professional biathletes' individual skiing performance levels are analysed as continuous variables. Our data set consists of official race results of all women's races from 2008 to 2018 in the IBU World Cup, the IBU World Championships, and the Olympic Games. A two-phase approach based on a panel regression and a functional data analysis is used to analyse the variation of cross-country skiing performance of biathletes during a season. In the first phase, the observed skiing speeds in biathlon races are analysed for internal (e.g., skiing ability) and external (e.g. weather and snow conditions) factors. Afterwards, the residual performance levels are analysed as functional data. The panel regression results quantify the effects of environmental factors, like total climb, altitude, or snow temperature. It is found that wet snow and positive snow temperature noticeably slow down skiing speed. In the functional data analysis, individual performance level curves are characterized by periodical variations. In many teams, individual performance curves are similar, indicating coordinated training that aims to maximize the performance level at the season's highlights.
... Longitudinal and prospective cohort designs are often also applied to measure the physiological and performance development of well-trained and elite individual athletes and teams preparing for competitive events (Jones, 1998;Gabbett, 2005;García-Pallarés et al., 2010). While the latter is not specifically a training intervention per se (as the researchers often have no direct control over the training of the participants), these types of observational design does provide insight into long-term development that can occur in conjunction with regular, intensive exercise training. ...
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In response to acute exercise, an array of metabolites, nucleic acids, and proteins are enriched in circulation. Collectively termed “exercise factors”, these molecules represent a topical area of research given their speculated contribution to both acute exercise metabolism and adaptation to exercise training. In addition to acute changes induced by exercise, the resting profile of circulating exercise factors may be altered by exercise training. Many exercise factors are speculated to be transported in circulation as the cargo of extracellular vesicles (EVs), and in particular, a sub-category termed “small EVs”. This review describes an overview of exercise factors, small EVs and the effects of exercise, but is specifically focussed on a critical appraisal of methodological approaches and current knowledge in the context of changes in the resting profile small EVs induced by exercise training, and the potential bioactivities of preparations of these “exercise-trained” small EVs. Research to date can only be considered preliminary, with interpretation of many studies hindered by limited evidence for the rigorous identification of small EVs, and the conflation of acute and chronic responses to exercise due to sample timing in proximity to exercise. Further research that places a greater emphasis on the rigorous identification of small EVs, and interrogation of potential bioactivity is required to establish more detailed descriptions of the response of small EVs to exercise training, and consequent effects on exercise adaptation.
... Traditional periodisation uses a relatively long duration of time to develop various biomotor abilities (Garcıa-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010). A gradual progression of training volume and intensity is essential when training male youth athletes because during puberty boys will experience a rapid increase in body mass and strength but with connective tissue adapting more slowly. ...
Thesis
Previous research has documented positive effects of periodised muscular endurance resistance training in untrained men and women. Therefore, the overarching objective of this thesis was to compare the efficacy of two resistance training progression models [linear periodisation (LP) vs. undulating periodisation (UP)], and to elucidate the best method to vary the exercise stimulus to develop muscular endurance in trained youth athletes. With respect to the overarching objective of this thesis, a series of studies were conducted. The first aim was to identify the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables in trained youth athletes. Second, to investigate acute neuromuscular function, endocrine and perceptual wellbeing responses following two different muscular endurance resistance training sessions [3 sets of 25 repetition maximum (RM) and 3 sets of 15RM]. Lastly, to investigate the effects of two distinct resistance training models (LP vs. UP) on selected performance, physiological and psychological variables in trained youth team sports athletes. Also, the different physiological, neuromuscular, perceptual wellbeing responses within this process were described and implications for athlete monitoring discussed. It was found that the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables was unique to the population in question. Specifically, only countermovement jump mean force [CMJMF; smallest worthwhile change (SWC) = 2.7%, coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.0%)], countermovement jump mean power (CMJMP; SWC = 3.2%, CV = 2.7%), countermovement jump peak power (CMJPP; SWC = 3.4%, CV = 3.0%) and plyometric push up mean force (PPMF; SWC = 2.9%, CV = 2.2%) displayed acceptable reliability (CV < 5%) and sensitivity in field hockey youth athletes. Next, neuromuscular function, endocrine and perceptual wellbeing measures, obtained from trained youth participants, maintained similar acute biological responses irrespective of muscular endurance resistance training protocols. Force and power measures (CMJMF, CMJMP, CMJPP and PPMF) improved (p ≤ 0.05) 48 hours following both muscular endurance resistance training programmes. At 72 hours, testosterone: cortisol ratio (T:C ratio) showed a moderate increase [effect size (ES) = 0.72] following the 15RM protocol whereas a small decrease (ES = 0.41) was observed after the 25RM session. Overall perceptual wellbeing, fatigue and soreness scores reflected changes in neuromuscular function, while stress, sleep and mood did not show any differences. Finally, muscular endurance tests demonstrated that UP (back squat ES = 1.62; bench press ES = 1.77) was more efficacious than LP (back squat ES = 0.69; bench press ES = 1.72) following 12 weeks of resistance training. Resting salivary testosterone concentration increased in the UP (31.47%) compared to LP (- 8.73%) group, whereas salivary cortisol concentration and T:C ratio remained unchanged. Session rating of perceived exertion (session RPE), mood and stress scores were frequently higher during training phase II (four weeks) and III (four weeks) compared to phase I (four weeks). No changes were detected in neuromuscular function. Overall, this thesis offered several practical applications from the findings. First, the reliability and sensitivity of neuromuscular function variables were population specific. As such, practitioners are encouraged to establish the reliability and determine the neuromuscular function variable/s within the group to be trained. Second, as fatigue is multifaceted, practitioners should not rely on a single monitoring approach and incorporate both physiological and psychological aspects to monitor resistance training. Lastly, practitioners working with team sports athletes and intending to develop muscular endurance, can employ UP, performed in conjunction with sport specific training. Most importantly, it is highly advantageous to integrate a suitable monitoring measure, to direct appropriate sequencing of training loads, to result in optimal athletic performance.
