Kull I, Melen E, Alm J, et al. Breast-feeding in relation to asthma, lung function, and sensitization in young schoolchildren
The evidence from previous studies on beneficial effects of breast-feeding in relation to development of asthma is conflicting.
To investigate the relation between breast-feeding and asthma and/or sensitization during the first 8 years of life.
In a birth cohort, children were followed up to 8 years by questionnaires at ages 2 months and 1, 2, 4, and 8 years to collect information on exposures and health effects. Determination of serum IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens was performed at 4 and 8 years. Longitudinal analyses were applied by using general estimated equations. The study population consisted of 3825 children (93% of the original cohort), of whom 2370 gave blood and 2564 performed lung function measurements at 8 years.
Children exclusively breast-fed 4 months or more had a reduced risk of asthma during the first 8 years of life (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) compared with children breast-fed less than 4 months. At 8 years, reduced risks of sensitization (adjusted OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) and asthma in combination with sensitization (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93) were seen among children exclusively breast-fed 4 months or more. This group also had a significantly better lung function measured with peak expiratory flow.
Breast-feeding for 4 months or more seems to reduce the risk of asthma up to 8 years. At this age, a reduced risk was observed particularly for asthma combined with sensitization. Furthermore, breast-feeding seems to have a beneficial effect on lung function.
Available from: Kei E Fujimura
- "Indeed, studies dating back to 1936 have reported lower incidences of eczema (Grulee and Sanford, 1936) and asthma (Friedman and Zeiger, 2005) in breastfed infants. The lasting effects of breastfeeding have been reported for children 8 years old, and in an independent study, infants breastfed for at least 4 months had reduced risk of developing asthma (Kull et al., 2010). More recently, early-life microbial exposure in the built environment has been linked to allergic asthma development. "
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and atopy, classically associated with hyper-activation of the T helper 2 (Th2) arm of adaptive immunity, are among the most common chronic illnesses worldwide. Emerging evidence relates atopy and asthma to the composition and function of the human microbiome, the collection of microbes that reside in and on and interact with the human body. The ability to interrogate microbial ecology of the human host is due in large part to recent technological developments that permit identification of microbes and their products using culture-independent molecular detection techniques. In this review we explore the roles of respiratory, gut, and environmental microbiomes in asthma and allergic disease development, manifestation, and attenuation. Though still a relatively nascent field of research, evidence to date suggests that the airway and/or gut microbiome may represent fertile targets for prevention or management of allergic asthma and other diseases in which adaptive immune dysfunction is a prominent feature.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Available from: Claude Ponvert
- "Les résultats des études portant sur les relations entre allaitement maternel et risques atopique et asthmatique de l'enfant sont contradictoires. Plus de 3800 nouveau-nés non sélectionnés ont été enrôlés dans une étude prospective de longue durée . Les taux de réponse des parents à un questionnaire détaillé et validé ont été de 96, 94, 92 et 84 % aux âges d'un, deux, quatre et huit ans respectivement. "
Available from: Jan Komorowski
- "BAMSE is a prospective Swedish birth cohort, where newborn infants were recruited 1994-1996 and questionnaire data about baseline study characteristics were obtained from 4,089 children [28,29]. Parents answered questionnaires on the children’s symptoms related to allergy and lifestyle factors at approximately age 1, 2, 4 and 8 years. "
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ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children) and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children), genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6) and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0) in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0) of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies of etiological mechanisms and may also strengthen the basis for risk assessment and prevention.
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