An airborne radar for three dimensional imaging and observation - technical realisation and status of ARTINO

Fraunhofer FHR


Over the past years, the range of small unmanned arial vehicles (UAV) has increased steadily, and with it the interest to adopt them in earth observation, reconnaissance, monitoring, and surveillance missions by imaging systems. This paper presents the concept and status of a 3D imaging radar suitable for small UAVs. ARTINO combines a real aperture, realized by a linear array of nadir pointing antennas, and a synthetic aperture, which is spanned by the moving airplane. In consequence of the restricted payload the radar uses frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique with direct down-conversion in Ka band. Hence, the power consumption of the radar and the size of the antennas are reduced. In comparison to the standard complex and cost intensive phased array technique, it requires only a moderate number of antennas and microwave components. The scope of this paper is to present an overview of the front-end architecture, design, and realization status.

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    • "Two airborne downwardlooking 3D-SAR with LAA systems, DRIVE [4] [5] [6] [7] and ARTINO [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16], are being developed at ONERA and FGAN- FHR, respectively. The LAA used in these two systems are bistatic configuration [3] [10], which means that some antenna elements (or single antenna element) are used for transmitting and the others are used for receiving. As the round-trip range equation in bistatic configuration is composed of dual square roots, the imaging turns out to be more difficult than that in monostatic configuration. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) range migration algorithm (RMA) suitable for downward-looking 3D-SAR with single-transmitting and multiple-receiving linear array antennas (STMR-LAA). As the round-trip range equation in 3D-SAR with STMR-LAA is a dual square root, the signal spectrum in 3D wavenumber domain contains nonlinear phase terms besides constant and linear phase terms. In this paper, the approximate expression of the signal spectrum is derived by expanding the implicit phase term to its Taylor series. Then the constant and nonlinear phase terms are calculated and compensated by multiplying the wavenumber filters. Finally, a 3D wavenumber mapping is proposed to make the signal evenly sampled in 3D wavenumber domain. Some simulating results are presented to validate the correctness of the analysis and the feasibility of the algorithm. In addition, the required accuracy on the platform position is analyzed at the end of the paper.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · EURASIP journal on advances in signal processing
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    ABSTRACT: The new radar system ARTINO (Airborne Radar for Three-dimensional Imaging and Nadir Observation), developed at FGAN-FHR, allows to image a direct overflown scene in three dimensions. Integrated in a small, mobile, and dismountable UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) it will be an ideal tool for various applications. This paper gives an overview about the ARTINO principle, the raw data simulation, the image formation, the technical realisation, and the status of the experimental system.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2006
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    ABSTRACT: The bistatic configuration of linear array with one central antenna element for transmitting and the other antenna elements of linear array for receiving is introduced in downward-looking SAR for three-dimensional imaging in this paper. The geometrical model and the received signal model of downward-looking SAR using bistatic uniform linear array antennas are established. The analytic expression of three-dimensional imaging results is derived and the resolutions in three dimensions are given. This paper presents the image formation and analyzes the simulation results based on this 3D imaging concept.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2007
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