... The improvement observed in peakVO 2 was in line with the case study reported by Rønnestad and Hansen (2018), where a worldclass elite cyclist had an improvement of 17% after 58 training weeks using a block periodization. However, peakVO 2 improvements in both cycling and running are much higher than other changes inVO 2max reported in elite and well-trained athletes after a training period (García-Pallarés et al., 2010;Stoøren et al., 2012;Rønnestad et al., 2014). The triathlete performed the first test after transition period and after the first weeks of the season, where the training sessions were mainly at low intensity. ...
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There is a growing interest in the scientific literature for reporting top-class endurance athletes training programs. This case study reports on the training program of a world-class male triathlete preparing to compete in the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games. A macrocycle of 43 weeks is presented. The triathlete performed 14.74 ± 3.01 h of weekly endurance training volume. Training intensity distribution (TID) was 81.93% ± 6.74%/7.16% ± 2.03%/10.91% ± 6.90% for zones 1 (low intensity, VT2) respectively. Pyramidal TID model is observed during the initial stages of the periodization and Polarized TID model is observed at the end of the macrocycle. The triathlete’s peak ⩒O2 was increased by 20% on cycling and by 14% on running. Peak power was increased by 3.13% on cycling test and peak speed by 9.71% on running test. Finally, the triathlete placed 12th in Olympic distance and 10th in Mixed Relay in Tokyo 2020 Olympic games.
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Purpose: To test whether the force-velocity (F-V) relationship obtained during a specific single-stroke kayak test (SSKT) and during nonspecific traditional resistance-training exercises (bench press and prone bench pull) could discriminate between 200-m specialists and longer-distance (500- and 1000-m) specialists in canoe sprint. Methods: A total of 21 experienced male kayakers (seven 200-m specialists and 14 longer-distance specialists) participated in this study. After a familiarization session, kayakers came to the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by 48 to 96 hours. In a randomized order, kayakers performed the SSKT in one session and the bench press and bench pull tests in another session. Force and velocity outputs were recorded against 5 loads in each exercise to determine the F-V relationship and related parameters (maximum force, maximum velocity, F-V slope, and maximum power). Results: The individual F-V relationships were highly linear for the SSKT (r = .990 [.908, .998]), bench press (r = .993 [.974, .999]), and prone bench pull (r = .998 [.992, 1.000]). The F-V relationship parameters (maximum force, maximum velocity, and maximum power) were significantly higher for 200-m specialists compared with longer-distance specialists (all Ps ≤ .047) with large effect sizes (≥0.94) revealing important practical differences. However, no significant differences were observed between 200-m specialists and longer-distance specialists in the F-V slope (P ≥ .477). Conclusions: The F-V relationship assessed during both specific (SSKT) and nonspecific upper-body tasks (bench press and bench pull) may distinguish between kayakers specialized in different distances.
Article
The aim of the study. The overall goal of this manuscript was to gain a better understanding of differences in the level of functional support for special endurance for paddlers of uniform groups (in terms of sports qualification): men kayakers, men canoeists, and women kayakers who specialize in a distance of 200 m. Material and methods. 20 qualified paddlers’ level of functionality is being assessed, among them are a group of elite athletes, the members of the Chinese national team and winners of the 2018 Asian Games. Results. The important feature of the analysis is the evaluation of the structure of the ergonomic power of a 30-second maximum load. Estimating the average value of the ergometric power of work for 25-30 seconds of operation in accordance with the average power of the entire 30-second load made it possible to determine the ratio of the anaerobic alactic and lactic abilities of the athletes, taking into account the requirements of a 200-meter race for canoe and kayak paddlers. A significant range of individual differences in the indices of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system, which are determined by the ratio of the partial pressure of СО2 and the maximum level of pulmonary ventilation (VE/PaCO2) during the10 and 30 second test task, attracts attention. The range of VE/PaCO2 indicators was: the relation of partial pressure СО2 to pulmonary ventilation in the 10 s test – 2.3 ± 0.8 for men kayakers; 2.3 ± 0.7 for men canoeists; 2.2 ± 0.5 for women kayakers; the relation of partial pressure СО2 to pulmonary ventilation in the 30 s test – 3.9 ± 1.0 for men kayakers; 3.8 ± 1.1 for men canoeists; 3.6 ± 0.7 for women kayakers. Conclusion. The results of the study indicate differences in the level of functional support for special endurance for paddlers of uniform groups (in terms of sports qualification): kayakers and canoeists who specialize in a distance of 200 m.
