Risk Factors for Anastomotic Leak Following Colorectal Surgery A Case-Control Study
To assess anastomotic leak (AL) risk factors in a large patient series. Case-control study. The Mount Sinai Hospital. Ninety patients with AL following colorectal resection and 180 patients who underwent uncomplicated procedures. Risk factors associated with development of AL. The AL rate was 2.6%. Five risk factors for AL were identified: (1) preoperative albumin level lower than 3.5 g/dL (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.1) (P = .03); (2) operative time of 200 minutes or longer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8) (P = .01); (3) intraoperative blood loss of 200 mL or more (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9-5.3) (P = .01); (4) intraoperative transfusion requirement (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5) (P = .02); and (5) histologic specimen margin involvement in disease process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-6.1) (P = .01). Patients with all 3 intraoperative risk factors had an OR of 22.1; 95% CI, 2.8-175.4 (P < .001) for development of AL. Histologic resection margin involvement in disease process in patients with IBD, preoperative albumin levels lower than 3.5 g/dL, intraoperative blood loss of 200 mL or more, operative time of 200 minutes or more, and/or intraoperative transfusion requirement increased AL risk. Enteral nutritional optimization prior to elective surgery is essential. Proximal diversion should be considered for patients with all 3 intraoperative risk factors because they are at high risk for AL.