Article

Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part I: Effect of temperature on product yields and heteroatom removal

Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute - CPERI, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas - CERTH, Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece.
Bioresource Technology (Impact Factor: 4.49). 09/2010; 101(17):6651-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.081
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was studied as a process for biofuels production. The hydrotreatment temperature is the most dominant operating parameter which defines catalyst performance as well as catalyst life. In this analysis, a hydrotreating temperature range of 330-398 degrees C was explored via a series of five experiments (330, 350, 370, 385 and 398 degrees C). Several parameters were considered for evaluating the effect of temperature including product yields, conversion, selectivity (diesel and gasoline), heteroatom removal (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) and saturation of double bonds. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min and gas feed=0.4 scfh). It was observed that higher reactor temperatures are more attractive when gasoline production is of interest, while lower reaction temperatures are more suitable when diesel production is more important.

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    • "Although oil, coal and natural gas cover most of the world energy needs, nevertheless these fuels are not considered sustainable and are also questionable from an economic, ecological and environmental point of view. The recent volatility in petroleum prices and the growing awareness related to the clean environment have stimulated the recent interest in alternative energy sources [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils is of paramount significance in India due to insufficient edible oil production. The present work deals with relatively underutilized non-edible oil "Schleichera oleosa" or "Kusum". The Kusum biodiesel (KB) was produced using a two stage esterification cum transesterification process as the free fatty acid content of the oil was high. Important physico-chemical properties were evaluated and they were found to conform with corresponding ASTM/EN standards. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trial by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of KB in diesel by volume and were named as KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 respectively. The results showed that full load brake thermal efficiency was dropped by 3.8% to 17% with increase in KB composition in the test fuel. Diesel (D100) showed the maximum full load brake specific energy consumption followed by KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40. Hydrocarbons and Carbon monoxide emissions along with smoke opacity at full load were reduced by 7-42 %. However, emissions of oxides of nitrogen were found to increase marginally by 4-20% as compared to D100. Total combustion duration for KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 were 21, 22, 24 and 25 crank angle degrees as compared to 19 crank angles exhibited by D100. Cumulative heat release (CHR) per cycle was 1111.20, 1100.57, 1046.88, 1038.52 and 1017.62 Joules for D100, KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 test fuels respectively which showed continuous reduction. Ignition delay was reduced where as combustion duration as well as heat release in diffusion phase were increased for test fuel samples.
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    • "Author's personal copy catalysts was shown to catalyze virtually and exclusively the hydro(decarboxylation ) pathway (Immer et al., 2010; Kubičková et al., 2005; Maier et al., 1982; Snåre et al., 2006), while typical hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo, CoMo) provide both HDO and HDC products, that is, n-octadecane and n-heptadecane, respectively (Bezergianni et al., 2010a,b; Donnis et al., 2009; Kubička, 2008; Kubička and Kaluža, 2010; Kubička et al., 2009, 2010; Mikulec et al., 2009; Priecel et al., 2011). The extent to which each of the pathways contributes to the overall deoxygenation depends on reaction conditions and catalyst composition. "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter deals with some important aspects of deoxygenation of triglycerides that has become a new refining technology. After the introduction of basics of deoxygenation chemistry, the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation are discussed. Then hydrodynamics in conventional hydrotreaters is compared with the deoxygenation system, and predictions on the vegetable oils deoxygenation are made. Kinetics of triglyceride deoxygenation reactions including kinetics of the individual reaction steps involved are discussed for the system CoMo on alumina. Next factors influencing catalyst deactivation, particularly those related to feedstock, are analyzed. Finally, commercial, available deoxygenation technologies are overviewed. The attention is focused on both stand-alone and coprocessing technologies.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2013
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    • "Oils obtained from special breeding non edible hybrids like rapeseed oil with high euric acid content on non sulphided CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst (Solymosi et al, 2011a) and sunflower and rapeseed oil with high oleic acid content on CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst (Solymosi et al, 2011b).Motor fuel purpose hydrogenation of animal fats or waste triglycerides were investigated on NiMo/Al2O3 (Baladincz et al, 2010), CoMo/Al2O3 sulphided catalysts and Pt/Pd/USY (Baladincz et al, 2011,). Bezergianni et al (2010a) investigated the hydroconversion of used cooking oil including the product yields and reaction routes (Bezergianni et al, 2010b). Consequently, production of second generation bio fuels from alternative sources (mainly hydrotreated vegetable oils) is widely investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The liquid motorfuels are the main power source both of the commercial and public transportation. Renewable fuels can play significant role to achieve the EU's plan, to reach the 10 % energy ratio of total fuel consumption until 2020. To achieve all this goals the European Union created the 2003/30/EC and further the 2009/28/EC directives. Unconventional feedstocks were investigated, for example non edible hybrids of oilseed plants such as rapeseed oils with high euric acid content or sunflower oils with high oleic acid content, used cooking oil. Beside the sustainability and the technical compatibility of these compounds with the current engine and vehicle constructions should be ensure, thus this bio components can be blend in the motor fuels unlimited quantity. The maximum amount of bio-component can be applied in motor fuels is 10 % bio-ethanol in gasoline and 7 % fatty acid-methyl-ester in diesel fuel. In this context heterogen catalytic hydrogenation of used cooking oil was studied on aluminium-oxide supported transition metal catalyst. The applied operation parameters were the following: temperature; 320 -380 °C, pressure: 20 -80 bar, LHSV: 1.0 h -1 , H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 600 Nm 3 /m 3 . The yield of products in gas oil boiling range at the favourable operation parameters was close to the theoretical value (80–90%). Quality parameters of these products were the following; the cetane number was higher than 75, the aromatic content was lower than 0.1 % and the sulphur content was lower than 5 mg/kg. The actual EN 590:2009 +A1 2010 standard does not limit the blending ratio of these bio-components, the blending of biodiesel is limited (max 7 v/v%). Consequently these products can be blended in gasoil up to 10 %, and this way we can meet the requirements of the EU which prescribe at least 10-80 % bio component blending in motor fuels by 2020.
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