Purpose: The aim of the following case study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 30-week concurrent strength and endurance training program designed to prepare a trained H4 male handcyclist (aged 28 y, bilateral, above knee amputee, and body mass 65.6 kg) for a 1407-km ultra-endurance handcycling challenge. Methods: This observational case study tracked selected physiological measures, training intensity distribution, and total training load over the course of a 30-week concurrent training protocol. Furthermore, the athlete's performance profile during the ultra-endurance challenge was monitored with power output, cadence, speed, and heart rate recorded throughout. Results: Findings revealed considerable improvements in power output at a fixed blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L-1 (+25.7%), peak aerobic power output (+18.9%), power-to-mass ratio (+18.3%), relative peak oxygen uptake (+13.9%), gross mechanical efficiency (+4.6%), bench press 1-repetition maximum (+4.3%), and prone bench pull 1-repetition maximum (+14.9%). The athlete completed the 1407-km route in a new handcycling world record time of 89:55 hours. Average speed was 18.7 (2.1) km·h-1; cadence averaged 70.0 (2.6) rpm, while average power output was 67 (12) W. In terms of internal load, the athlete's average heart rate was 111 (11) beats per minute. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate how a long-term concurrent strength and endurance training program can be used to optimize handcycling performance capabilities in preparation for an ultra-endurance cycling event. Knowledge emerging from this case study provides valuable information that can guide best practices with respect to handcycling training for ultra-endurance events.
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p>La natación tiene unas circunstancias especiales a la hora de entrenar y monitorizar la actividad física que se lleva a cabo. Esto ha hecho que a lo largo del tiempo hayan surgido investigaciones y recursos que nos permitan controlar el proceso de entrenamiento de manera efectiva con alternativas a las variables clásicas. Además, el comportamiento fisiológico en el medio acuático varía respecto al ejercicio físico fuera de él, lo que también hace que sean necesarias algunas adaptaciones metodológicas. Actualmente la natación es un deporte creciente por su gran importancia dentro del triatlón, y las nuevas tecnologías también han logrado ofrecernos nuevas vías para el entendimiento y control del proceso formativo y de entrenamiento. El correcto manejo de las variables que determinan la carga de entrenamiento es la clave para conseguir las adaptaciones que nos aporten una mejora o nos ayude a contrarrestar los factores limitantes del rendimiento. Este trabajo muestra las principales modificaciones que requiere la programación del volumen, intensidad y densidad del entrenamiento en el medio acuático </p
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The purpose of a scientific dialogue is to overcome existing problems, participate responsibly, and find out the real nature of an issue, rather than to „be enclosed within a room” with one theory - studying one theory until its ultimate purpose is revealed. The dialogue preceded by a problem presented in a sincere and „risky” way and followed by a responsible attempt to solve the presented problem can be considered the true scientific dialogue. Establishing the criteria for conducting a dialogue may be relevant for discovering the reality in a scientific discipline. The dialogue on the sports training theories has been ongoing and the main aim of this paper was to overcome the problems related to the „rival theories” - the traditional theory of sports training versus the theory of the sports training block periodization. A weakness of the current dialogue on the sports training theories is a small number of the criteria on which the discussion on the „rival theories” is based. The dialogue should be conducted repeatedly in order to find a more tolerant attitude towards the other/different or in order to strengthen the already existing opinion. Key words: SPORTS TRAINING THEORY / DIALOGUE / TRADITIONAL THEORY / BLOCK PERIODIZATION / SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS
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L’objectif de notre recherche est de quantifier la charge de l’entrainement de deux équipes Algériens, avant d’étudier les modèles de périodisations utilisés dans la période compétitive et aussi de quantifier les performances athlétiques durant les matchs officiels. Méthodologie : les charges de l’entrainement de deux équipes professionnelles de la 1ère division ont été évaluées par l’utilisation de trois déférentes méthodes (Edwards, la méthode de la perception de l’effort (séance-RPE CR10) et par l’utilisation des GPS), on a utilisé la méthode RPE et la méthode Edwards pour l’enregistrement des données de 21 joueurs de la première équipe. Pour l’évaluation de la charge externe, on a quantifié la charge de 13 joueurs de la deuxième équipe par l’utilisation des GPS. Résultats : la méthode de la perception de l’effort semble être une bonne méthode pour quantifier la charge d'entraînement des joueurs Algériens, La moyenne des charges hebdomadaires des footballeurs Algériens est peu faible par rapport aux résultats des quatre grands championnats. La variation des paramètres d'entraînement spécifiques du microcycle affecte directement sur la monotonie et la contrainte d'entraînement. L’anormalité de la programmation des compétitions a empêché le staff technique du club de planifier ses programmes en moyen et long terme. Les performances athlétiques des joueurs algériens durant la compétition sont faibles par rapport aux résultats des grands championnats du monde. Conclusion : la variation de paramètres d'entraînement spécifiques du microcycle est essentielle pour maximiser les adaptations à l'entraînement, tout en minimisant les effets cumulatifs de la fatigue. Le microcycle est réparti sur trois objectifs, les deux premiers jours pour la récupération, les deux autres jours suivants pour le rechargement des potentiels physique et les deux derniers jours pour l’affutage d’avant le match. Une programmation mensuelle des matchs, facilite la programmation à moyen et à long terme.
