Visualization of Renal Medullary Hyperattenuation at Unenhanced CT: What Is the Effect of Furosemide Administration?

Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, Box 0628, C-372C, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.87). 05/2010; 255(2):495-500. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.10091769
Source: PubMed


To retrospectively investigate the effects of furosemide on the visualization of renal medullary hyperattenuation at unenhanced computed tomography (CT).
This retrospective single-institution study was HIPAA compliant and approved by the institutional review board; requirement for informed consent was waived. This study identified 289 consecutive patients (152 men, 137 women; mean age, 59 years) without ureteral obstruction who underwent unenhanced scanning as part of CT urography; of these, 178 patients did not receive intravenous furosemide prior to imaging and 111 did. The presence of renal medullary hyperattenuation, renal stones, and bladder urine attenuation levels were recorded and compared between patients who did not receive furosemide prior to imaging and those who did by using the chi(2) and unpaired Student t tests. A multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate independent predictors of visualization of renal medullary hyperattenuation.
Renal medullary hyperattenuation was seen less commonly in patients who received furosemide (27 of 111, 24%) than in those who did not receive furosemide prior to imaging (79 of 178, 44%, P = .001). Bladder urine attenuation was lower in patients who received furosemide (-0.1 HU) compared with those who did not (6.4 HU, P < .001). A multiple logistic regression model revealed independent associations between the visualization of renal medullary hyperattenuation and the absence of furosemide administration (P = .002), younger age (P < .001), and presence of renal stones (P = .047).
Furosemide administration prior to unenhanced CT is associated with decreased visualization of renal medullary hyperattenuation.

16 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a case of focal medullary sponge kidney (MSK) that mimicked a renal tumor. Evaluation of a patient with history of macrohematuria revealed a left renal mass of 3-cm diameter. T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a mass of mixed intensity protruding toward the renal sinus. On fat-saturated T(2)-weighted MR images, the lesion's remarkable hyperintensity suggested the presence of an aggregation of tiny cysts. On diffusion-weighted MR images, the mass also demonstrated high intensity, and its apparent diffusion coefficient was partly decreased (1.12 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). On computed tomography, precontrast images revealed no calcification in the mass. Although slight enhancement was seen in the corticomedullary phase, thick and dense streaks of contrast radiating peripherally were identified in the mass in the excretory phase. Focal MSK was diagnosed. We discuss the potential of MR imaging for diagnosing focal MSK.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine if calcium deposits in the papillae can be identified by unenhanced computed tomography (uCT) even before renal stones develop. A retrospective review of 413 patients with calculi identified 31 patients (stone-forming group) with a history of urinary tract calculi with a calculus demonstrated by uCT and a stone-free uCT before calculi had developed. The control group (n = 31) was composed of live kidney donors with no history of calculi and a stone-free uCT. CT attenuation was measured in all CTs using two regions of interest of 0.05 cm(2) and 0.1 cm(2) over the tip and the neighbouring area of the papillae. Student's and Wilcoxon t-tests were used for comparing results in the two groups. The attenuation of the tip of the papilla was higher in the stone-forming group when compared to the controls after (45.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.001) and even before frank calculi had developed (44.2 HU versus 32.1 HU, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in papillary attenuation in the stone group before and after calculi had developed (45.2 HU versus 44.2 HU, P = 0.82). Stone-forming patients exhibit higher papillary density even before calculi develop. This could define a population at risk of developing calculi.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · European Radiology