Health-Related Outcomes of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Texas, 2002

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, MS K-50, Atlanta, GA 30341-3717, USA.
Preventing chronic disease (Impact Factor: 2.12). 05/2010; 7(3):A52.
Source: PubMed


We assessed the prevalence of 7 childhood adversities (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; household mental illness; household substance abuse; maternal battery; and incarceration of a household member) and the associations of those adversities with health outcomes.
Using data from 5,378 people who responded to the 2002 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (which included questions about childhood adversity), we created 4 groups: no childhood abuse or household dysfunction, childhood abuse only, household dysfunction only, and both childhood abuse and household dysfunction. We examined groups by sociodemographic variables and the association with current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health.
Among adult respondents, 46% reported at least 1 childhood adversity. Reports of both household dysfunction and abuse were significantly lower for college graduates than for people with less education. For those with both abuse and household dysfunction, the odds of current smoking were 1.9 and for obesity were 1.3. Compared to people without childhood adversities, people who experienced childhood adversities more frequently reported having fair or poor general health status.
Childhood adversities are common among Texas adults. People with childhood adversities are more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged, less educated, and have difficulties maintaining employment in adulthood compared to people with no adversities. Moreover, childhood adversities appear to be associated with health problems such as current smoking, obesity, and poor or fair general health among Texas adults.

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Available from: Valerie Edwards, Nov 14, 2014
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    • "Childhood maltreatment, including physical abuse, has been associated with adverse neurobiological changes in brain structure and function, and shown to have a dose-response relationship with the incidence of mental health disorders, somatic disturbances, substance use, adverse sexual behaviours and intimate partner violence in adulthood [55]. CPA has been associated with increased likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation in the general population [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [56], [57]. Studies among gay and bisexual men have found that childhood maltreatment explains up to 20% of relative excess of suicidality, depression and substance use in this population [58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. Methods We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA) on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. Results Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5%) reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6%) reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8%) participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65–14.48), after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In humans, early life exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), like trauma, abuse or maltreatment in childhood has been linked both ‘indirectly’, through tobacco and alcohol use or via ‘direct’ associations [7] to alterations of the brain structure and neurobiological stress-response systems which in turn have consequences for health and emotional well-being [8]. Studies have described associations between retrospectively collected ACE and health outcomes such as liver disease [9], ischaemic heart disease [10], obesity [11,12], perceived health [13] and psychopathology [14] as well as premature mortality [15,16]. Regarding cancer, data are sparser and inconsistent [7,12,17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse whether Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) are associated with an increased risk of cancer. The National child development study (NCDS) is a prospective birth cohort study with data collected over 50 years. The NCDS included all live births during one week in 1958 (n = 18558) in Great Britain. Self-reported cancer incidence was based on 444 participants reporting having had cancer at some point and 5694 reporting never having cancer. ACE was measured using reports of: 1) child in care, 2) physical neglect, 3) child's or family's contact with the prison service, 4) parental separation due to divorce, death or other, 5) family experience of mental illness & 6) family experience of substance abuse. The resulting variable had three categories, no ACEs/ one ACE/ 2 + ACEs and was used to test for a relationship with cancer. Information on socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth were extracted as potential confounders. Information on adult health behaviours, socioeconomic environment, psychological state and age at first pregnancy were added to the models. Multivariate models were run using multiply-imputed data to account for missing data in the cohort. The odds of having a cancer before 50y among women increased twofold for those who had 2+ ACEs versus those with no ACEs, after adjusting for adult factors and early life confounders (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.42-3.21, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that cancer risk may be influenced by exposure to stressful conditions and events early on in life. This is potentially important in furthering our understanding of cancer aetiology, and consequently in redirecting scientific research and developing appropriate prevention policies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · BMC Public Health

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