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D. BISHOP, D. BONETTI, and B. DAWSON. The influence of pacing strategy on V̇O2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1041-1047, 2002. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating pacing strategy on V̇O2 and kayak ergometer performance in well-trained paddlers. Methods: Eight well-trained kayak paddlers (500-m time = 115-125 s) first performed a graded exercise test for determination of V̇O2max and lactate (La-) parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, subjects performed a 2-min, kayak ergometer test using either an all-out start or even pacing strategy. Results: There was a significantly greater peak power (747.6 ± 152.0 vs 558.3 ± 110.1 W) and average power (348.5 ± 47.6 vs 335.5 ± 44.8 W) using the all-out start strategy, when compared with the even-paced strategy. There was however, no significant difference between the two pacing strategies for peak V̇O2, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak [La-], or posttest pH. Using the all-out start, total V̇O2 was significantly greater (7.3 ± 0.8 vs 6.9 ± 0.8 L). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that 2-min kayak ergometer performance is significantly greater following an all-out start strategy when compared with an even-paced strategy. The improved performance appears to be attributable to faster V̇O2 kinetics, without a significant change in the total AOD (although the AOD distribution was altered).
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Elite flat-water kayak paddlers were characterized with regard to body composition, muscle strength and endurance for upper-body exercise. Furthermore, maximal oxygen uptake was measured during three types of exercise: treadmill running, arm cranking and outdoor paddling. Blood samples for subsequent lactate analysis were collected not only after maximal exercises but also during training sessions and post 1000 m racing. In comparison with other groups of athletes known to exhibit great upper-body muscle strength, kayakers were found to possess high values for shoulder strength, endurance and anaerobic capacity. Total body maximal oxygen uptake averaged (+/- SD) 5.36 +/- 0.25 l X min-1. The values for arm cranking and paddling were 4.30 +/- 0.29 l X min-1 and 4.67 +/- 0.16 l X min-1. High blood lactate levels were noticed under training conditions and post competition (11.0-17.5 mmol X l-1). Taken together, the present study suggests success in flat-water kayak racing to require great upper-body muscle strength, anaerobic capacity and endurance in addition to high aerobic power.
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This study investigated the effect of training on performance and assessed the response to taper in elite swimmers (N = 18), using a mathematical model that links training with performance and estimates the negative and positive influences of training, NI and PI. Variations in training, performance, NI, and PI were studied during 3-, 4-, and 6-wk tapers. The fit between modeled and actual performance was significant for 17 subjects; r2 ranged from 0.45 to 0.85, P < 0.05. Training was progressively reduced during tapers. Performance improved during the first two tapers: 2.90 +/- 1.50% (P < 0.01) and 3.20 +/- 1.70% (P < 0.01). Performance improvement in the third taper was not significant (1.81 +/- 1.73%). NI was reduced during the first two tapers (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), but not during the third. PI did not change significantly during tapers. Thus, the present results show that the model used is a valuable method to describe the effects of training on performance. Performance improvement during taper was attributed to a reduction in NI. PI did not improve with taper, but it was not compromised by the reduced training periods.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the swimming performance change during the final 3 weeks of training (F3T) leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Olympic swimmers who took part in the same event or events at the Telstra 2000 Grand Prix Series in Melbourne, Australia, (26 - 27 August 2000), and 21 - 28 d later at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (16 - 23 September 2000) were included in this analysis. A total of 99 performances (50 male, 49 female) were analysed. The overall performance improvement between pre- and post-F3T conditions for all swimmers was 2.18 +/- 1.50 % (p < 0.0001), (range - 1.14 % to 6.02 %). A total of 91 of the 99 analysed performances were faster after the F3T and only 8 were slower. The percentage improvement with F3T was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in males (2.57 +/- 1.45 %) than in females (1.78 +/- 1.45 %). In conclusion, the pre-Olympic F3T elicited a significant performance improvement of 2.57 % for male and 1.78 % for female swimmers at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The magnitude was similar for all competition events, and was achieved by swimmers from different countries and performance levels. These data provide a quantitative framework for coaches and swimmers to set realistic performance goals based on individual performance levels before the final training phase leading to important competitions.
