Eczema and sleep and its relationship to daytime functioning in children
Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Sleep Medicine Reviews
(Impact Factor: 8.51).
04/2010; 14(6):359-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2010.01.004
Chronic childhood eczema has significant morbidity characterised by physical discomfort, emotional distress, reduced child and family quality-of-life and, of particular note, disturbed sleep characterised by frequent and prolonged arousals. Sleep disturbance affects up to 60% of children with eczema, increasing to 83% during exacerbation. Even when in clinical remission, children with eczema demonstrate more sleep disturbance than healthy children. Notably, disturbed sleep in otherwise healthy children is associated with behavioural and neurocognitive deficits. Preliminary evidence suggests that disturbed sleep in children with eczema is also associated with behavioural deficits while the impact on neuropsychological functioning remains unexplored. In conclusion, a disease which affects up to 20% of children in some countries and may produce long-term behavioural and neurocognitive deficits merits further evaluation using standardised tests of sleep, behaviour and neurocognition.
Available from: Joachim Heinrich
- "gical mechanisms of increased inflammation during nighttime could lead to disrupted sleep ( Koinis - Mitchell et al . , 2012 ) . Jernelov et al . reported that the risk for being over - tired in adolescence was increased for children with asthma ( Jer - nelov et al . , 2013 ) . The sleep of children with eczema might be affected by an itchy rash ( Camfferman et al . , 2010 ; Koinis - Mitchell et al . , 2012 ) . Children with allergic rhinitis can suffer from sleep - disordered breathing or snoring which might be due to aggravated nasal congestion during nighttime resulting from the lying posi - tion ( Koinis - Mitchell et al . , 2012 ) . Furthermore , an exposure to mould or dampness at home has been asso"
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Exposure to mould or dampness at home has been associated with adverse respiratory effects in all age groups. This exposure has also been related to insomnia in adults. We aimed to investigate the association between exposure to visible mould or dampness at home and sleep problems in children.
The study population consisted of 1719 10-year-old children from the German population-based birth cohort LISAplus with available data on current mould or dampness at home and sleep problems. The presence of visible mould or dampness at home was assessed by questionnaire. Parent-reported sleep problems of their child were analysed by four binary variables: presence of any sleep problems, problems to fall asleep, problems sleeping through the night and a 24h sleep time of less than 9h. Logistic regression models adjusted for study centre, sex, age and level of parental education were applied to examine the association between visible mould or dampness at home and sleep problems. Sensitivity analyses included a further adjustment for bedroom sharing and subgroup analyses in children without current allergic diseases.
Thirteen percent of parents reported visible mould or dampness at home. We observed increased risks for all four sleep problem variables for children exposed to visible mould or dampness at home. Results were significant for any sleep problems (odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.60), problems sleeping through the night (OR=2.52(1.27-5.00) and a short sleep time (OR=1.68(1.09-2.61)). While a further adjustment for bedroom sharing and the exclusion of children with asthma or eczema led to similar results, only the association with a short sleep time was still present in children without allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.
Our data suggests that visible mould or dampness at home might negatively influence sleep in children. The influence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis on this association needs to be investigated in future studies.
Available from: Peter Winwood
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ABSTRACT: There is a general consensus that sleep disruption in children causes daytime behavioral deficits. It is unclear if sleep disruption in children with eczema has similar effects particularly after controlling for known comorbid disorders such as asthma and rhinitis.
Parents of children (6-16 y) with eczema (n = 77) and healthy controls (n = 30) completed a validated omnibus questionnaire which included the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (S), Child Health Questionnaire, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, and additional items assessing eczema, asthma, rhinitis, and demographics.
Compared to controls, children with eczema had a greater number of sleep problems with a greater percentage in the clinical range, lower quality of life, and higher levels of ADHD and oppositional behavior. They also had elevated rhinitis and asthma severity scores. Importantly, structural equation modelling revealed that the effect of eczema on the behavioral variables of Hyperactivity, ADHD Index, and Oppositional Behaviors were mediated through sleep with no direct effect of eczema on these behaviors. The comorbid atopic disorders of rhinitis and asthma also had independent effects on behavior mediated through their effects on sleep.
The present findings suggest that the daytime behaviors seen in children with eczema are mediated independently by the effects of eczema, asthma, and rhinitis on sleep quality. These findings highlight the importance of sleep in eczematous children and its role in regulating daytime behavior.
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