Sex Steroid Receptors in Male Human Bladder: Expression and Biological Function

ArticleinJournal of Sexual Medicine 7(8):2698-713 · August 2010with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01811.x · Source: PubMed
Abstract
In male, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been associated, beside benign prostatic hyperplasia, to some unexpected comorbidities (hypogonadism, obesity, metabolic syndrome), which are essentially characterized by an unbalance between circulating androgens/estrogens. Within the bladder, LUTS are linked to RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway overactivity. To investigate the effects of changing sex steroids on bladder smooth muscle. ER α, ER β, GPR30/GPER1 and aromatase mRNA expression was analyzed in male genitourinary tract tissues, and cells isolated from bladder, prostate, and urethra. Estrogen and G1 effect on RhoA/ROCK signaling output like cell migration, gene expression, and cytoskeletal remodeling, and [Ca(2+) ](i) was also studied in hB cells. Contractile studies on bladder strips from castrated male rats supplemented with estradiol and testosterone was also performed. The effects of classical (ER α, ER β) and nonclassical (GPR30/GPER1) estrogen receptor ligands (17 β-estradiol and G1, respectively) and androgens on RhoA/ROCK-.mediated cell functions were studied in hB cells. Contractility studies were also performed in bladder strips from castrated male rats supplemented with testosterone or estradiol. Aromatase and sex steroid receptors, including GPR30, were expressed in human bladder and mediates several biological functions. Both 17 β-estradiol and G1 activated calcium transients and induced RhoA/ROCK signaling (cell migration, cytoskeleton remodeling and smooth muscle gene expression). RhoA/ROCK inhibitors blunted these effects. Estrogen-, but not androgen-supplementation to castrated rats increased sensitivity to the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632 in isolated bladder strips. In hB cells, testosterone elicited effects similar to estrogen, which were abrogated by blocking its aromatization through letrozole. Our data indicate for the first time that estrogen-more than androgen-receptors up-regulate RhoA/ROCK signaling. Since an altered estrogen/androgen ratio characterizes conditions, such as aging, obesity and metabolic syndrome, often associated to LUTS, we speculate that a relative hyperestrogenism may induce bladder overactivity through the up-regulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway.
    • "Coverslips were mounted in a perfusion chamber and placed on the stage of an epifluorescence microscope (TMD Diaphot, Nikon Co, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with a 75 W Xenon lamp. Fura-2 fluorescence was recorded with an extended ISIS-M camera (Photonic Science, Roberts Bridge, East Sussex, UK) and measured by single cell imaging analysis at 35 °C [25]. Paired experiments were performed for each treatment in at least 3 different astrocyte preparations. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrou: One of the most discomfortable dose-limiting adverse reaction of effective drugs for the treatment of solid tumors is a peripheral neuropathy which is the main reason for dose reduction and discontinuation of the therapy. We identified oxidative stress as one target of oxaliplatin toxicity in the search of possible adjuvant therapies to prevent neuropathy and alleviate pain. Therefore, we studied an effective SOD mimetic compound, MnL4, as a possible adjuvant treatment in in vitro cellular cultures and in vivo on a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Methods and results-All rat manipulations were carried out according to the European Community guidelines for animal care. We performed experiments on SH-SY5Y, HT-29 and primary cortical rat astrocytes. Incubation with 100µM oxaliplatin increased superoxide anion production and caspase 3/7 activity in the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y and cortical astrocytes. MnL4 (10µM) significantly reduced the increase in superoxide anion in both cell types, but prevented caspase 3/7 activity only in astrocytes. MnL4 reduced lipid peroxidation induced by oxaliplatin and normalized the intracellular calcium signal evoked by ATP and acetylcholine in astrocytes, preincubated with oxaliplatin. MnL4 did not interfere with the concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of oxaliplatin on the cancer cell lines HT-29 and LoVo. In vivo MnL4 reduced the response at mechanical noxious and mechanical and thermal non-noxious stimuli in oxaliplatin treated animals. Rat rota-rod performances were improved. Conclusion: Since MnL4 exertes its beneficial effects without interfering with the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin, it could be proposed as adjuvant to prevent and reduce oxaliplatin induced neuropathy.
    Article · Jan 2016
    • "Indeed, some fast-onset effects of estrogen depend on calcium transient-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway [13] . Furthermore, the GPR30 agonist G1 enhances the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway [13,24] and RhoAdependent cytoskeletal remodeling [13]. Interestingly, the RhoA/ ROCK signaling pathway has been recently described as an important route for the intracellular signaling of leptin [30]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, the most common cause of chronic pelvic pain, is an estrogen-dependent disease in which classic estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) play an important role. Although recent evidence suggests that the novel G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30) also plays a key role in the progression of endometriosis, whether it is also involved in endometriosis pain is still unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that GPR30 expressed by nociceptors contributes to endometriosis pain. Intramuscular injection of the GPR30 agonists raloxifene or 17β-estradiol produced a fast-onset, persistent, mechanical hyperalgesia at the site of the injection. Intrathecal antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), but not mismatch (MM) ODN, targeting mRNA for GPR30 markedly inhibited its protein expression in nociceptors and attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by local raloxifene or 17β-estradiol. Pretreatment with the GPR30 antagonist G-36 also inhibited the hyperalgesia induced by raloxifene or 17β-estradiol in naive control rats. Surgical implant of autologous uterine tissue onto the gastrocnemius muscle, which induces endometriosis-like lesions, produced local mechanical hyperalgesia. Intrathecal AS, but not MM, ODN targeting GPR30 mRNA reversibly inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia at the site of endometriotic lesions. Finally, intralesional injection of the GPR30 antagonist G-36 also inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia at the site of ectopic uterine tissue. We conclude that local GPR30 agonists produce persistent mechanical hyperalgesia in naive female rats, whereas local GPR30 antagonists inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia in a model of endometriosis pain. Thus, GPR30 expressed by nociceptors innervating ectopic uterine lesions might play a major role in endometriosis pain.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
    • "It is important to note that circulating T is actively metabolized to estrogens and part of T hormonal activity depends upon its binding to the estrogen receptors (ERs), that are present in both the prostate and bladder [26]. In addition, the enzyme P450 aromatase which converts androgens to estrogens [27] is highly expressed not only in fat tissue but also in the urogenital tract [28]. Evidence of an increased estrogen/androgen ratio was originally provided by Marmorston et al. almost half a century ago [29] reporting that the estrogen/androgen ratio in 24-hour urinary collections was elevated in men with BPH, as compared to normal controls. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a well-recognized cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycaemia, closely associated with an increased risk of forthcoming cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Emerging evidence indicates that benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and its related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent other clinical conditions frequently observed in subjects with MetS. Several modifiable factors involved in MetS determinism, such as inadequate diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking and drinking behaviours are emerging as main contributors to the development of BPH. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and BPH have not been completely clarified. MetS and its components, hypogonadism, and prostate inflammation probably play an important role in inducing BPH/LUTS. Although historically considered as a "normal" consequence of the aging process, BPH/LUTS should now be faced proactively, as a preventable disorder of the elderly. Type of diet and level of physical activity are now considered important factors affecting prostate health in the aging male. However, whether physical exercise, weight loss, and modifications of dietary habit can really alter the natural history of BPH/LUTS remains to be determined. Further research is advisable to better clarify these points.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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