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This study examined the effects of different 7-day taper protocols on simulated 20-km time trials (20TT). Following 3 weeks of baseline training, 11 male cyclists (.VO2max = 4.78 +/- 0.66 L.min-1) were randomly assigned to one of three stepwise reduction tapers in which training volume was reduced by 30% (T30, n = 5), 50% (T50, n = 6), or 80% (T80, n = 6) of baseline training with intensity (85% .VO2max) maintained. Cardiorespiratory measurements were collected every 5 km during the 20TT. Results revealed a significant (5.4%, 0.05) improvement in 20TT performance in the T50 protocol with concomitant increases in .VO2 and O2 pulse. No significant differences were found in T30 or T80. These results showed that a moderate (50%) reduction in weekly training volume appeared to be optimal in terms of enhancing performance. This confirms the contention that proper placement of training volume during tapering, while maintaining exercise intensity, can elicit performance improvements.
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The basis of contemporary training theory were founded a few decades ago when knowledge was far from complete and workload levels, athletic results and demands were much lower than now. Traditional training periodization, i.e. the division of the seasonal program into smaller periods and training cycles, was proposed at that time and became a universal and monopolistic approach to training planning and analysis. Further sport progress emphasized the limitations and drawbacks of traditional periodization with regard to the preparation of contemporary top-level athletes and their demands. Major contradictions between traditional theory and practice needs appeared as 1) an inability to provide multi peak performances during the season; 2) the drawbacks of long lasting mixed training programs; 3) negative interactions of non-compatible workloads that induced conflicting training responses; and 4) insufficient training stimuli to help highly qualified athletes to progress, as a result of mixed training. The trials and successful experiences of prominent coaches and researchers led to alternative training concepts and, ultimately, to a reformed training approach that was called block periodization (BP). Its general idea suggests the use and sequencing of specialized mesocycle-blocks, where highly concentrated training workloads are focused on a minimal number of motor and technical abilities. Unlike traditional periodization, which usually tries to develop many abilities simultaneously, the block concept suggests consecutive training stimulation of carefully selected fitness components. The rational sequencing of specialized mesocycle-blocks presupposes the exploitation and superimposition of residual training effects, an idea that has recently been conceptualized and studied. It is hypothesized that different types of mesocycle-blocks are suitable to various modes of biological adaptation, i.e. homeostatic regulation or a mechanism of general adaptation.
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Seven endurance exercise-trained subjects were studied 12, 21, 56, and 84 days after cessation of training. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) declined 7% (P less than 0.05) during the first 21 days of inactivity and stabilized after 56 days at a level 16% (P less than 0.05) below the initial trained value. After 84 days of detraining the experimental subjects still had a higher VO2 max than did eight sedentary control subjects who had never trained (50.8 vs. 43.3 ml X kg-1 X min-1), due primarily to a larger arterial-mixed venous O2 (a-vO2) difference. Stroke volume (SV) during exercise was high initially and declined during the early detraining period to a level not different from control. Skeletal muscle capillarization did not decline with inactivity and remained 50% above (P less than 0.05) sedentary control. Citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in muscle declined with a half-time of 12 days and stabilized at levels 50% above sedentary control (P less than 0.05). The initial decline in VO2 max was related to a reduced SV and the later decline to a reduced a-vO2 difference. Muscle capillarization and oxidative enzyme activity remained above sedentary levels and this may help explain why a-vO2 difference and VO2 max after 84 days of detraining were still higher than in untrained subjects.
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This study analyzed changes in physiological parameters, hormonal markers and kayaking performance following 5-wk of reduced training (RT) or complete training cessation (TC). Fourteen top-level male kayakers were randomly assigned to either a TC (n = 7) or RT group (n = 7) at the end of their competitive season (T1). Subjects undertook blood sampling and an incremental test to exhaustion on a kayak ergometer at T1 and again following 5 weeks of RT or TC (T2). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at second ventilatory threshold (VT2) significantly decreased following TC (-10.1% and -8.8%, respectively). Significant decreases were also observed in RT group but to a lesser extent (-4.8% and - 5.7% respectively). Heart rate at VT2 showed significant increases following TC (3.5%). However, no changes, were detected in heart rate at VO2max in any group. Peak blood lactate remained unchanged in both groups at T2. Paddling speed at VO2max declined significantly at T2 in the TC group (-3.3%), while paddling speed at VT2 declined significantly in both groups (-5.0% and -4.2% for TC and RT, respectively). Stroke rate at VO2max and at VT2 increased significantly only following TC by 5.2% and 4.9%, respectively. Paddling power at VO2max and at VT2 decreased significantly in both groups although the values observed following RT were higher than those observed following TC. A significant decline in cortisol levels (-30%) was observed in both groups, while a higher increase in testosterone to cortisol ratio was detected in the RT group. These results indicate that a RT strategy may be more effective than complete TC in order to avoid excessive declines in cardiovascular function and kayaking performance in top-level paddlers.
Article
D. BISHOP, D. BONETTI, and B. DAWSON. The influence of pacing strategy on V̇O2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1041–1047, 2002. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating pacing strategy on V̇O2 and kayak ergometer performance in well-trained paddlers. Methods: Eight well-trained kayak paddlers (500-m time = 115-125 s) first performed a graded exercise test for determination of V̇O2max and lactate (La−) parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, subjects performed a 2-min, kayak ergometer test using either an all-out start or even pacing strategy. Results: There was a significantly greater peak power (747.6 ± 152.0 vs 558.3 ± 110.1 W) and average power (348.5 ± 47.6 vs 335.5 ± 44.8 W) using the all-out start strategy, when compared with the even-paced strategy. There was however, no significant difference between the two pacing strategies for peak V̇O2, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak [La−], or posttest pH. Using the all-out start, total V̇O2 was significantly greater (7.3 ± 0.8 vs 6.9 ± 0.8 L). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that 2-min kayak ergometer performance is significantly greater following an all-out start strategy when compared with an even-paced strategy. The improved performance appears to be attributable to faster V̇O2 kinetics, without a significant change in the total AOD (although the AOD distribution was altered).
Article
This study analyzed changes in neuromuscular, body composition, and endurance markers during 4 wk of tapering and subsequent 5 wk of reduced training (RT) or training cessation (TC). Fourteen world-class kayakers were randomly assigned to either a TC (n = 7) or an RT group (n = 7). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, mean concentric velocity with 45% 1RM (V45%) in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises, and body composition assessments were conducted at the start (T0) and end (T1) of a 43-wk training program, after tapering for the world championships (T2) and after TC or RT (T3). A graded exercise test on a kayak ergometer for determination of maximal oxygen uptake at T0, T1, and T3 was also performed. After tapering, no significant changes were observed in 1RM or V45%. TC resulted in significantly greater declines in 1RM strength (-8.9% and -7.8%, P < 0.05, respectively, for BP and PBP) than those observed for RT (-3.9% and -3.4%). Decreases in V45% in BP and PBP were larger for TC (-12.6% and -10.0%) than for RT (-9.0% and -6.7%). Increases in sum of eight skinfolds were observed after both TC and RT, whereas declines in maximal aerobic power were lower for RT (-5.6%) than for TC (-11.3%). Short-term TC results in large decreases in maximal strength and especially V45% in highly trained athletes. These results suggest the need of performing a minimal maintenance program to avoid excessive declines in neuromuscular function in cases where a prolonged break from training is required.
Article
This study was undertaken to analyze changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables in a group of elite kayakers across a 12-week periodized cycle of combined strength and endurance training. Eleven world-class level paddlers underwent a battery of tests and were assessed four times during the training cycle (T0, T1, T2, and T3). On each occasion subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak-ergometer to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO2max (PSmax) and at VT2 (PSVT2), stroke rate at VO2max and at VT2, heart rate at VO2max and at VT2. One-repetition maximum (1RM) and mean velocity with 45% 1RM load (V 45%) were assessed in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thicknesses and muscle girths) were also obtained. Training volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each of three training phases (P1, P2, and P3). Significant improvements in VO2max (9.5%), VO2 at VT2 (9.4%), PSmax (6.2%), PSVT2 (4.4%), 1RM in BP (4.2%) and PBP (5.3%), V 45% in BP (14.4%) and PBP (10.0%) were observed from T0 to T3. A 12-week periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase (i.e. muscle hypertrophy and VT2 in P1, and maximal strength and aerobic power in P2) seems effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes.
Article
Maximal as well as submaximal heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured during paddling and other types of arm and leg exercise in Swedish elite canoeists. Muscle fiber composition was determined in the canoeists: 4 seniors (22-28 year old) as well as 2 juniors (18 years). Vo2max during treadmill running averaged in the seniors 5.4 1 x min -1 and during arm exercise. Corresponding values for the juniors were 4.7 1 x min -1 and 4.21 x min -1 or 88%. Paddling 500 m resulted in relatively low oxygen uptake, but the highest blood lactate concentrations, whereas 1,000 m gave the highest oxygen uptake but also high blood lactate concentrations. During a 10,000 m race the heart rate was approximately 97% (range 96-98%) of the maximum measured. In nine present and former winners of World Championships or Olympic medals, fiber types were determined in the deltoid muscle. These data indicated that canoeists, who were successful in 500 m races, had a higher percentage of fast twitch (FT) muscle fibers (range 50-59%) than medalists, who competed in 10,000 m races (26-52% FT).
Article
This study examined some of the physiological and performance effects of three different tapers in highly trained athletes. After 8 wk of training, nine male middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to one of three different 7-day tapers: a high-intensity low-volume taper (HIT), a low-intensity moderate-volume taper (LIT), or a rest-only taper (ROT). After the first taper, subjects resumed training for 4 wk and performed a second taper and then resumed training for 4 wk and completed the remaining taper, so that each subject underwent all three tapers. Performance was measured before and after each taper by a treadmill run to fatigue at a velocity equivalent each subject's best 1,500-m time. Voluntary isometric strength and evoked contractile properties of the quadriceps were measured before and after each taper, as were muscle glycogen concentration and citrate synthase activity (from needle biopsies) and total blood and red cell volume by 125I and 51Cr tagging. Maximal O2 consumption was unaffected by all three tapers, but running time to fatigue increased significantly after HIT (+22%). It was unaffected by LIT (+6%) and ROT (-3%) procedure. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with HIT and decreased significantly with ROT. Muscle glycogen concentration increased significantly after ROT and HIT, and strength increased after all three tapers. Total blood volume increased significantly after HIT and decreased after ROT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Physical and physiological factors accounting for the variability of performance in 500, 1000, 10,000, and 42,000 m flatwater kayaking were investigated using linear regression. Times achieved for each distance were used as the dependent variable for analysis while the independent variables were the parameters derived from the test battery. The 38 kayakists who participated were categorized as either state team members or nonselected paddlers, based on an objective selection policy. Several of the participant subjects were Australian international representatives. All selected paddlers were grouped together and Student's t-tests performed to determine which variables could distinguish between selected and nonselected paddlers. Simple regression was used to determine the strength of association of each parameter with performance time over each race distance, and multiple regression was used to generate equations for the prediction of performance times. Aerobic power and variables related to the aerobic-anaerobic transition were examined using gas analysis during an incremental workload test on a kayak ergometer. A 1-min all-out test also on a kayak ergometer was used to obtain an indication of anaerobic capacity and power. Muscular strength and fatigue were assessed using a simulated kayak stroke on a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. Physical characteristics were determined using kinanthropometric tests. Aerobic power, anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, resistance to muscular fatigue, and measures of body size were significantly greater in more successful kayakists. All of the parameters measured correlated significantly with performance time over at least one of the four race distances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Thirteen subjects participated in an exercise program of bicycling and running 40 min/day, 6 days/wk. After 10 wk they continued to train either 26 of 13 min/day for an additional 15 wk. Intensity and frequency for the additional 15 wk remained the same as the last 3 wk of training. This study was undertaken to gain further insights into whether the increases in maximum uptake (VO2 max), endurance, and cardiac size can be maintained with reduced training durations. The average increases in VO2 max in response to 10 wk training were between 10 and 20% during the bicycle and treadmill testing. After reduced training, VO2 max continued to remain at the training levels in both groups. Short-term endurance (approx 5 min) was also maintained by both groups. Long-term endurance (2 h or more) remained the same in the 26-min group but decreased significantly (10%, 139-123 min) in the 13-min group. Calculated left ventricular mass increased 15-20% after training and remained elevated after reduced training in both groups. We conclude that it is possible to maintain almost all of the performance increases with up to a two-thirds reduction of training duration. Nevertheless, the data provide initial evidence that all aspects of the endurance-trained state may not be regulated uniformly in reduced training, particularly since VO2 max and short-term endurance were maintained, but long-term endurance decreased in the 13-min group.
Article
Seven endurance exercise-trained subjects were studied 12, 21, 56, and 84 days after cessation of training. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) declined 7% (P less than 0.05) during the first 21 days of inactivity and stabilized after 56 days at a level 16% (P less than 0.05) below the initial trained value. After 84 days of detraining the experimental subjects still had a higher VO2 max than did eight sedentary control subjects who had never trained (50.8 vs. 43.3 ml X kg-1 X min-1), due primarily to a larger arterial-mixed venous O2 (a-vO2) difference. Stroke volume (SV) during exercise was high initially and declined during the early detraining period to a level not different from control. Skeletal muscle capillarization did not decline with inactivity and remained 50% above (P less than 0.05) sedentary control. Citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in muscle declined with a half-time of 12 days and stabilized at levels 50% above sedentary control (P less than 0.05). The initial decline in VO2 max was related to a reduced SV and the later decline to a reduced a-vO2 difference. Muscle capillarization and oxidative enzyme activity remained above sedentary levels and this may help explain why a-vO2 difference and VO2 max after 84 days of detraining were still higher than in untrained subjects.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if a 7-d systematic reduction in training volume or "taper" could improve distance running performance. Three groups of eight runners were examined: 1) run taper, 2) cycle taper, and 3) control. Training in the run taper group consisted of high-intensity intervals and an 85% reduction in training volume. The cycle taper group performed an equivalent amount of interval training as the run taper group, but each member exercised on a cycle ergometer. Control subjects continued normal training. A self-paced 5-km time trial served as the index of performance. The run taper group decreased 5-km time by 3% (1036.2 +/- 30.6 to 1006.8 +/- 28.2 s, P < 0.005). A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in submaximal oxygen consumption (6%) and calculated caloric expenditure (7%) at a running speed eliciting 80% of VO2max was also evident in the run taper group. Five-km performance and running economy were not altered in the cycle taper or control groups. These findings indicate that 7 d of tapered running improved distance running performance and running economy. A taper regimen of equivalent duration cycle training maintained performance in distance runners.
Article
Detraining is the partial or complete loss of training-induced adaptations, in response to an insufficient training stimulus. Detraining characteristics may be different depending on the duration of training cessation or insufficient training. Short term detraining (less than 4 weeks of insufficient training stimulus) is analysed in part I of this review, whereas part II will deal with long term detraining (more than 4 weeks of insufficient training stimulus). Short term cardiorespiratory detraining is characterised in highly trained athletes by a rapid decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and blood volume. Exercise heart rate increases insufficiently to counterbalance the decreased stroke volume, and maximal cardiac output is thus reduced. Ventilatory efficiency and endurance performance are also impaired. These changes are more moderate in recently trained individuals. From a metabolic viewpoint, short term inactivity implies an increased reliance on carbohydrate metabolism during exercise, as shown by a higher exercise respiratory exchange ratio, and lowered lipase activity, GLUT-4 content, glycogen level and lactate threshold. At the muscle level, capillary density and oxidative enzyme activities are reduced. Training-induced changes in fibre cross-sectional area are reversed, but strength performance declines are limited. Hormonal changes include a reduced insulin sensitivity, a possible increase in testosterone and growth hormone levels in strength athletes, and a reversal of short term training-induced adaptations in fluid-electrolyte regulating hormones.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of incremental ergometry determined heart rate training intensities for the control of kayak ergometer and open water kayak training. Eight well-trained male kayakers completed a maximal incremental exercise test on an air-braked kayak ergometer for the determination of LT(1) (the power output at which blood lactate concentration increased by > or = 1 mmol x L(-1)), the associated heart rate (HR-LT(1)), VO(2)peak, maximal heart rate and maximal aerobic power. Subjects then performed 20 min trials of kayak ergometry (E), open water kayaking in a single kayak (K1) and open water kayaking in a four-seat kayak (K4) at HR-LT(1). During the three trials, heart rate was continuously measured, and blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and stroke rate were determined every 5 min. In all trials, exercise at HR-LT(1) resulted in stable blood lactate concentrations and a stable RPE. Comparison of the three trials demonstrated that the only difference was for RPE, which was lower in (K4) than in (E), (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that the prescription of HR-LT(1) elicits similar blood lactate concentrations during kayak ergometer and open water kayak training in both single and team boats.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating pacing strategy on VO2 and kayak ergometer performance in well-trained paddlers. Eight well-trained kayak paddlers (500-m time = 115-125 s) first performed a graded exercise test for determination of VO2max and lactate (La-) parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, subjects performed a 2-min, kayak ergometer test using either an all-out start or even pacing strategy. There was a significantly greater peak power (747.6 +/- 152.0 vs 558.3 +/- 110.1 W) and average power (348.5 +/- 47.6 vs 335.5 +/- 44.8 W) using the all-out start strategy, when compared with the even-paced strategy. There was however, no significant difference between the two pacing strategies for peak VO2, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak [La-], or posttest pH. Using the all-out start, total VO2 was significantly greater (7.3 +/- 0.8 vs 6.9 +/- 0.8 L). The results of this study indicate that 2-min kayak ergometer performance is significantly greater following an all-out start strategy when compared with an even-paced strategy. The improved performance appears to be attributable to faster VO2 kinetics, without a significant change in the total AOD (although the AOD distribution was altered).
Constructing a training system
  • A P Bondarchuk
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Bondarchuk AP (1988) Constructing a training system. Track Tech 102:3254-3269
Oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid response to training and taper Swimming Science The efficacy of ergometry determined heart rates for flatwater kayak training
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Handel PJ, Katz A, Troup JP, Daniels JT, Bradley PW (1988) Oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid response to training and taper. In: Ungerechts VBE, Wilke K, Reischle K (eds) Swimming Science. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp 269– 275 Van Someren KA, Oliver JE (2002) The efficacy of ergometry determined heart rates for flatwater kayak training. Int J Sports Med 23:28–32 Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 110:99–107
Periodization: theory and methodology of training Constructing a training system Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training
  • T Haff
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  • Dr Sinacore
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T, Haff G (2009) Periodization: theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics, Champaign Bondarchuk AP (1988) Constructing a training system. Track Tech 102:3254–3269 Coyle EF, Martin WH, Sinacore DR, Joyner MJ, Hagberg JM, Holloszy JO (1984) Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training. J Appl Physiol 57:1857–1864
International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Potchefst-room
  • Jones M T Olds
  • Stewart
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  • Carter
-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart AD, Carter L (2006) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Potchefst-room, South Africa, pp 61–75
Periodization: theory and methodology of training Constructing a training system
  • T Bompa
  • G Haff
Bompa T, Haff G (2009) Periodization: theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics, Champaign Bondarchuk AP (1988) Constructing a training system. Track Tech 102:3254-3269
Oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid response to training and taper
  • P J Van Handel
  • A Katz
  • J P Troup
  • J T Daniels
  • P W Bradley
  • PJ Handel Van
Van Handel PJ, Katz A, Troup JP, Daniels JT, Bradley PW (1988) Oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid response to training and taper. In: Ungerechts VBE, Wilke K, Reischle K (eds) Swimming Science. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp 269-275
International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Potchefstroom
  • M Marfell-Jones
  • T Olds
  • A D Stewart
  • L Carter
Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart AD, Carter L (2006) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Potchefstroom, South Africa, pp 61-75
Periodization: theory and methodology of training
  • T Bompa
  • G Haff
Bompa T, Haff G (2009) Periodization: theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics, Champaign